The Cold War

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    The Cold War

  • Yalta Conference

    Yalta Conference
    ( Was the second meeting between Winston Churchill, Joseph Stalin, and Franklin D. Roosevelt. The three leaders agreed to demand Germany’s surrender and began plans for a post-war world. They planned to set up four zones in Germany to be run by Russia, the United States, Great Britain, and France. Stalin ended up lying about what he would do in his sector once they captured Germany. This led to tremendous tensions between the Allies and the Soviet Union.
  • Berlin Declaration

    Berlin Declaration
    The Berlin Declaration was to give complete authority to the United States, Soviet Union, Great Britain, and France. The countries powers do not effect the annexation of Germany. The declaration confirmed the division of the Allied-occupied Germany and set up a goverment seperate for each zone. The Allied Control Council was established to execute the governmental power in each sector. The seprate zones would lead to many people choosing the better zone.
  • Potsdam Conference

    Potsdam Conference
    ( The meeting took place in Berlin and became the final meeting for the "big three" countries during World War 2. This meeting was to call for Japan's surrender, or other options if Japan were to keep fighting. On July 27, Winston Churchill was replaced by his successor, Clement Attlee. The three leaders discussed what to do with Japan that was kept secret for a while. Greater tension rose between Russia and the rest of the Allies.
  • North Vietnam

    North Vietnam
    ( A few hours after the Japan's surrender, Vietnam leader Ho Chi Minh declares independence for Vietnam. Minh was able to organize a guerrilla organization named Viet Minh. Their main goal was to fight for Vietnamese independence. After helping in the war effort against the Japanese, Minh asked France to be independent. France ends of bombing a Vietnamese city and starting the First Indochina War. Minh sent out assaults against France.
  • Iron Curtain Speech

    Iron Curtain Speech
    ( Winston Churchill was invited to Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri where he gave a speech. Churchill began with saying good things about the U.S. Later in his speech he talked about the Soviets plans about what should happen in Europe. This made most of the Allies not trust the soviets. The Soviets were looking to expand their country and double cross the Allies. Basically, the Soviets can't be trusted.
  • First Indochina War

    First Indochina War
    ( The first Indochina War started when the French conquered lands in Indochina. The Vietnamese people fought their to win their freedom back. They were led by Ho Chi Minh who formed Anguilla group to drive out the French. Later in the war, the French would be overwhelmed and make their final stand at Dien Bien Phu. This battle left the French with nothing, but to leave Indochina. Vietnam was then split in two, North and South Vietnam.
  • Marshall Plan

    Marshall Plan
    ( The Marshall Plan, or the European Recovery Program, was an American plan to aid Europe in any way possible. The United States ended up giving $13 billion in economic support to help rebuild Europe after World War 2. The Soviet Union was getting concerned that Europe would favor the U.S and not look up to Stalin as a good leader. Most of Europe would move to U.S occupied territories for all the aid.
  • Containment Policy

    Containment Policy
    ( The Containment Policy was known as the United States way to prevent the spread of Communism abroad. The Policy was a response to a series of moves by the Soviet Union to expand communist influence in Europe, China, Korea, Africa, and Vietnam. Was the United States' best strategy on fighting the Cold War. This policy was not favored what-so-ever by the Soviets. The Soviets thought that the U.S would turn everyone against the Soviets and revolt.
  • Berlin Blockade

    Berlin Blockade
    ( the Berlin Blockade limited the availability of the French, Great Britain, and the United States from entering the Soviet Unions sector of Berlin. The blockade was to stop people from going in or out of the Soviets sector. The Soviets wanted control and people to follow Stalins ideals. The Soviets did not want their sector to be empty of people fleeing to an caring United States sector. This would lead to the Berlin Airlift and Wall.
  • Berlin Airlift

