1900 C.E - Present

By LorenaS
  • Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand

    Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand
    Killed by a Serbian nationalist group called Black Hand society because Serbia believed Bosnia belonged to them and not Austria.
    Significance: This assassination began the chain of events that led to World War 1
  • Japan makes 21 Demands on China

    Japan makes 21 Demands on China
    Set of demands made by the Empire of Japan to the Republic of China during World War 1; Japan used its position as one of the Allied countries to pressure and assure Japan’s power in China.
    Significance: Caused bitter struggle between the two countries that lasted for thirty years.
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    Gallipoli Campaign

    During World War 1, British and French and forces attempt to capture the Ottoman capital of Constantinople to secure a sea route to Russia, but the attempt failed.
    Significance: One of the greatest victories of the Turks and was reflected on as a major failure of the Allies
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    Bolshevik Revolution

    Also known as the October Revolution, was the overthrow of the old form of government and the establishment of the Soviet Union when the Bolshevik communist group defeated the counter revolutionaries.

    Significance: Created the USSR, a strong communist country
  • German Resumption of Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

    German Resumption of Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
    German U-boat sinks the Lusitania passenger ship, a nonmilitary ship, without warning
    Significance: Caused the United States to join World War 1
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    Civil War in Russia

    War in the Russian revolution between the Bolshevik Red Army, communist, and the Anti-Bolshevik White army. It eventually led to the Red army defeating the White army, and the creation of a communist government.

    Significance: Led to reformation of their government, and eventually becoming a strong communist nation
  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

    Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
    Peace treaty signed between Russia and the Central powers to pull Russia out of World War 1; Russia was constantly losing battles and was facing political problems back home.

    Significance: Pulling out of the war allowed Russia to focus on the problems in the country; the Tsar abdicated his throne and Russia eventually becomes a communist country
  • Paris Peace Conference

    Paris Peace Conference
    Meeting of the Allied forces after their victory in World War 1 to establish peaceful terms among nations. The peace treatment, Treaty of Versailles, was created, which included limiting German power and the formation of the League of Nations.

    Significance: The Treaty of Versailles was formed, and many of the decisions made about the fate of Germany would eventually lead to the Second World War.
  • Mussolini Launches Fascist Movement

    Mussolini Launches Fascist Movement
    Mussolini and his National Fascist Party declared war against socialism in Italy because it opposed nationalist ideas; fascism was based on Italian nationalism and the need for territorial expansion to assert their power so their nation wouldn’t fall.
    Significance: Created the idea of fascism that spread throughout different countries of Europe
  • First meeting of League of Nations

    First meeting of League of Nations
    42 nations meet to discuss international relations based on cooperation among all nations around the world, absent countries include the US, Germany, and Russia
    Significance: The League of Nations was unsuccessful and too weak, eventually leading to WW2
  • Lenin’s Economic Policy

    Lenin’s Economic Policy
    To save the Soviet Union’s economy, Lenin allowed small businesses to reopen for private profit while the state controlled banks, trade, and industries; Lenin called it state capitalism.
    Significance: Lenin’s policy used some capitalist ideas to fix the economy of a communist country
  • Ataturk proclaims Republic of Turkey

    Ataturk proclaims Republic of Turkey
    Kemal, the Ataturk, leads Turkey’s war for independence after Greeks occupy their land, and after they won, they abolished the sultanate and form Republic of turkey.
    Significance: Turkey becomes a republic, and begins to Westernize.
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    First Soviet Five-Year Plan

    Stalin industrializes the Soviet Union by increasing production and adding more factories; creates unrealistic quotas however, and uses unskilled labor.

    Significance: Caused a significant economic growth of the Soviet Union.
  • US Stock Market Crash

    US Stock Market Crash
    Most devastating stock market crash, fall in stock prices, affecting all Western industrialized countries.

