A.P. U.S. History Chapter 5 Concepts

  • Founding Fathers: Jonathan Trumbull Sr.

  • Founding Father: Benjamin Rush

  • Second Continental Congress

    a) 1775
    Philadelphia State House
    Delegates from each colony (except Georgia)
    b) Need to decide whether or not to support the war
    c) Agreed on support but disagreed on purpose
    - some favored complete independence
    - some wanted modest reforms
    - Olive Branch Petition
    - Declaration of auses and Necessity of Taking Up Arms
    -British began trying to recruit Indians
  • George Washington

    a) 1775
    Commander in chief of continental army
    b) Continental army created by American Congress
    Most experienced American-born officer
    - Early advocate of Independence
    - Respected/Admired/Trusted by Patriots

    c) Great war leader
    - In charge of keeping entire population in high spirits
    American victory over England
    Washington = 1st president
  • Role of French in American Revolution

    a) 1775-1783
    French alliance/influence
    b) Still mad @ Britain for French & Indian War
    c) Sent supplies
    More funding
    More troops
    Strong alliance
  • Common Sense & Thomas Paine

    a) 1776
    Thomas Paine
    - revolutionary propagandist
    Pamphlet that galvanized many Americans
    b) Expose folly of continuing to belive in reconciliation w/ Britain
    Turn Anger of Americans
    c) Galvanized revolutionary drive
    Changed American viewpoint entirely
  • Declaration of Independence

    a) 1776
    Continental Congress
    Thomas Jefferson
    b) Congress appointed committee
    - formal declaration of independence
    Document to state official colonial standpoint
    Express ideas voiced throughout colonies
    John Locke contract theory
    - gov'ts protect life, liberty, and property
    King George 3 alleged crimes
    c) French Revolution
    - Declaration of Rights of Man
    Increased foreign aid
    Divisons w/n American society
  • Founding Fathers: John Hancock

  • Founding Fathers: John Witherspoon

  • Founding Fathers: Charles Carroll

  • Abigail Adams' Plea

    a) 1776
    Abigail Adams (wife of John Adams)
    Asked John to grant rights to women in new code of law
    b) Husbands previously had "unlimited power"
    Called for modest expansion of womens' rights
    - Wanted protection against tyrannical and abusive men
    c) Some went further
    - Judith Murray: wimen as good as men & deserve = edu.
    - Mary Wollstonecraft: Vindication of the Rights of Women
  • Battle of Saratoga

    a) 1777
    British Surrender
    John Burgoyne/ William Howe
    b) Continuous British losses
    - Short of materials
    - British mistakes
    c) Major turning point
    Alliance bt U.S. and France
    Iroquois setback
  • Founding Fathers: John Jay

  • Changes Made In State Constitutions Regarding Slavery Post Rev. War

    Reasons Why So Litttle Changed:
    - Racism
    - Economic investments
    - Inability to imagine/envision life w/o slavery
  • Articles of Confederation

    a) 1781 (proposed in 1777)
    Provided national political strucure
    b) Need for gov't/ ruling body
    c) - Weak central / strong state gov't.
    - Congress= central & only institution of national authority
    - Gov't can:
    - Conduct wars / Foreign relations
    - Approproate/Borrow/Issue $$
    - Gov't cannot:
    - Regulate trade
    - Draft troops
    - Levy taxes
  • Articles of Confederation Accomplishments & Strengths

    a) Conducted Rev. War Successfully
    - Easier control
    b) Negotiated Treaty of Paris (1783)
    - Central gov't made decisions for greater good of colonies
    c) Ordinances of 1784 & 1785
    - Orderly settlement in East & West states
    - Permitted Congress to make policy for national domain
    d) 1787 Northwest Ordinance
    - Law concerning western settlement
    - Made land easier to control
  • Articles of Confederation Weakneses

    d) - Couldn't pay Revolutionary War debt/vets
    - No way to raise $
    - Congress could not levy taxes
    e) Shay's Rebellion
    - showed need for stronger gov't
    - Standing army necessary
    f) Weak As A Central Gov't
    - Could not exercise any control over colonists
    - Could not defend/protect colonists
    - Could not raise taxes to generate revenue
  • 1783 Treaty of Paris

    a) 1783
    Ended Revolutionary War
    b) British surrender @ Yorktown
    - Spanish/French hostility
    c) Colonies officially free
    End of Spanish/Frecnh hostility
    American triumph
  • Effects of American Revolution on Economy

  • Changes States Made Concerning Establishment of Relgion After Rev. War

  • Assumptions of Republicanism/ Ideology Underlying Creation of Govt's

  • Founding Fathers: John Peter Muhlenberg

  • Reasons Americans Fight Britain

  • Effects of Revolutionary War On:

    a) Loyalists/Tories
    - Losers ( 1/5 of colonial white pop.)
    - Hounded by Patriots
    - Harrassed by legislative/judicial action
    - 100,00 fled
    b) Anglicans
    - Identified with England
    - Church disestablished
    - No more clergymen
    c) Roman Catholics
    - Supported Patriot cause
    - Met with gratitude / Eroded hostility
    d) African Americans
    - Freedom for some
    - Thousands emancipated and helped to escape
    - Increased exposure to Liberty
  • Effects of Revolutionary War On (Continued):

    e) Native Americans
    - Joined English cause
    - Series of attacks
    - Iroquois continued to wage war against Western Whites
    - Weakened position of Native Americans
    - Changed white attitudes
  • English Commmon Law Rights of Colonial Women

    Unmarried Women Had Rights to:
    - Own property
    - Enter contracts
    Married Women Had Rights to:
    - NOTHING; everything owned & earned belonged to husband
    - Could not even obtain a divorce Revolutionary Changes:
    - Easier for women to get divorces
    - Right to vote in NJ (repealed in 1807)
    - Widows' lost right to regain dowries from late husband's estate
  • Effect of American Revolution on Women