    Berlin Airlift
    ( Since the Soviets blocked most availability going in and out of their sector of Berlin, the Allies had to come up with a new plan to get aid across. This led to the Allies sending in care packages by air. They would send planes filled with cargo to go into Soviet territory and drop it. This left the Soviets very aggravated and tempted to attack one of their planes. Both sides didn't want to go into a war, so they let it go.
  • NATO

    ( The United States was one of 12 nations to establish NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization). NATO is a mutual defense pact designed to stop Soviet aggression against Western Europe. NATO became the best military alliance against the Soviets during the Cold War. Many of the forces by NATO were aimed to stop the Soviets from creating their sector of Berlin to a place nobody wants to live in. NATO is still around today.
  • Soviet Union Tests A-Bomb

    Soviet Union Tests A-Bomb
    ( The USSR tests it's first atomic bomb in Kazakhstan code name "First Lightning." The soviets had created a test site that contained houses and other civilian structures to get the full effect of what the bomb could do to a city. The Soviets even put a bunch of live animals in cages to see what the radiation would do to them. The atomic explosion was a success by incinerating literally everything in it's radius.
  • People's Republic of China Founded

    People's Republic of China Founded
    ( The Republic of China was formed when Mao announced the creation of a "person's democratic dictatorship." The people were separated into different classes: the workers, the peasants, the petite bourgeoisie, and the national-capitalists. Mao made it so that the four classes were led by the CCP. At the time, the CCP had a 4.5 million dollar capacity. This led up to the Soviet Union and China to enter a partnership.
  • Second Red Scare

    Second Red Scare
    ( The Second Red scare came across the United States when Soviets hoped to spread communism all over the world. The Soviets were trying to overthrow both democratic and capitalist institutions. This had a long and enduring effect on the United States. People had to be tested to see if they were loyal to the government and the House Un-American Activities Committee. The Soviets would eventually fail to bring communism to the United States.
  • Korean War - American Involvement

    Korean War - American Involvement
    ( The war started with armed forces from North Korea attacking South Korea. Being part of the United Nations, the United States came to the aid of the South Koreans and fought a bloody war that lasted three years. Like Germany, Korea was split with the Soviets controlling the North and the United States controlling the South. This led to a lot more reasons for the Soviets to go into war with the United States.
  • Eisenhower Presidency

    Eisenhower Presidency
    ( Dwight David Eisenhower was the leader of the massive invasion of Normandy, or D-Day, during World War 2. Before taking his presidency, Eisenhower was in command of forces for NATO. Eisenhower was able to manage Cold War tensions between the U.S and the Soviets. Back at home, Eisenhower strengthened Social Security, and created the Interstate Highway System. He still failed African Americans by not protecting their civil rights.
  • Nikita Khrushchev

    Nikita Khrushchev
    ( After the death of Joseph Stalin on March 5, 1953, Nikita Khrushchev rose to power. Khrushchev was nothing but a loyal follower of Stalin, but still had to compete to take the place as leader of The Soviet Union. Yet, everybody underestimated him and he became the leader that the United States was sort of hoping for. Khrushchev wanted to call for a "peace coexistence" with the United States.
  • Julius and Ethel Rosenberg

    Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
    ( Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were a married couple that were convicted of conspiracy to commit espionage. It was said that they were carrying top secret information about the atomic bomb for the Soviets. They were convicted on March 1951, and were sentenced to death by electric chair on April 5, 1951. This marked the greatest amount of tension between the two superpowers.
  • Iranian Coup D'état

    Iranian Coup D'état
    ( With support from the United States, the Iranian military was able to overthrow the government led by Premier Mohammed Mosaddeq. They wanted Mosaddeq to step down from power because evidence showed that he was a communist. As a reward, the Shah gave the U.S 40 percent of their oil fields. The Shah would be one of the United States most trusted Allies during the Cold War. The U.S ended up sending a bunch of aid to Iran.
  • Warsaw Pact

