Biology- important events

  • 1306

    A local monk

    Girodina da Rivalta gave a sermon in 1306 in which he enthusiastically endorsed spectacles as a terrific invention and in passing, indicated that they had been in use for about 20 years.
  • Hans Lippery and his son Zacharias Hansenn

    Hans and his son was experimenting with a variety of lenses. They used several lenses in a tube and were amazed to see that the objects at the end of the tube was magnified significantly beyond the capability of a magnifying glass.
  • Cell Theory

    Robert Hooke, an English Scientist was the first to view and describe cells, and in doing so, gave them name.
  • Redi experiment

    Redi did his first experiment of biological experiment with proper controls, Redi set up a series of flask sealed, half open.
  • Antonie van Leewenhoek

    He viewed some lake water: "I now saw very plainly that these were little eels, or worms, lying all huddled up together and wiggling just as if you saw, with the naked eye. a whole tubful of little eels and water, with the eels squirming among one another; and the whole water seemed to be alive with these multifarious animalcules
  • John Needham

    He presented his theory of spontaneous generation and attempted to offer scientific evidence supporting the theory
  • Lazzaro Spallanzani

    He constructed his own experiment by placing broth in each of two separate bottles, boiling the broth in both bottle, then sealing one bottle and leaving the other open. Days later, the unsealed bottle was teeming with small living things that he could observe more clearly with the newly invented microscope. The sealed bottles showed no signs of life
  • Joseph Lister

    Joseph Lister solved the problem of spherical aberration (light bends at different angles depending on where it hits the lens ) by placing lenses at precise distances from each other
  • Rudolf Virchow

    He studied cellular pathology and proposed that all cells come from other cells. Virchow, along with other scientists, conducted tests to prove that new cells come from pre-existing cells and do not appear spontaneously.
  • Louis Pasteur

    Louis Pasteur used a swan neck flask. He put a nutrient rich broth in the flask. He then boiled the infusion killing any microorganisms which were already present, the infusion was exposed to air dust particles and other things in the air made it into the infusion because they were trapped in the curve of the swan neck flask.
  • Ernst Abbe

    Ernst Abbe formulates a mathematical theory correlating resolution to the wavelenght of light. Abbe's formula makes calculations or maximum resolution in microscopes possible
  • Walter Fleming

    Walter Fleming discovered cell mitosis and chromosomes, an achievement recognized as one of the 100 most important scientific achievement of all time.
  • Microtomes

    The first microtomes began to be used that enable significantly thinner sample to prepared in order to improve sample
  • August Kohler

    Another Zeiss employee, August Kohler figured out an unparalleled illumination system that is still known as Kohler illumination specimen, a bright image and minimal glare. In other words, Kohler achieved an almost perfect image.
  • Richard Zsigmondy

    Richard Zsigmondy develops the ultra-microscope and is able to study objects below the wavelenght of light
  • Frits Zernike

    He invented the phase-contrast microscope that allows the study of colourless and transparent biological material
  • Ernst Ruska

    Ernst Ruska develop the electron microscope. The ability to use electrons in microscopy greatly improves the resolution and greatly expands the borders to exploration.
  • Two German biologists

    Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann studied plants and animal cells and were able to view the nucleus, a structure within the cells that controls cell function. through their studies, they concluded that all living things were made of cells and that a cell is the smallest unit of organization in a living thing. These ideas formed the basis for cell theory
  • Lynn Margulis

    Biologist Lynn Margulis first made the case for the endosymbiosis.
  • Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer

    Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer invent the scanning tunneling microscope that gives three-dimensional images of objects down to the level.
  • Dino-Lite

    Dino-Lite are handheld digital microscopes, not much larger than a fat pen