1900 C.E.-Present

  • Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand

    Killed by Serbian nationalist grup called the Black hand society because Serbia believed Bosnia belong to them instead of Austria Significance: Was the beginning to a chain of events that sparked the cause to World War I.
  • Japan makes 21 Demands on China

    Set of demands made by Japan Empire to the Republic of China during WWI; Japan used its position as one of the Allied countries to pressure and assure Japan's power in China. Significance: Caused a bitter struggle between the two countries that lasted for thirty years.
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    Gallipoli Campaign

    During World War I, it was the british and French forces attempt to capture the Ottoman capital of Constantinople to secure a sea route to Russia, but it failed. Significance: One of th greatest victories of the Turks and was reflected on as a major failure of the Allied Powers.
  • German Resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare

    German U-boat sinks the Lusitania passenger ship without a fair warning. Significance: causes the United States to join World War I.
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    Civil war in Russia

    War in the Russian revolution between the Bolshevik Red Army, communist, and the Anti-Bolshevik White army. Eventually leading to the REd army defeating the White army, and the creation of a communist government. Significance: Led to reformation of heir government, and eventually building to becoming a strong communist nation.
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    Bolshevik Revolution (Ocrtober Revolution)

    Overthrow of the old form of government and the creation of the Soviet Union when the Bolshevik communist group defeated the counter revolutionaries. Significance: Creation of the USSR, a strong communist country
  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

    A peace treaty signed between the Central powers and Russia to pull Russia out of WWI; Russia was constantly losing battles and was facing political problems back home. Significance: Pulling out of the war allowed Russia to focus on the problems in the country; The Tsar took his throne and russia eventaully becomes a communist country.
  • Mussolini launches fascist movement

    Mussolini and his National Fascist Party declared war against socialism ideals in Italy because it opposed nationalist ideas; Fascism was based on Italian nationalism and emphasized need for territorial expansion to assert their power so the nation would not fall. promoting political violence and war. Significance: Established the idea of ascism that spread throughout different countries of Europe.
  • Paris Peace Conference

    Allied forces meet after their WWI victory to establish peaceful terms among the nations. The Treaty of Versailles, was created which limited German power and the creation of the League of Nations. Significance: Treaty of Versailles formed, and the decisions made about Germany's fate from WWI would eventually lead to the Second World War.
  • First meeting of the League of Nations

    42 nations met and discussed international relations based on all the nations around the world coopertion. Absent countries included the U.S. Russia, and Germany. Significance: League of NAtions turned out to be unsuccessful and too weak, eventually lead to WWII.
  • Ataturk proclaims republic of turkey

    Mustafa Kemal (the Ataturk, leads Turkey's war for indepencence after Greeks occupy their land, and after they won, the sultanate was abolished and then formed Republic of Turkey. They began with modernizing the constituion and adapting European laws. Turkey bceoms a secular nation-state. Significance: Turkey becomes a repuclic and begins to westernize.
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    First Soviet Five-Year Plan

    Stalin industrilized the Soviet Union by increasing production and adding more factories for economic growth. he created unrealistic goals and used unskilled labor. Significance: destroyed Kulaks as aclass and caused cignificant economic growth of the Soviet Union.
  • US stock market crash

    Most devastating stock market crash in US history. A big fall in stock prices affecting all Western industrialized countries. Significance: Begininning of the Great Depression in the US and the countries connected to the US economically being the Domino Effect.
  • Japanese invasion of Manchuria

    When Depression hits the US, Japan economy was also affected. Japanese nationalists believed the conquest of China and its great population and resources could solve their problems. japan then occpates their land which lasted until the end of WWII. Signifiance: Presents how the Depression in the US impacts others and Japanese people and how it forced them to start a war to solve their economic hardships.
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    Civil disobediance movements in India

    Peaceful movements in India led by Ghandi. He used non violent actions to gain independence from great Britain. Significance: India gains its independance from Britain in a peaceful way and end of British East India Company rule.
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    Hitler is ruler of Germany

    Once in office, Hitler becomes a toltilitarian dictator, his goals for Germany were to remove the restrictions of the Treaty of Versailles, annex all German-speaking territories, and Jewish genocide with complete elimination. Significance: Actions and decisions result in WWII to happen.
  • Sandino is murdered in Nicaragua

    Sandino was a revolutionary leader against the U.S. military occupation of Nicaragua. assainated in 1934 by General Anastasio Somoza Garcia, who then seizzed power. Betrayed and killed by guardsmen.
    Significance: Seen as a robin hood against the US. and after assassination Gerneral Garcia establishes a family dynasty that ruled for 40 years.
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    Long March by Chinese Communists