    Warsaw Pact
    ( The Soviet Union, along with 7 other countries signed the Warsaw Pact. The pact called for every member to come to the defense of any of the countries if they were attacked. This is set up by the Soviets to have some more defense if they United States tried to pull something. At the same time, the United States wanted to make West Germany part of NATO. This is what initially started the creation of the Warsaw Pact.
  • Suez Crisis

    Suez Crisis
    ( The Suez Crisis started when the British and French troops took control of the Suez Canal. The Soviets grew concerned and decided to Arab nationalism and gain a foothold in the Middle East. The Soviets then Bazan to construct the Aswan Dam in Egypt after the U.S refused to help. The Soviets threatened the Allies to withdraw from their positions. This led to the United States taking full control and telling everybody to basically back off.
  • Hungarian Revolution

    Hungarian Revolution
    ( Hungarians grew restless of living under Soviet Rule. Communist Party's from the Soviet Union appointed Imre Nagy as the new premier. He was able to get the Soviets to withdraw from Hungary, but went to far when he began to revolt against the Soviets and to withdraw from the Warsaw Pact. The Soviets then came back into Hungary and took control again while the United States did nothing to help. This made many Hungarians very aggravated.
  • Sputnik

    ( The Soviets started a race when they decided to launch Sputnik, a artificial satellite, into outer space. This was the very first satellite to ever go into outer space and did send radio signals back to Earth. The United States were caught completely off guard by the technology that the Soviets and just created. This led to the "Space Race" between the Soviet Union and the United States.
  • Cuban Revolution

    Cuban Revolution
    ( The Cuban Revolution was led by Fidel Castro who scares off Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista. The United States were debating on how to deal with Fidel Castro, because they didn't know what his true intentions were. Around this time, the Soviets and Americans become a lot more friendlier so the U.S only has one situation to deal with. The U.S would later severe diplomatic and economic ties with Cuba.
  • U2 Incident

    U2 Incident
    ( On May 1, 1960, a U2 spy plane was shot down in Soviet Territory, said to be conducting espionage. The pilot was said to self destruct the plane and kill himself if an incident like this took place. The United States did not want this act leading back to them. However, Khrushchev was able to figure out what type of plane it was and found the pilot alive in Soviet territory. Distrust would grow again between the two.
  • Kennedy Presidency

    Kennedy Presidency
    ( John F. Kennedy was elected as the 35th president of the United States. He was the youngest man at age 43 and only Roman Catholic ever to be President. He was from a wealthy family that granted him a elite education. Kennedy took to confronting the Cold War tensions in Cuba., Vietnam, and other places. Kennedy was also helping the public with providing federal support for the growing civil rights movement.
  • First Man in Space

    First Man in Space
    ( Astronaut Yuri Gagarin was the first man in history to ever go into outer space. His flight was 108 minutes and was able to orbit the planet with a automatic control system. Yuri was considered one of the Soviet Unions biggest hero when he returned home. Back in the United States, they had just suffered a defeat because they had planned to send a man to space in May. This added on to the space race, and cost both countries greatly.
  • Bay of Pigs

    Bay of Pigs
    ( The Bay of Pogs was an invasion by the United States on Cuba to stop Fidel Castro. Castro made good relations with the Soviet Inion which really concerned the United States. The United States had sent a small force into Cuba to take over their government. This invasion was a completely failure with Americans being killed or captured by the Cuban military. Castro used his success to boost the hearts of his people.
  • Checkpoint Charlie

    Checkpoint Charlie
    ( Checkpoint Charlie's real name was Friedrichstrasse and was the third of 3 checkpoints set up to separate East Berlin with West Berlin. If u were living in East Berlin, the only way to go to West Berlin besides jumping over the wall would be through here. Unfortunately, The Soviet Union wasn't letting anyone leave East Berlin. However, you were allowed to enter East Berlin from West Berlin, but you were warned before leaving.
  • Berlin Wall

