World History

Timeline created by oliviahr
  • End of the Tudor Line

    End of the Tudor Line
    In 1603, Queen Elizabeth of died without an heir. Because of this, her cousin James V of Scotland takes the throne, becoming James I of England. This is the beginning of a long and painful power struggle, because James I won’t cooperate with Parliament.
  • Petition of Rights Signed

    Petition of Rights Signed
    Charles I, James I’s son, hated working with Parliament and only calls on them when he needs money. Parliament got tired of it and refused to give him money until he signed the Petition of Rights, which was designed to limit the king’s power. Grudgingly, he did, but only because he wanted the money.
  • English Civil War Starts

    English Civil War Starts
    War broke out between the Royalists and the Roundheads. The Royalists supported the King and the Roundheads supported Parliament. The Royalists wanted the King to have more power and the Roundheads wanted Parliament to have more power.
  • Thomas Hobbes writes Leviathan

    Thomas Hobbes writes Leviathan
    Thomas Hobbes, a philosopher from the enlightenment period, believed that humans were not good or evil and that they were driven by fear. His book, or rather, series of books, expressed this opinion, as well as the opinion that the government should be one body. He writes about 19 Laws of Nature which outline the nature of humans and how they should be governed.
  • End of the English Civil War

    End of the English Civil War
    Oliver Cromwell won the war for the Royalists. Charles I was beheaded and Cromwell became the military dictator of the new Commonwealth of England.
  • Voltaire writes Candide

    Voltaire writes Candide
    Voltaire was a philosopher from the enlightenment. He wrote an influential book called Candide, in which a student is taught to be optimistic, but then goes through many terrible events. He expresses the ideas of optimism being unrealistic and that’s philosophic thinking result some in too much observing and too little taking action.
  • Spinning Jenny Invented

    Spinning Jenny Invented
    James Hargreaves invented a mechanical loom called the Spinning Jenny, which he named after his daughter.
  • Australia Claimed by Britain

    Australia Claimed by Britain
    On this date, British explorer James Cook claimed Australia for Great Britain. One of the crewmen spotted land in southeast Australia and the HMS Endeavor landed at Botany Bay on August 20th. He named the land New South Wales. Australia would go on to become a place where Britain exiled criminals, but later gained its independence. As for the natives, called Aborigines, they were pushed off their land and treated horribly, much like the Natives of North America.
  • The Wealth of Nations written

    The Wealth of Nations written
    Adam Smith, also known as the Father of Capitalism, wrote the book The Wealth of Nations to express his views on what is today called gross national product, or how many goods we can export. He believed that we should increase exports, and that it was the way to become wealthy. Smith wrote that the government should allow free trade and encourage new ideas.
  • Samuel Slater Builds First US Factory

    Samuel Slater Builds First US Factory
    Samuel Slater was an Englishman who worked in the textile industry. He wanted to help the Americans with their industrial revolution, but it was illegal to take the designs outside of Britain. So Slater memorized as much as he could and went to America. He went on to develop and business with his sons and became know as “The Father of the American Industrial Revolution.”
  • Olaudah Equiano Writes Autobiography

    Olaudah Equiano Writes Autobiography
    Olaudah Equiano was a former slave from Nigeria who was owned by a merchant and worked to buy his freedom. After he was free, he worked to help other freed slaves resettle in Africa. He also wrote an autobiography so that people would understand what life really was like in slavery, and hopefully more people would be against it. His book was the first slave narrative ever written, and the first book published by an African in England.
  • The Tennis Court Oath

    The Tennis Court Oath
    After a drought, King Louis XVI of France convened the Estates General, France’s National Assembly. However, the extremely oppressed third class, which made up 98% of the population, was always outvoted. As a result, the commoners decided to make their own National Assembly. When they found themselves locked out of the meeting hall, the third class met in an indoor tennis court. They agreed never to separate until they had written a new constitution.
  • Bastille Day

    Bastille Day
    On July 14, 1789, an angry mob of revolutionaries mobbed the Bastille prison. The prison held many people who had spoken out against the monarchy, not mention all the weaponry and gunpowder stored inside. After the people grew tired of waiting for their representative to negotiate with the prison’s governor, a group of people climbed over the wall and lowered a draw bridge so the revolutionaries could attack. The prison governor surrendered and was murdered and beheaded.
  • The Night Session

    The Night Session
    The Night Session of August 4, 1789 was a meeting between the leaders of the revolution. The leaders met to make important decisions about how the revolution should move forward, and to address issues in the current state of the revolution. The results of the meeting were that they would make equality an priority, abolish the feudal regime, and make it so people could move up in society based on their own work, not their royal blood.
  • Women’s March on Versailles

