Iwo jima

11.0 WWII Interactive Timeline - Nguyen

  • Japanese Invasion of China

    Japanese Invasion of China
    Japan sought raw materials to fuel its industries. While Chiang Kai-shek, the President of China, allowed Japan to govern northern parts of China, the Japanese people continued to move south. Chinese people began protesting against them. The Chief of Staff, Hideki Tojo, led Japan to seize the capital, Nanking. In July of 1937, Chinese and Japanese forces clashed in Beijing. The Japanese Army annihilated the city and began the Nanking Massacre (also known as the Rape of Nanking). (History.com)
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    Rape of Nanking

    While the Chinese government fleed to Hankow, Japanese General Matsui Iwane ordered the destruction of Nanking. Over the span of six weeks, the city was burned down and there is an estimated amount of over 100,000 to 300,000 deaths. 20,000 women were raped and many were killed immediately after. Chinese soldiers were hunted down and left to die in mass graves. The young and elderly were targeted to be killed. To this day, many people continue to deny that this happened. (History.com)
  • Rape of Nanking (Image)

    Rape of Nanking (Image)
    A Chinese man is depicted, holding his wounded son, searching for help.
  • The Use of German Blitzkrieg

    The Use of German Blitzkrieg
    Germany's blitzkrieg (or "lightning war") first became known due to Hitler's invasion of Poland. Due to its loss in WWI, Germans had decided to focus on military maneuvers, rather than trench warfare. Blitzkrieg involves mobile forces, such as aircraft and tanks, focusing swift blows at enemies (History.com). This new technique allowed Germany to wipe through areas quickly with quick victories. (History: World War Two) Above is a picture of German tanks during the invasion of Poland.
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    Germany's Invasion of Poland

    The German invasion of Poland marks the start of the second world war. Under the command of Adolf Hitler, Germany aimed to regain lost territory in Poland. Poland fell victim to Hitler's new technique, in which aircraft and tanks sweep through. After four weeks of enduring Germany's blitzkrieg, Poland surrendered and was divided between Germany and the Soviet Union. On September 3, 1939, Great Britain and France declared war on Germany in response to Hitler's invasion. (Spielvogel and McTighe)
  • Germany's Invasion of Poland (Image)

    Germany's Invasion of Poland (Image)
    German soldiers are depicted above, marching in the Warsaw March, on September 28, 1939.
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    The Fall of Paris

    Despite France building the Maginot Line (a line of steel and concrete fortifications on France's eastern border), Germany went around it through Belgium, causing French troops to be stuck and the British army to be trapped in Dunkirk. France signed an armistice on June 22, 1940, creating a puppet state at Vichy, led by French World War I hero, Marshal Henri Petain. Even though Germany had control over central and western Europe, British resolve grew. (Spielvogel and McTighe)
  • The Fall of Paris (Image)

    The Fall of Paris (Image)
    Depicted above are German soldiers marching in Paris on June 14, 1940.
  • Operation Barbarossa (Image)

    Operation Barbarossa (Image)
    The image above shows a Wehrmacht soldier holding binoculars during Operation Barbarossa in 1941.
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    Operation Barbarossa

    Operation Barbarossa was the code name for Hitler's plan to invade the Soviet Union. This plan was carried out on June 22, 1941. Although Hitler hoped to quickly succeed because of the blitzkrieg's effectiveness, they failed to make the Soviet Union surrender. Hitler had not strategically planned this operation, so despite the German Army leading in casualties at first, they did not have a sufficient source of supplies and they endured harsh weather. (History.com)
  • Pearl Harbor

    Pearl Harbor
    On December 7, 1941, Japanese pilots, led by Captain Mitsuo Fuchida, attacked Hawaii's Pearl Harbor by bombing "Battleship Row," in an attempt to prevent the US intervention in Asian territories. There were over 3,500 casualties. Japan continued attacking other places, such as the Philippines, Malaya, etc. The next day, President Franklin Roosevelt declared war on Japan. Many Americans soon agreed on fighting back. Soon, Hitler declared war on the US on December 11. (US Holocaust Museum)
  • Wannsee Conference

    Wannsee Conference
    On January 20, 1942, Reinhard Heydrich, a SS general, Adolf Eichmann, chief of the Central Office of Jewish Emigration, and fifteen other Nazi officials met in Wannsee, Germany, to devise a plan to "handle the Jewish question" of Europe. Heydrich came up with the concept of concentration camps and the transport of Jewish people. These officials proposed the "Final Solution." (History.com) Above is a picture of the House of the Wannsee Conference.
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    Battle of Stalingrad

    Instead of going after the Caucasus, Hitler decided that the Soviet city of Stalingrad needed to be taken. Soviet troops were able to encircle German troops and cut their supply lines off during the merciless winter. German soldiers were forced to surrender at Stalingrad. Even the entire German Sixth Army, which was considered the strongest German group, was lost. This battle was a major turning point for the Allied Forces. (Spielvogel and McTighe)
  • Battle of Stalingrad (Image)

    Battle of Stalingrad (Image)
    Depicted above are German soldiers in Stalingrad in January of 1943 in the frigid weather.
  • Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (Image)

    Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (Image)
    In the picture above, Nazi soldiers are seen marching Jewish people out of the Warsaw ghetto on April 19, 1943.
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    Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