    Berlin Wall
    ( In 1961, around 2,000 East Berliners were moving into West Berlin everyday. This agrivated the Soviet Union which recently had a barbed wire fence blocking people from leaving. This is when the Soviets decided to build a wall that would stop people from ever leaving East Berlin. This was a success for the Soviets, because they stopped the movement of East Berliners and had complete control of their own sector of Berlin again.
  • JFK Assassination

    JFK Assassination
    ( At 12:30 p.m. the 35th President of the United States was assassinated in Dealey Plaza, Dallas, Texas. While driving through the rode in a motorcade getting ready to run for his re-election. The President was hit twice, one in the neck and one in the head, by the same person. The raced him to the hospital but couldn't do anything. He was pronounced dead at 1:00. A little bit after they arrested Lee Harvey Oswald.
  • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

    Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
    ( U.S ships in the Gulf of Tonkin were attacked by the North Vietnamese. New president Lyndon B Johnson asked permission to increase military support in Indochina. The United States were supporting the South Vietnamese raids against the North Vietnamese. The U.S military were now backing up the North Vietnamese military immediately. Still, the United States did not want to seem to aggressive to add to an expansion of war.
  • Vietnam War - American Involvement

    Vietnam War - American Involvement
    ( The United States started off with raids in North Vietnam and Communist-controlled areas I'm the South. The U.S sent around 200,000 soldiers to South Vietnam by 1966. At the same time, North Vietnam was receiving assistance from the Soviet Union and other communist countries. With all the support from the United States, South Vietnam still could not fight off the North Vietnamese. The United States failed to protect South Vietnam.
  • Prague Spring

    Prague Spring
    ( The Prague Spring was a period of freedom for the country of Czechoslovakia. Still under the control of a ruler who follows Stalins, Czechoslovakia is introduced Alexander Dubcek who wants to basically establish more communism. He asks for increased freedom of speech and the rehabilitation of political dissidents, including political and economic reforms. Communism continued to spread in Czechoslovakia.
  • Tet Offensive

    Tet Offensive
    ( The Tet offensive was launched by the Communist Party in North Vietnam. The Tet is the name of a popular holiday in Vietnam, it is the celebration of the lunar new year. The North Vietnamese sent their Army to South Vietnam to attack hundreds of cities. They were trying to drive out the U.S from Vietnam and to ultimately have the South Vietnamese start a rebellion. In the end, the communist were victorious, and the U.S left Vietnam.
  • Richard M. Nixon

    Richard M. Nixon
    ( Was the 37th president of the United States after Lyndon B. Johnson. Nixon was able to tie ties between the Soviet Union and China. He also brought his troops back from the Vietnam War. Nixon did run for a second term and won, but then became the first president of the United States to step from office and face impeachment. He stepped down because he was covering up illegal activities involving the Watergate scandal.
  • Apollo 11

    Apollo 11
    ( Apollo 11 carried the first three astronauts to land on the moon, including Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins. The astronauts traveled 240,000 miles to the moon in 76 hours to accomplish the mission of making it to the moon before the Soviet Union. Once Apollo 11 landed on the moon, Armstrong opened the hatch and was the first person to step on the moon and say the famous quote “That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind."
  • Nixon Visits China

    Nixon Visits China
    ( President Nixon decided to visit China to have a meeting with Prime Minister Zhou Enlai. Their meeting raised suspicion in South and North Vietnam. The U.S wanted the war in Vietnam to end and asked China to withdraw their troops and extra aid from north Vietnam. China wanted the U.S to remove their soldiers from Taiwan. They didn't come to a deal and China continued to supply North Vietnam.
  • Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

    Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
    ( This treaty is basically meant to have control over nuclear weapons. The treaty had 190 states be classified in 2 groups, those who have nuclear weapons, and those who don't. The five states that did have nuclear weapons were allowed to have a given amount and get rid of all the rest. The other states were not allowed to create or obtain any sort of nuclear weapons. This brought peace to the world and contributed greatly to the stop of the arms race.
  • Détente