    Women’s March on Versailles
    Women in France were extremely upset about the high taxes and lack of bread. One day, at a marketplace in Paris, a mob of women formed and started marching through the pouring rain to Versailles to speak to the king. Armed with kitchen knives and simple weapons, the mob forced the royal family to come out. With the help of The Marquis de Lafayette, the king was convinced to support the reforms. The royal family moved to Paris where they would be held responsible for ruling the people.
  • The Brunswick Manifesto

    The Brunswick Manifesto
    The British Duke of Brunswick, being part of the upper class, supported the royal family during the French Revolution. The duke wrote a manifesto saying that his country of Great Britain would go to war with France if the king was harmed. Because the duke was part of the upper class, he supported the feudal system. This showed that he wanted to stop the revolution so that his country’s peasants wouldn’t get any ideas and start their own revolution.
  • Cotton Gin Invented

    Cotton Gin Invented
    Eli Whitney invented the Cotton Gin (short for engine) in 1793. This machine worked like a sieve that separated the seeds from the cotton much more efficient and quickly than an person could. This invention made slavery more valuable and profitable.
  • Napoleon Becomes Emperor

    Napoleon Becomes Emperor
    On November 9, 1799, powerful army general Napoleon takes control of the weak, post-revolution French government. He calls himself “First Consul” , after his hero Julius Cesar, and then “Consul for Life”. Later on, in December of 1804 he is officially crowned emperor, but there was a twist. Instead of letting the pope crown him, Napoleon took the crown crowned himself. This was to show everyone that Napoleon believed himself to be more powerful than anyone, even the pope.
  • Napoleon Starts the Continental System

    Napoleon Starts the Continental System
    The Continental System was Napoleon’s 1st mistake that lead to his downfall. In order to isolate Britain, his greatest enemy, Napoleon decreed that no countries in Europe were allowed to trade with Britain, and Britain wasn’t allowed to trade with any European countries. If any ships were caught trading with Britain, they would be seized. Of course, Napoleon wasn’t in charge of all of Europe, so some countries didn’t listen to him, which caused Napoleon to make some other mistakes down the road.
  • Lowell System Invented

    Lowell System Invented
    On a trip to England, Francis Cabot Lowell observed the textile factories and machinery. While he was there, he memorized the design of the machines and brought it back to America. After he returned home to Massachusetts, Lowell formed the Boston Manufacturing Company, and shortly later, it’s first mill. Entire towns consisting of workers and their homes were built around these mills. The workers were often young immigrant women known as Lowell girls.
  • Napoleon Escapes from Elba

    Napoleon Escapes from Elba
    After his defeat at the Battle of Leipzig, Napoleon gives up the throne and is exiled to Elba Island. 10 months later, Napoleon makes a comeback. With the help on the people on Elba, Napoleon escapes and returns to France where many people welcome him. Unfortunately, the rest of Europe wasn’t happy that he was back, so formed the 7th Coalition and fought him at the Battle of Waterloo. Napoleon lost and was re-exiled to a more remote island called St. Helena where he eventually died.
  • First Railway Chartered Carry Passengers and Freight

    First Railway Chartered Carry Passengers and Freight
    On this date, the Baltimore and Ohio railroad became the first railroad to carry people and freight. People were skeptical that it could travel over the steep, winding tracks, but it did. The hope of this railway was that it would help Baltimore to compete with western trade. This steam powered train, invented by Peter Cooper, was also known as the Tom Thumb.
  • Greece wins Independence

    Greece wins Independence
    Greece’s revolution was the only successful revolution of the 1820’s. Greeks had a strong sense of Hellenism, or Greek nationality, and wanted to be free from the Ottoman Empire. In parts of Greece, revolutions against the Turkish rule began to break out, and the revolutionaries gained control of the Peloponnese. The Turks tries to take it back, but were defeated by European forces who had come to the aid of the Greeks.
  • The Abolition of Slavery in Great Britain

    The Abolition of Slavery in Great Britain
    In 1833, parliament finally abolished slavery in Great Britain. It took a lot of hard work from parliament members such as William Wilberforce, as well as citizens who campaigned and boycotted products produced by slaves. However, now slaves had to adjust to free life, which was difficult, and at the start of the abolition of slavery, only slaves under 6 were freed. By 1840, most slaves were freed.
  • Coronation of Queen Victoria

    Coronation of Queen Victoria
    Victoria was crowned Queen of the British Empire after the death of her uncle William IV. She was only 18 years old, and would become the longest ruling monarch in British history- 63 years! The coronation took place in Westminster Abbey, and without any rehearsal! Despite many mishaps, Queen Victoria wrote in her journal that it was the proudest day of her life.
  • The Start of the Opium Wars

    The Start of the  Opium Wars
    Great Britain regularly traded thousands of pounds of opium for China’s tea. As a result, many Chinese got addicted to opium. China tried to get Britain to stop giving them opium, but Britain didn’t care, they just wanted China’s tea. China declared was on Great Britain but unfortunately, Great Britain's technology was much more advanced than China and they won the wars.
  • The 2nd French Republic