    Military retreat of Mao Zedong and the Communist party of China to escape attacks of the Chinese Nationalist. Different communist armies joined and escaped together to the province of Shaanzi. Signifiance: Escape allows Mao's army to grow and strengthen, allowing their communist party to control China putting Mao in power.
  • Stalin's THE GREAT PURGE

    Numerous campaings of political repression and persecution under Stalin's sweep away of all his real and imaginary enemies. Stalin would eliminate those who opposed him or those unloyal. Signifiance:Put Stalin in control.
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    Invasion of China by Japan

    Japan wanted to solve all their economic problems and believed invading China would solve it since they had many natural resources. China's army was weak and armed and couldn't fight the invading Japanese. However, the war hurt Japan even more making them surrender in 1945 Significance:Economic hardships puts countries into despiration of attacking neighboring countries.
  • German Auschluss with Austria

    Occupation and annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany. Significance: Many German speaking Austrians wanted to reunite with Germany, but were unable to due to the Treaty of Versailles; Aucshluss allowed them to unite and add to Hitler's cration of a greater German Reich.
  • Cardenas nationalizes oil industry in Mexico

    President Cardenas of Mexico seized control of foreign owned oil industries and begins to export it. Significance: Oil remains to be one of the most important source of income in the country. One of the many reforms done by Cardenas.
  • Invasion of Poland by Germany

    Germany breaks the Treaty of Versailles and invades and conquers Poland Signifiance: marks beginning of WWII
  • German Invasion of USSR

    Hiler breaks the non-aggression pact with the USSR and invades to expandGerman Empire during WWII. Significance: Nazi troops could not fight in Russian winters so Hitler loses many of his troops to the Red army and loses allchances of beating the Soviet Union or winning the war.
  • Soviet vicotry at stalingrad

    Germans surrendered in Stalingrad February 1943 which was the turning point of WWII. Hitler had no hope of winning on the eastern front and soviets lost millions of people. Significance: turning point of WWII.
  • D-Day allied invasion at Normandy

    Allies invade German occupied France at Normandy Beach and attack Nazi troops with land, air, and water power, this puses the German forces back and out of France. Significane: Germany fails to defend the normandy area which caused Hitler's idea of creating a Nazi contorlled "Fortress Europe" which starts Germany's failure in the wars.
  • Capture of Berlin by Soviet Forces

    Soviet Union forces attack and capture city of Berlin to end war with Germany Significance: German forces surrender unconditionally, and marks the end of WWII in Europe.
  • Division of Berlin and Germany

    Allied powers divide the defeated Germany into four zones and its captial Berlin among themselves. Decision was made at the Yalta Conference creating a French, British, American, and Soviet zone of Germany and the Berlin Capital. Significance: Western zones of Germany and berlin were influcence by capitalist ideas as time goes on while the Eastern Soviet Union was influence with communist ideas; difference of ideals left the land divinded during the Cold War.
  • Establishment of United Nations

    Created to maintain international peace between nations after WWII. Significance: try to maintain peace and order between all nations with security and human rights.
  • Atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Allies drop two atomic bombs in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Significance: Final stages of WWII, only time nuclear weapons were used in war which causes Japan to surrender.
  • Partion of British India

    Set forth the Indian independence Act of 1947 and resulted in struggle between new states of pakistan displacing 12.5 million people in the empire. The British Raj decide to split india based on their relgious ideas. Significance: Two different countries with different ideals still exsist today.
  • Creation of Israel

    After genocide of Jews during the Holocaust, the UN United Nations split Palestine and crate the state of Israel as a safe homeland for the Jewish people/ Significance: the Jewish and Arab people could not coexist which led to the Arab Israeli War even though it was amde as asafe place for Jews.
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    Arab- Israeli war

    Continued the Arab-Israeli conflictwhich the Israelis believe as the war of independence. the British Mandate of Palestine was removed then the United Nations wanted to create a Jewish and Arab state in Palestine, but Arabs refused. This caused war between the state of Israel and an alliance of Arab states and forces. Ends with Israeli vicotry and an agreement to end all hostilities was signed.
    Significance: Conflict goes on for many years, and shows the religious significance of land to Arabs
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    Aartheid in South Africa

    Racial segregation system enforced by the National Party government against black and other nonwhite races in South Africa. The laws begin to decline and in 1004, the first democratic election in South AFrica was made where all people of all races could vote. Significance: Example of racial conflicts in society and how long it actually too to start changing societies view having respect for other ethnicities.
  • Establishment of the NATO

    WEstern nations form North Atlantic Treaty Organization to create defense against the USSR. Significance: Caused increased tension between the US and USSR; USSR responds with the Warsaw Pact.
  • Establishment of People's Republics of China

    Formed after Mao and his comunist forces defeat Kuomintang and his nationalist party. Significance: Marks the beginning of Mao's communist reforms and ideas in China.
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    Korean War