    ( Détente, or tension, was the name given for the improved relations between the Soviet Union and the U.S. President Nixon flew to Moscow to make seven agreements covering military clashes, arms control, cooperative research, and expanded commerce. This was the pre-agreement before the first SALT treaty. The meeting went smoothly and all seven agreements were signed. The Détente agreement would soon come to an end as other presidents step forward.
  • Salt 1

    Salt 1
    ( SALT 1, or Strategic Arms Limitation Talks 1, was Soviet and U.S. negotiations. The meeting was the last to solve the Cold War arms race. The big talks centered around two types of missiles, ABMs and MIRVs. The two countries agreed to limiting the amount of missiles they had and to get rid of the rest. The Negotiations would last for 3 years until the final agreement would be signed between the two countries.
  • Paris Peace Accords

    Paris Peace Accords
    ( The Paris Peace Accords was a agreement to end the war and restore peace in Vietnam. It was between the U.S, Viet Cong, and North and South Vietnam to come to a satisfied agreement. The U.S agreed to withdraw all their troops along with dismantling all U.S bases in Vietnam. The North Vietnamese agreed to letting all prisoners of war go. South Vietnam got their freedom, and the North Vietnamese agreed to not attack them.
  • Chilean coup d’état

    Chilean coup d’état
    ( President Nixon sent a coup to end the President of Chile, Salvador Allende. Allende had ruled Chile for three years and Nixon didn't want another Fidel Castro in South America. The day of the coup, Chile's three armed forces attack their own democratic government. Allende retreated with a couple of loyal guards at La Moneda, the presidential palace. After a series of attacks, Allende committed suicide by shooting himself.
  • Yom Kippur War

    Yom Kippur War
    ( Hoping to win back lost territories, Syrian and Egyptian forces launched an attack against Israel on the holiday Yom Kippur. The attack caught Israelis come off guard by the Egyptians who took the Sinai Peninsula with ease. However, the Syrians had trouble taking the Golden Heights. On October 25, 1973, a cease fire was set into effect, issued by the United Nations. Syrian and Egyptian forces failed to capture their lost territories.
  • Fall of Saigon

    Fall of Saigon
    ( The fall of Saigon officially marked the end of the Vietnam war. The South Vietnamese had lost nearly all of their troops in this war. This is when the United States helped push back the North. Vietnamese to Saigon. The United States had bombed Saigon and were relentless in their other assaults. The United States were able to take Saigon and end the war in Vietnam. This led to a unified Vietnam after years of battling.
  • Khmer Rouge & the “Killing Fields”

    Khmer Rouge & the “Killing Fields”
    ( After the U.S had completely left Vietnam, a new leader, Pol Pot, took control of Cambodia. He ended up sealing off all of Cambodia from the outside world and forced approximately 2 million people to slave work. They were treated extremely poor and were threatened constantly. Vietnam later would attack Khmer Rouge. This would reveal all that Pots has been doing to his people. Almost all the 2 million people had died.
  • Salt 2

    Salt 2
    ( To deal with the guidelines and limitations of nuclear weapons, President Jimmy Carter and Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev arranged a meeting. The two countries came to an agreement and signed the Salt 2 treaty. The treaty basically limited the amount of nuclear weapons each country had. This left the U.S defenseless to weapons the Soviets failed to mention, these weapons weren't mentioned in the agreement.
  • Iranian Revolution

    Iranian Revolution
    ( The shah had entered the U.S for medical care on November 4, 1979. The Iranian militants attacked the U.S embassy in Teheran. The militia captured a total of 66 Americans and demanded that the U.S hand over the shah to face trial and pay back billions of dollars taken from them. They ended up keeping 53 hostages and wouldn't hand them over. Jimmy Carter was fed up with the militia and sent a secret rescue mission that failed.
  • Iran Hostage Crisis

    Iran Hostage Crisis
    ( On November 4, 1979 a group of Iranian militants raided the U.S embassy in Iran and captured 60 hostages. The militia requested that the United States hand over the shah so he could pay for his crimes. The militants ended up handing over 7 hostages before the U.S decided to sent a secret rescue mission. This mission was a failure and the militants executed a few more hostages. The U.S did not hand over the shah.
  • Reagan's Presidency