    The 2nd French Republic
    After many revolts in France against the new monarchy, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte defeats the king in a presidential election. He declares himself Emperor Napoleon III, and tries to take all the power. The people are afraid of change and accept him.
  • The Vaccination Act

    The Vaccination Act
    The Vaccination Act made it mandatory for all children born after August 1, 1853 to be vaccinated for smallpox. Parents who did not vaccinate their children were fined or sent to prison. The vaccination was invented by English doctor Edward Jenner in 1796.
  • The Treaty of Kanagawa

    The Treaty of Kanagawa
    American Navy officer Matthew Perry sailed into Tokyo Bay in 1853 to try to convince the Japanese to start trading goods with the U.S. After a little threatening from Officer Perry and a letter from President Fillmore, a year later the Japanese agreed to establish trade relations with the US. This made other countries want to trade with Japan, and eventually led to the modernization of Japan.
  • The Sepoy Mutiny

    The Sepoy Mutiny
    The Sepoy mutiny started over a rumor about the rifles the Sepoys used. There was a cartridge that they had to bite off with their teeth, and the rumor was that the cartridge was sealed with pig and cow fat. This was a problem because Sepoys that were Hindu worshipped cows, and Sepoys that were Muslim wouldn’t go near pig because it was against their religion. The Sepoys refused to use the rifles, but Britain put down the revolt.
  • Death of Queen Victoria’s Husband

    Death of Queen Victoria’s Husband
    Queen Victoria was permanently devastated after the death of her husband in 1861. Prince Albert died at age 42 due to typhoid fever, although some say it was because he fell through a frozen lake while ice skating. Victoria mourned for her husband till the day she died, always wearing black and carrying around a picture of him.
  • Thomas Edison Patents Lightbulb

    Thomas Edison Patents Lightbulb
    On November 4, 1879, Thomas Edison patented the lightbulb, or the “electric lamp”, which used “a carbon filament or strip coiled and platina contact wires.” It took over 1,000 tries and $40,000, which is the equivalent of about $850,000 today. On New Years Eve, 3,000 people visited the lightbulb’s public debut in Menlo Park where 40 light bulbs were glowed as Edison switched them on and off.
  • The Congo taken over by Leopold II

    The Congo taken over by Leopold II
    On February 5, 1885, King Leopold II of Belgium took the Congo as his own personal property. The country of Belgium didn’t want to takeover the Congo because it was supposed to be a free and neutral country, but King Leopold did, so he took it for himself. This began Leopold’s 23 year long reign of terror in which he worked and starved millions of Congolese to death. Leopold forced the Congolese to harvest rubber trees so he could make a profit for himself off of the rubber.
  • Wright Brother’s First Flight

    Wright Brother’s First Flight
    On December 17, 1903, the Wright brothers flew their flying machine for 59 seconds straight on the shores of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. Orville made the first flight, and then 3 more flights were made after that. 11 years later, planes were used extensively in WW1.
  • First Model T Produced

    First Model T Produced
    Henry Ford built the Model T car as a better version of the slow, expensive German version. Ford’s car traveled better and was cheaper, despite still being slow, ugly, uncomfortable, and hard to drive. The “Tin Lizzie”, as it was nicknamed, only cost $295 by 1928, and the car industry created jobs that made people even more capable of buying a car. This sort of cycle caused cars to become very popular.
  • Archduke Franz Ferdinand Assassinated

    Archduke Franz Ferdinand Assassinated
    Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary was not well liked in his country. After some fighting between Serbia and Austria-Hungary, he and his wife went to Sarajevo, the capital of Serbia, to try to calm the tensions. While driving in an open car, the Archduke and his wife were shot to death by a young Serbian named Gavrilo Princip who was part of a rebel group trying to get rid of Austro-Hungarian rule in Serbia. This was the spark that started WW1.
  • The Christmas Truce

    The Christmas Truce
    On Christmas Day, 1914, the British and Germans along the Western front held an unofficial ceasefire. It started on Christmas Eve when the British overheard the Germans singing Christmas songs and joined them in English. The next day, the men came out of their trenches to help each other bury their dead, socialize, and play soccer. The soldiers tried to recreate this in following Christmases, but their officers squashed their attempts.
  • Austria-Hungary Declares War on Serbia

    Austria-Hungary Declares War on Serbia
    Exactly only month after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. Because the Archduke was next in line to rule Austria-Hungary, the Serbians wanted his out of the way. Naturally, Austria-Hungary blamed Serbia for the death of the Archduke, so they wanted to invade. By the time both countries had dragged their allies into the matter, it was basically a whole war. This was the start of WW1.
  • Edith Cavell Executed