    Significance: Cause the Great Depression in the US, affecting all the countries connected to the US as well; Domino Effect
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    Civil Disobedience Movements in India

    Peaceful movements in India led by Gandhi; used non violent actions to gain independence from Great Britain
    Significance: India gains independence from Britain through a peaceful manner
  • Japanese invasion of Manchuria

    Japanese invasion of Manchuria
    Japanese invasion of Manchuria – When the Depression hit the U.S, it also affected the Japanese economy; Japanese nationalists believed the conquest of China with its vast population and resources could solve their problems. Their occupation of the land lasted until the end of World War 2
    Significance: Shows how the Depression in the U.S impacted the Japanese people, and how it led them to start a war to solve their economic problems
  • Sandino is murdered in Nicaragua

    Sandino is murdered in Nicaragua
    Sandino was ambushed by the National Guard and betrayed, stopped, and executed at the main gate by local National Guardsmen.
    Significance: Hero in Nicaragua and much of Latin America as a Robin Hood figure who opposed domination from wealthy elites and foreigners, such as the United States. Sandinista National Liberation Front then overthrew the Somoza government in 1979.
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    Hitler is ruler of Germany

    Once in office, Hitler became a dictator; his goals for Germany were to remove the restrictions of the Treaty of Versailles, annex all German-speaking territories, and eliminate all Jews from Europe.
    Significance: His actions result in World War 2 to occur
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    Long March by Chinese Communists

    Military retreat of Mao Zedong and the Communist party of China to escape from the attacks of the Chinese Nationalist Party; various communist armies joined and escaped together to the province of Shaanxi. Significance: This escape allowed Mao’s army to grow and strengthen, eventually allowing for their communist party to take over China
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    Stalin’s “Great Purge” in USSR

    Series of campaigns of political oppression and persecution in the Soviet Union.
    Significance: Enables Stalin to totally control the Soviet Union. Purges were designed to remove from the party the people and their followers who Stalin thought were disloyal to him or had rival power bases like Trotsky.
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    Invasion of China by Japan

    Japan wanted to solve their economic problems, and they believed invading china with all its natural resources could resolve them. China’s army was poorly lead and armed and couldn’t fight of the invading Japanese, but this war only hurt their economy even more; eventually surrender in 1945.
    Significance: Example of how economic problems lead to war
  • German Auschluss with Austria

    German Auschluss with Austria
    Occupation and annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany. Significance: Majority of German speaking Austrians wanted to reunite with Germany, but were unable to due to the terms of the Treaty of Versailles; the Auschluss allowed them to unite and add to Hitler’s creation of a Greater German Reich
  • Cardenas Nationalizes Oil Industry in Mexico

    Cardenas Nationalizes Oil Industry in Mexico
    President Cardenas seized control of the foreign owned oil industry and began to export it.
    Significance: One of the many reforms done by Cardenas; oil still remains to be the most important source of income in the country
  • Invasion of Poland by Germany

    Invasion of Poland by Germany
    Germany breaks the Treaty of Versailles and invades and conquers Poland
    Significance: Lead to the start of WW2
  • German Invasion of USSR

    German Invasion of USSR
    Hitler breaks the non-aggression pact with the USSR and invades to expand his German Empire during World War 2.
    Significance: Nazi troops were unable to fight Russia’s winter; Hitler loses many troops to the Red Army, and lost any chances of beating the Soviet Union and winning the war
  • Soviet victory at Stalingrad

    Soviet victory at Stalingrad
    Germany attacks the Soviet Union at Stalingrad, but they couldn’t fight the bitter winter there, and the Red Army defeated them
    Significance: Hitler lost many soldiers and lost all chances of winning the war.
  • D-Day allied invasion at Normandy

    D-Day allied invasion at Normandy
    Allies invade German occupied France at Normandy Beach and attack Nazi troops with land, air, and water power, pushing the German forces back and out of France.

    Significance: Germany’s failure to successfully defend the Normandy area caused Hitler’s idea of creating a Nazi controlled “Fortress Europe” marked the beginnings of Germany’s failure.
  • Capture of Berlin by Soviet forces

    Capture of Berlin by Soviet forces
    Soviet Union forces attack and capture the city of Berlin to end the war with Germany
    Significance: Unconditional surrender of all German forces, and marks the end of World War 2 in Europe.
  • Division of Berlin and Germany

    Division of Berlin and Germany
    Allied powers decide to divide the defeated Germany into four zones as well as its capital of Berlin amongst themselves. This was decided at the Yalta Conference; it created a French, British, American, and Soviet zone of Germany and the Berlin Capital. Significance: As time went by, the western zones of Germany and Berlin were influenced by capitalist ideas, while the Eastern Soviet Union was influenced with communist ideas; this difference of ideals left the land divided during the Cold War.
  • Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
    In the final stages of World War 2, allies drop two atomic bombs in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    Significance: only time nuclear weapons were used in war; caused Japan to surrender
  • Establishment of United Nations

    Establishment of United Nations
    Created to maintain international peace and security and human rights between nations after World War 2.