    Reagan's Presidency
    ( Ronald Reagan was the 40th president of the United States from 1981 to 1989. Part of the Republican Party, Reagan was born in Tampico, Illinois. Reagan use to be a former actor and governor of California. As president, he accomplished cutting taxes, negotiating with the Soviets about nuclear arms, and brought down the Berlin Wall. Reagan would die at an old age of 93 after fighting Alzheimer's disease.
  • Korean Airlines Flight 007

    Korean Airlines Flight 007
    ( The American airplane left John F. Kennedy International Airport on August 31, 1983. The plane was carrying 269 passengers headed toward Japan. This is when the Soviets decided to shoot down the plane that even had children on board. This led to the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Ronald Reagan called the incident a massacre on the Soviets it's part. The United States showed their strength through this hard time.
  • Reagan and Gorbachev meet

    Reagan and Gorbachev meet After 8 years of not having a summit conference with the Soviets, President Reagan finally decided to hold a meeting with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. This was the first of a few other summit meetings between the two. The U.S wanted control of the arms race while the Soviets wanted good relations with the U.S. The meeting didn't go as planned, but the 2 leaders began to have a close relationship.
  • Reykjavik Summit

    Reykjavik Summit
    ( Reykjavik Summit was a meeting between Ronald Reagan and Secretary General Mikhail Gorbachev in Reykjavik, Iceland. For the first time, a Soviet leader had agreed to talk about human rights issues. They also talked about getting rid of all new strategic missiles, nuclear missiles were almost wiped out forever. Both sides left the meeting without achieving their main goal, to get rid of nuclear missiles completely.
  • "Tear Down This Wall" Speech

    "Tear Down This Wall" Speech
    ( The Berlin wall was built 21 years before the "Tear Down This Wall" speech was given by President Ronald Reagan. Before the speech was given, the Soviets saw a steady decline in communism. This was the opportunity that Reagan needed to bring down the wall and reunify Germany. Reagan was successful in his speech and the wall was brought down. East and West Berliners were finally reunited after 28 years of separation.
  • Tiananmen Square Massacre

    Tiananmen Square Massacre
    ( Nearly a million Chinese protesters came out to Tiananmen Square to have better democracy and call for the resignation of Chinese Communist Leaders.Chinese troops came out to the square to stop the protestors. It ended up going out of hand when the troops started to fire at a crowd of protestors. This led to many people either fleeing or fighting back. Thousands of protestors of all ages were killed or captured.
  • Fall of the Berlin Wall

    Fall of the Berlin Wall
    ( The Cold War was coming to an end in Eastern Europe. This is when a Communist Party from East Berlin announced for a change in the city's relations. West and East Berliners came up to the wall and started screaming for them to bring the wall down. More than 2 million Germans came to watch the wall brought down. Everybody started contributing in one way or another to bring down the wall. Eventually, the wall would be completely wiped out.
  • Gulf War

    Gulf War
    ( The Gulf War started when the leader of Iraqi, Saddam Hussein, attacked Kuwait. Many nations were shocked by this attack, especially Egypt and Saudi Arabia. The United States was called upon to help with the problem, and sent a massive air assault named Operation Desert Storm. The Iraqi forces either fled or surrendered to Allied forces. This was a quick success for the U.S, but would later lead to larger conflicts in the future.
  • Dissolution of the Soviet Union

    Dissolution of the Soviet Union
    ( On Christmas Day, representatives from 11 Soviet republics met in Kazakh city of Alma-Ata to announce that the Soviet Union was officially over. They all decided to establish a Commonwealth of Independent States. The fall of the Soviet Union was due to the fact that their were a great number of radical reforms. Still, the leader of the Soviet Union was not satisfied with the decision and resigned on Christmas day.