    By September 1939, over 400,000 Jewish people were contained in Warsaw, Poland. Many died due to starvation and disease. On April 19, 1943, Jews in Warsaw revolted against the deportation of people to extermination camps. German soldiers destroyed buildings that hid Jews and captured many more. Unfortunately, on May 16, 1943, the Germans blew up the Great Synagogue in Warsaw. It is estimated that 7,000 Jewish people died during the revolt while 50,000 were sent to labor camps. (History.com)
  • Operation Gomorrah

    Operation Gomorrah
    On July 24, 1943, Operation Gomorrah was launched. Operation Gomorrah was the air raid on Hamburg, Germany. The Allied Powers used their brand-new technology that would later be used in Japan. Great Britain dropped over 2,300 tons of bombs on the city, killing 1,500 German people. The US Eighth Airforce also bombed northern Germany. (History.com) A photograph of the aftermath can be seen above.
  • D-Day (Normandy Invasion)

    D-Day (Normandy Invasion)
    The Normandy Invasion was carried out by the US, the UK, France, Canada, Norway, and France. This invasion had been planned months before. In total, there were 156,000 troops, 5,000 ships and landing craft, and 50,000 vehicles. The Allied Forces won back control of Paris by August, marking a huge turn of the tide in the war. (US Holocaust Museum) General Dwight D. Eisenhower is depicted talking to paratroopers of the 101st Airborne Division on June 5, 1943. before D-Day.
  • Liberation of concentration camps

    Liberation of concentration camps
    While Allied forces swept through Nazi-occupied Europe, they liberated many concentration and death camps. Many Allied troops were able to see the atrocities the Nazis had done. Nazis had forced many people into labor, starvation, and horrid scientific experiments. Many soldiers were in shock and tried to comfort the survivors. (Spielvogel and McTighe) The picture above depicts General Dwight D. Eisenhower and General George S. Patton finding corpses at the Ohrdruf Concentration Camp.
  • Operation Thunderclap

    Operation Thunderclap
    Starting on February 13, 1945, the city of Dresden was heavily firebombed by the Allied Powers, killing over 25,000 people. The decision to bomb German cities was a result of the 1945 Yalta Conference, in which the Allied Powers chose to destroy cities known for production. However, many believe the goal of this operation was to simply weaken German morale and punish the Nazis for their crimes against humanity. It was reported that over 3,400 bombs were dropped by the US and UK (History.com).
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    Battle of Iwo Jima

    The Battle of Iwo Jima was between US Marines and the Imperial Army of Japan. The US wanted to use Iwo Jima as an airbase and weaken Japan (Spielvogel & McTighe). It is said to be one of the most bloody battles, with only 200 out of the 21,000 Japanese soldiers surviving. General Tadamichi Kuribayashi rained fire on the US Marines from above but they still managed to seize both airfields. On March 5, 300 Japanese men held one last banzai attack before the island's capture (US Holocaust Museum).
  • Battle of Iwo Jima (Image)

    Battle of Iwo Jima (Image)
    Above is the well-known image of the American flag being raised on top of Mount Suribachi at Iwo Jima.
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    Battle of Okinawa

    The Battle of Okinawa was the last major battle of WWII. The US had eyes on Okinawa after capturing Iwo Jima. On April 1, 1945, US soldiers arrived on shore with no Japanese troops awaiting them and they were quickly able to capture two airfields. However, Japanese soldiers were instructed to hide and wait. The Japanese battleship Yamato was bombarded upon being spotted. There were terrible kamikaze attacks and many casualties on both sides (an estimated 150,000) in total (US Holocaust Museum).
  • Battle of Okinawa (Image)

    Battle of Okinawa (Image)
    The picture above depicts U.S. soldiers fighting for control of a ridge in Okinawa in May of 1945.
  • VE Day

    VE Day
    VE Day, or Victory in Europe Day, celebrates the official surrender of the Nazis and the defeat of the Axis Powers.
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    The Dropping of Little Boy and Fat Man

    Scientists, such as Enrico Fermi, had been working secretly on the Manhattan Project out of fear that the German scientists would use their discovery of nuclear fission (Spielvogel & McTighe). President Harry Truman made the decision to drop two atomic bombs, Fat Man and Little Boy, on Japan. Thousands of Japanese people in Hiroshima and Nagasaki died instantly and many more died later due to the effects of the radiation (Spielvogel & McTighe).
  • Little Boy and Fat Man (Image)

    Little Boy and Fat Man (Image)
    On the top is "Fat Man," the atomic bomb used on Nagasaki. It weighed 4,535kg and used plutonium. On the bottom is "Little Boy," the atomic bomb used on Hiroshima. It weighed 4,400kg and used uranium. (History.com)
  • VJ Day (Image)

    VJ Day (Image)
    Above is the famous photograph of the sailor, George Mendonsa, kissing nurse, Greta Zimmer Friedman, randomly, on August 14, 1945, while celebrating VJ Day.
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    VJ Day

    VJ Day, or Victory over Japan Day, celebrates Japan's surrender. Emperor Hirohito surrendered on August 14, 1945, due to the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. On September 2, 1945, Japan had signed documents of surrender on the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay. The war was finally over, with over 60 million deaths. (History.com)
  • Sources

    “History: World War Two.” BBC, https://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/ United States Holocaust Memorial Museum,
    https://encyclopedia.ushmm.org/content/en/article/world-war-ii-in-the-pacific & https://encyclopedia.ushmm.org/content/en/article/world-war-ii-in-europe. “World War II.” History.com, Television Networks, Aug. 2018, https://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii Spielvogel, Jackson J., and Jay McTighe. World History and Geography. McGraw-Hill, 2021