Sugar Act-Indirect Tax (out of sight=out of mind)
-Duties on molasses and sugar
- Tax on all paper products
- Official stamp/seal on all paper items
- Purchased only with valuable silver coins
- If not purchased= fined or jailed
- Direct Tax
- Parliament declares it had power to make laws for the colonies " in all cases whatsoever"
- Parliament passes this to save face
Townshend Act-Taxes on glass, lead, paints, paper, and tea
- Searched for smuggled goods
Boston Massacre– Crowd gathers hassles soldier, throwing snowballs and shouting insults
– More troops arrive, colonists get more and more angry
– “Fire if you dare!”
Tea Act-Passed in 1773 and allowed British East India Company (BEIC) to sell tea directly to colonists
- Lower Prices than colonist merchant prices
-Tax Tea cheaper than smuggled tea
-Less smuggling = more tax money
Boston Tea Party-Members of Sons of Liberty Dump over 340 chests of tea into Boston Harbor
- Caused problems for loyalists/Tories
-Loyalist/Tory = a person in the colony who remains loyal to the king & Great Britain
Intolerable Act-Passed to punish Boston for Tea Party
- Boston Harbor Closed until tea paid for
-Massachusetts Charter canceled
-Quartering Act required colonists to house soldiers
“If a soldier comes knocking at the door….you’re sleeping on the floor”
-General Thomas Gage became new governor of MA
Continental Congress meets-All colonies but Georgia have representatives.
-Voted to send a "statement of grievances."
- Voted to boycott all British Trade.
-Patrick Henry-VA rep. urged colonists to unite against Britain.
First Continental Congress-All colonies but Georgia have representatives
-voted to send a"statement of grievances
-Voted to Boycott all British trade
- Patrick Henry - VA rep. urged colonists to unite against Britain.
1,000 Red CoatsGeneral Gage brings thousands of British soldiers to Boston with more on the way.
Midnight Ride of Paul ReverePaul Revere rides to warn the Sons of Liberty in Lexington and Concord that the “British are coming… The British are coming.."
Lexington & ConcordBattles of Lexington -
– 1st battle of American Revolutionary War
– “shot heard round the world” - Ralph Waldo Emerson
– BRITISH Victory
Battle of Concord -
– Americans Stop British and force them to retreat back to Boston
– AMERICAN Victory
Capture of Fort Ticonderoga-Benedict Arnold & Ethan Allen capture the fort
-Get all supplies in the fort including cannons
Second Continental Congress Meet-Print $$$
-Set up post office
-Created Continental Army led by George Washington
-Sent Olive Branch asking King to protect their rights
– King hires 30,000 Hessians Soldiers in response
Battle of Bunker Hill-Fought on Breed’s Hill
- “Don’t Fire until you see the whites of their eyes” - Williams Prescott
-BRITISH Victory (Americans ran out of ammunition) British learn defeating Americans would NOT be easy.
Washington arrives on outskirts of Boston with Continental Troops-Realizes men are disorganized & need discipline
Common Sense-Pamphlet inspires more colonists to become patriots
- “Everything that is right or reasonable pleads for separation. The blood of the slain, the weeping voice of nature cries , ‘ TIS TIME TO PART” - Thomas Paine, Common Sense
British Surrender Boston-Washington believes his army is ready & weapons arrive
-Washington puts cannons on Dorchester Heights overlooking Boston
-BRITISH retreat – AMERICAN Victory
Second Continental Congress meet again-Debate on declaring independence
-Thomas Jefferson is the primary author of the document
Second Continental Congress votes for IndependenceThe Congress debated Lee's resolution. Some delegates still thought the colonies should not form a separate nation. Others argued that war had already begun and they should be free from Great Britain
The Declaration of Independence is signedThe Congress chose a committee to write a Declaration of Independence. John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Robert Livingston, and Roger Sherman formed the committee.