    Significance: try to maintain peace and order between all nations
  • Partition of India

    Partition of India
    Process of dividing India because of religious conflicts as it gained its independence from the British Raj. The northern area, with a majority of Muslim people, became Pakistan while the southern, majority Hindu, section became the Republic of India
    Significance: Created two separate countries will still exist today.
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    Apartheid in South Africa

    System of racial segregation enforced by the National Party government against black and other nonwhite races in South Africa. These laws began to dismantle, and in 1994, the first democratic election in South Africa was made, and people of all races were able to vote
    Significance: Shows racism in our society and how long it took to start changing societies view on other ethnicities
  • Creation of Israel

    Creation of Israel
    After the genocide of Jews during the Holocaust, the United Nations decide to split Palestine and create the state of Israel as a safe homeland for the Jewish people.
    Significance: Although this was supposed to be a safe place for the Jews, the Jewish and Arab people couldn’t coexist, and created the Arab Israeli War.
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    Arab Israeli War

    First war in the continuing Arab-Israeli conflict known to Israelis as the war of independence. After the British Mandate of Palestine was removed, the United Nations wanted to create a Jewish and Arab state in Palestine, but the Arabs refused. This caused a war between the state of Israel and a alliance of Arab states and forces. It ended with Israeli victory and an agreement was signed to end all hostilities.
    Significance: this conflict has been going on for many years, and it shows the rel
  • Establishment of NATO

    Establishment of NATO
    Western nations form North Atlantic Treaty Organization to coordinate defenses against USSR
    Significance: Caused increased tension between the US and USSR; led to the formation of the Warsaw Pact by USSR
  • Establishment of People’s Republic of China

    Establishment of People’s Republic of China
    Formed after Mao and his communist forces defeat Kuomintang and his nationalist party
    Significance: Marks the beginning of Mao’s communist reforms and ideas in China
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    Korean War

    War between the Republic of Korea, South Korea, who were supported by the US and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, North Korea, who were supported by the Soviet Union; communist North Korea invaded South Korea, so the U.N forces push back their forces back out of South Korea, but Chinese forces threatened to aid North Korean forces. An agreement was made at the 38th parallel, neutral territory
    Significance: One of the major “wars” between the U.S and the USSR during the Cold War.
  • French defeat at Dien Bien Phu

    French defeat at Dien Bien Phu
    French fight against Ho Chi Ming’s nationalist group in Indochina to keep its prewar colonial possessions, but after a brutal struggle and the fall of their stronghold in Dien Bien Phu, it marked the end of France’s colonial control.
    Significance: the loss allowed Ho Chi Minh’s Indochina Communist Party to rule; spread of communism in Southeast Asia.
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    Algerian War Liberation

    Algeria fights for independence from France with the help of Egypt and other Arab countries to fight for their rights and create their own government.

    Significance: Algeria becomes an independent country, and is no longer under the rule of France
  • Establishment of Warsaw Pact

    Establishment of Warsaw Pact
    Organization of communist states in Central and Eastern Europe as a response to the creation of NATO
    Significance: Increased tension between the two power countries
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    US troops in Vietnam

    U.S support the South Vietnamese government. Vietnam received financial and military support from the United States. In 1965, Johnson escalated the war causing many Americans to turn against the war. Richard Nixon then withdrew American troops from the war and gave South Vietnam greater responsibility for fighting the war.
    Significance: Caused many Vietnamese deaths. Creation of the War Powers Act; it requires the president to receive congress approval before sending U.S forces overseas.
  • Uprising in Hungary

    Uprising in Hungary
    A spontaneous nationwide revolt against the People’s Republic of Hungary and its Soviet policies. Many people revolted, and they eventually saw Soviet troops leave, but their forces returned and gained control; organizers were sent to prison. Ended on November 10
    Significance: First uprising against Soviet forces in Hungary; many believe the US should have helped in the uprising, but their fear of retaliation after the failure of the Vietnam War during the Cold War prevented it.
  • Suez Crisis

    Suez Crisis
    Diplomatic and military confrontation in late 1956 between Egypt against Britain, France, and Israel with United States and the Soviet Union playing major roles in forcing Britain, France, and Israel to withdraw. Fought by the French, English, and Egypt; ended on November 7.
    Significance: Key event for the decolonization of Africa because the USA and USSR were then presented as new superpowers against African nationalists.
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    Great Leap Forward in China

    Mao Zedong’s attempt to modernize China’s economy so it could rival that of the U.S in just five years; tried to do this by industrializing and the collectivization of agriculture. Resulted in the death of millions, and many of the products produced were failures.