    Edith Cavell Executed
    Edith Cavell was a nurse in the British army during WW1 who saved hundreds of soldiers lives on both sides. She also helped 200 allied soldiers escape from German occupied Belgium. She was captured and executed by the Germans. Later, the Church of England named her a saint.
  • Czar Nicholas II Abdicated

    Czar Nicholas II Abdicated
    Czar Nicholas II of Russia was a highly unpopular leader. He was conservative, not progressive, and didn’t make the best decisions. After joining his country into WW1, hoping it would unite them all under his rule, the people began to hate him even more as he made horrible military choices. The people were angry and annoyed, and after law enforcers refused to obey the Czar’s orders, he was forced to abdicate.
  • The Start of the March Revolution

    The Start of the March Revolution
    The Russian people were extremely angry with the government. The people were poor and starving, and took to the streets. They marched to the capital and the Czar’s palace where they were met by the Petrograd Army Garrison. In some places, the garrison shot and killed many protesters, while in other places the army refused to shoot. Shortly later, the Czar abdicated the throne.
  • America Joins WW1

    America Joins WW1
    A couple things prompted America to join the war. First was the sinking of the Lusitania, a British passenger ship carrying many Americans that was sunk by the Germans. The second prompt was the Zimmerman Telegram. The Zimmerman Telegram was a message from Germany to Mexico saying that if Mexico joined the Central powers, Germany would help them get some southern territory back from America. The message was intercepted by Britain and given to America. This resulted in America joining WW1.
  • The October Revolution

    The October Revolution
    After the abdication of Czar Nickolas Romanov, a provisional government was put in place. This government was weak and let people get away with many things, creating a power vacuum. As a result, a rebel group called the Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Lenin were able to take over. A group of Bolshevik factory workers called the Red Guard attacked the provisional government and established Lenin as the leader of the new Soviet Union.
  • The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

    The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
    As soon as Vladimir Lenin stepped in as Russia’s new leader, his first course of action was to pull Russia out of WW1. This proved to be a complicated task. Based on the negotiations that had been reached between Russia and the Central Powers, Russia had to give up 1 million square miles of it’s territory, which contained a third of it’s population and most of it’s coal and oil sources. This did not seem fair to Lenin or the Russian people.
  • Russia’s Royal Family Assasinated

    Russia’s Royal Family Assasinated
    After the royal family was abdicated, the rebel group known as the Bolsheviks took the family into custody, moving them from place to place to keep them hidden from the White Army, a group that still supported the Czar. One night while in Yekaterinburg, the family was awoken and told they were being relocated. They were told to go wait in the cellar, where a firing squad came in and shot them until they all died. Their bodies were doused with sulfuric acid and buried in the forest.
  • Armistice Day

    Armistice Day
    At 11 A.M. on November 11, 1918, Germany surrendered to the allies by signing an armistice. Later on, they signed a peace treaty, officially ending WW1. Armistice Day became an international holiday to honor the 37 million soldiers that died, including 116, 516 Americans. Later on, America changed their Armistice Day to Veteran’s Day, honoring all American veterans who served in any war, and added another holiday, Memorial Day, to honor all American soldiers who died in any war.
  • The Kronstadt Revolt

    The Kronstadt Revolt
    The Russian people were angry at their new government for breaking promises and letting them starve. Lenin had implemented something called War Communism, in which the Cheka took a portion of everyone’s crops to feed the army, which eventually resulted in a famine. This, among other issues, caused a revolt among factory workers are the Kronstadt Naval Base. The revolt was severely crushed by the Red Army, but succeeded in giving Lenin a warning that he needed to loosen up on his War Communism.
  • The USSR Created

    The USSR Created
    Lenin created the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1922. It was formed by a treaty between Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and Transcaucasia, and eventually grew to include 15 countries. Lenin took control of each country’s government and established a new Communist government. The USSR existed until 1991.
  • Lenin Dies

    Lenin Dies
    The rule of Vladimir Lenin ended on this day, after a stroke that killed him. He had left no specific instructions for who should rule Russia after him. It was either Trotsky, his army commander and co-worker in the Bolshevik Revolution, or Stalin, a virtual nobody. Stalin, of course, rose to power and left his mark on history.
  • Gulags Established

    Gulags Established
    Stalin was extremely paranoid over people being a threat to his communist government. As a result, he would sentence many people to death or time in the work camps. On this day, he officially gave then the name “gulag”. Millions of innocent people would go on to be starved and worked to death in these places.
  • Stalin Dies

    Stalin Dies
    At long last, the reign of Joseph Stalin had come to an end. He died of a brain hemorrhage, and there is some believe it may have been caused by poisoning. At Stalin’s funeral, all of Russia mourned. The propaganda had brainwashed them into believing that Stalin was their god, the father of Russia, when in reality he was responsible for the deaths of millions upon millions of innocent people.