    War between the Republic of Korea, South Korea from support of the US and Democratic People's republic of Korea. communists North Korea supported by the SOviet Union.North Korea invades South Korea, but Chinese forces threatened to aid North Korean froces. An agrement was made at the 38th Parallel, which was neutral territory between North and South Korea. Significance: One of the major "wars" between the U.S. and the USSR during the Cold War.
  • French defeat at Dien Bien Phu

    French fight against Ho Chi Ming's nationalist group in Indochina to keep its prewar colonial possessions, but after a brutal struggle and the fall of their stronghold in Dien Bien Phu, it mrks the end of france's colonial control. Significance: loss allos Ho Chi Minh's Indochina Communist Parrty to rule; spread of communism in Southeast Asia.
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    Algerian war of liberation

    Algeria fights for independence from France with the help of Egypt and other Arab countries to fight for their rights and create their own government. Significance: Algeria becomes an independent country, and is no longer under the rule of France.
  • Establishment of Warsaw Pact

    Organization of communist nations in Central and Eastern Europe in response to the creation of the Western NATO. Significance: tension between the two countries and groups increased.
  • US troops in vietnam

    Cold War Era, fought between north vietnam and south vietnam. Significance: America then withdrawals when Nixon comes to power and creates a document that says Congress must agree to sending troops over seas.
  • Suez Crisis

    US , the Soviet Union and the UN played roles in forcing Britain, Freance and Israel to withdraw. Significance: the U.S. and Soviet union emerge as new superpowers and leads to key factor in decolonization in AFrica.
  • Uprising in Hungary

    Revolt against the government of the peoples republic of Hungary and its soviet imposed policies. Attracing thousands to join into a march through centrak Budapest. Organizers sent to prison after Soviet troops left, but forces then returned and gained control. Significance: First uprising against Soviet forces in Hungary. It is believed that th eUS should have helped the uprsing but fear of the retalition after the failure of Vietnam War during the Cold War prevented the US from doing so.
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    Great Leap Forward in China

    Mao Zedong's attempt to modernize China's economy so it could rival the U.S. in just 5 years. It was unrealistic and tried doing so by industrializing and collectivization of agriculture which resulted in the death of millions and many products produced failures.
    Significance: Although it was a failure, the policies demonstrated Mao's will to perform a large economic and social project.
  • Castro come to power in Cuba

    Castro becomes prime minister and leader of Cuba after he led a revolution against Cuban dictator Batista. Significance: Castro nationalized their industry and created strong ties with Soviet Union, which eventually becamea communist country.
  • Construction of the Berlin Wall

    created by the USSR to separate East and West Berling. USSR created it to keep western imperiallism out and keep their people from moving to the other side which had better living standards. Significance: Wall symbolized the division of the world between communist USSR and capitalist US during the Cold War.
  • Creation of PLO

    Palestine liberation Organization. Recognized as "sole legitimate representative of the Palestine People" which was committed to creating an independent Palestinian state and replace Israel. Significance: the creation of an organization relfectst the growing amounts of Palestininian nationalism in the Arab people.
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    Persian Gulf war

    First significant conflict after the breakup of the Soviet Union; Saddam Husain, ruler of Iraq, invaded Kuwait because they could not pay back the large debt he hd and wanted Kuwait oil reserves. US helped Saudi Arabia defend from Iraq's aggression, and defeated Iraq's military. Husain was still in power and Us denies Iraq's military aircraft acces to northern and southern regions in th US.
    Significance: Today military confrontations still occur, this victory for the US shows unrivaled military.
  • Reunification of Germany

    Wave of rebellion against Soviet influence occurs throughtout European allies, riots commence in East Germany and Berlin wall is destroyoed causing east and West Germany to reunite. Significance: Germany is united again.
  • USSR dissolves

    The collapse of the soviet Union marked the end of the Cold War. increasing USSR's policies throughout its allies,and Berlin Wall is destroyed. Presidents of Russia, Ukrain, and Belarus sign the Belavvezha Accords dissolving the USSr. Significance: Marks end of a powerful communist country and US's powerful opponent and established diferent countries that exsist today.
  • Transfer of Hong Kong to China

    Traqnser of Hong Kong from the United Kingdom to the People's Republic of China. Marked end of British rule and transer of sovereignty of Hong Kong to China. Significance: Marks the end of hong Kong being a Crown colony and British territoy.
  • Uprisings in Ukraine, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan.

    Many countries protested against their governments that seemed corrupt and controlling, also aadvocated for democracy. Significance: Globalization of the want for Democracy. There was then a rapid increase in democratic institutions and personal freedom because it appealed to societies as a peaceful way to fix soical idsputes in their country.