    Significance: Although it failed, these policies demonstrate Mao’s willingness to carry out huge economic and social projects of his choosing
  • Castro comes to power in Cuba

    Castro comes to power in Cuba
    Castro became prime minister and leader of Cuba after he led a revolution against Cuban dictator Batista.
    Significance: Castro nationalized their industry and created strong ties with Soviet Union, eventually becoming a communist country.
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    Sino-Soviet Rift

    The decline of political and ideological relations between the People’s Republic of China and the USSR during the Cold War. When the Soviet wanted to coexist with the capitalist west, Mao Zedong showed his distaste in capitalist countries.
    Significance: The PRC and the communist party of China denounced the Soviet communist as “Revisionist Traitors” which caused divide between the international communist movement and built the foundation for decreasing tensions United States and China.
  • Construction of Berlin Wall

    Construction of Berlin Wall
    Wall created by the USSR to separate East and West Berlin. USSR created it to keep western imperialism out and keep their people from moving to the other side with much better standards of living
    Significance: Wall symbolizes the division of the world between the communist USSR and capitalist United States during the Cold War.
  • Creation of PLO

    Creation of PLO
    Palestine Liberation Organization is an organization of Palestinian Arabs committed to creating an independent Palestinian state and replace Israel.

    Significance: the creation of an organization reflects the growing amounts of Palestinian nationalism in the Arab people
  • Revolution in Iran

    Revolution in Iran
    Events involving the overthrow of Iran’s monarchy and its replacement with an Islamic republic.
    Significance: Overthrow of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and the establishment of an Islamic Republic, then the Iran-Iraq War.
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    Iran-Iraq War

    Began when Iraq invaded Iran. Armed conflict between Iraq and Iran caused by many years of border disputes and Shia Islam rebellion among the suppressed Shia majority. Iraq hoped to take advantage of the revolutionary chaos but were then repelled by Iranians who regained lost territory.
    Significance: The war ended in a stalemate and both Iraq and Iran accepted United Nations Security Council Resolution to stop fighting; caused great economic damage to the two countries.
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    Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan

    Withdrawal of all Soviet combatant forces from Afghanistan due to overwhelming resistance from Mujahedeen, Muslim freedom fighters; they were supplied by the U.S

    Significance: U.S victory and turning point of the Soviet Union; ended near the collapse of the USSR
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    Persian Gulf War

    First significant conflict after the breakup of the Soviet Union; Saddam Husain, ruler of Iraq, invaded Kuwait and the US helped Saudi Arabia defend from Iraq’s aggression; defeated Iraq’s military. Husain stayed in power and the US and its allies denied Iraq’s military aircraft access to northern and southern regions in the country.
    Significance: Military confrontations continue in the region; victory for the US showed their military capability was unrivaled
  • Reunification of Germany

    Reunification of Germany
    Wave of rebellion against Soviet influence occurs throughout its European allies; riots break out in East Germany and the wall is breached, causing East and West Germany to reunite.

    Significance: The country of Germany was finally united again after so many years
  • USSR Dissolves

    USSR Dissolves
    Increasing rebellions against USSR’s policies throughout its allies, and the Berlin Wall separating east and West Berlin is finally destroyed. The presidents of Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus sign the Belavezha Accords, dissolving the USSR.
    Significance: Marks the end of a powerful communist country and US’s powerful opponent, and established the different countries we know today.
  • Transfer of Hong Kong to China

    Transfer of Hong Kong to China
    Transfer of Hong Kong from the United Kingdom to the People’s Republic of China; marked the end of British rule and the transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong to China
    Significance: Marks the end of Hong Kong being a Crown colony and British territory
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    Uprisings in Ukraine, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan

    Countries part of the Colour Revolution, term used to describe nonviolent resistance in several countries that were a part of the former USSR and Balkan states in the early 21st century. Many countries protested against their governments and advocated for democracy.
    Significance: Globalization of Democracy.