The 1970's

  • First Earth Day Celebration

    First Earth Day Celebration
    The first celebration of Earth Day occured in 1970. The holiday was established by Senator Gaylord Nelson, who hoped environmental issues would rise to the forefront of people's minds and be fought for with as much vigor as Vietnam War protests of the time.
  • The Kent State Massacre

    The Kent State Massacre
    On May 4th, 1970, n estimated 3,000 participants took part in an anti-war protest. Due to violent riots earlier in the week the National Guard was called to Kent. When protesters were unresponsive to demands to disperse and discontinue protesting, the National Guard fired approximately 67 shots into the crowd of unarmed protesters. Four Kent students were killed as a result of the shooting. This event emphasized political divisions in the country during the Vietnam War era.
  • EPA is founded

    EPA is founded
    The Environmental Protection Agency is established with the mission, "protect human health by safeguarding the air we breathe, water we drink and land on which we live." This is established under Nixon's Reorganization Plan No. 3.
  • The Clean Air Act

    The Clean Air Act
    The EPA issues standards regarding air quality and pollution standards, and the act is approved by congress on December 30th, 1970.
  • Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education

    Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education
    This court decision ruled in favor of forced busing to desegregate school systems across America. Forced busing became one of the most controversial social issues faced in the 1970's. This system led to the shift of many white families sending children to private schools and moving out of cities into all white suburbs.
  • Occupational Safety and Health Administration

    Occupational Safety and Health Administration
    The establishment of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration ensures workers with healthy and safe working conditions by setting health, training, and assistance standards.
  • The Pentagon Papers

    The Pentagon Papers
    Former Marine and military analyst Daniel Ellsberg is responsible for releasing top secret documents, The Pentagon Papers, to the New York Times in 1971. The papers contained information pertaining to the Vietnam War, including plans of invasion that President Johnson had promised he had no intention of carrying out. The release of these papers led to increased anti-war sentiment across the nation, and led to many complications in the Nixon administration.
  • 26th Amendment Ratified

    26th Amendment Ratified
    The 26th amendment changed the voting age of United State's citizens to 18 years old. This amendment was passed because men were able to be drafted in the war at age 18, so it was determined that men who were able to fight for their country should be able to vote.
  • Shirley Chisolm

    Shirley Chisolm
    In 1972, Shirely Chisolm become the first woman and the first African American to run for presidential nomination.
  • Period: to

    SALT (I and II)

    Negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union aiming to halt the manufacture of missiles that could lead to nuclear warfare.
  • Attempted Assassination of George Wallace

    Attempted Assassination of George Wallace
    Governor of Alabama, George Wallace, was presidential candidate in 1972 and a staunch believer in the segregation. His motto was,"segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever." His racist beliefs stirred much controversy, and while campaigning in Maryland he was shot by a man named Arthur Bremer from the crowd. Though the assassignation was unsuccessful, Wallace did become paralyzed from the waist down.
  • The Watergate Scandal

    The Watergate Scandal
    Five men were arrested at the Democratic National Comittee office suite at Washington D.C.'s Watergate Hotel for what was then thought to be an attempted burglary. It was later revelaed that the men were members of the Nixon administration and were sent to fix bugs that had been placed to spy on the democrats. This scandal led to Nixon's eventual resignation and permanently tarnished his reputation. Nixon was the only plotter in the scandal not to serve jail time, due to pardoning by Pres. Ford.
  • The Presidential Election of 1972

    The Presidential Election of 1972
    Republican Candidate: Richard Nixon, Vice President: Spiro T. Agnew
    Democratic Candidate: George McGovern , Vice President: Thomas Eagleton
    Electoral Votes: Nixon – 520 McGovern – 17
    Popular Vote: Nixon: 60.7% McGovern: 37.5% Other: 1.8% Nixon was elected president of the United States in this election.
  • Roe vs. Wade

    Roe vs. Wade
    The court decision of Roe v. Wade legalized first trimester abortion in the United States. The decision of Roe v. Wade did however leave state's the right to make decisions regarding abortions in the second or third trimesters.
  • Saturday Night Massacre

    Saturday Night Massacre
    During the Watergate Scandal, Nixon dismissed Special Prosecutor Archibald Cox, and also recognized the resignations of Attorney General Elliot L. Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William D. Ruckelshaus. Congress determined that Nixon's actions were a blatant abuse of power and later led to the establishment of the Independent Counsel Act. This act put a check on the power of the executive branch.
  • Nixon's Resignation

    Nixon's Resignation
    After the lengthy upheaval of the Watergate Scandal, President Nixon became the first president in United State's history to resign. Vice President Gerald Ford was sworn in as president following Nixon's resignation, and Nixon hoped that doing so would "[hasten] the start of that process of healing which is so desperately needed in America."
    Resignation Speech
  • Watergate Ends

    Watergate Ends
    The cover-up trials of John N. Mitchell, H. R. Haldeman, John D. Ehrlichman, Kenneth Parkinson, and Robert C. Mardian are completed. A jury found the Nixon Administration officials guilty, and were sentenced up to 30 years in prison, though none spent this amount of time.
  • Microsoft

    Microsoft was founded by Paul Allen and Bill Gates (CEO), as an American multinational corporation which developed, manufactured and licensed a wide range of products and services related to computing. The innovation rose to dominate the home computer operating system and technologically impacted the world.
  • Cambodian Genocide

    Cambodian Genocide
    Cambodia fell to the Khmer Rouge, the radical Communist Party of Kampuchea. The Khmer Rouge conducted genocide against over a million of its own people, killing more than one-fifth of all Cambodians. This event fulfilled Eisenhower’s domino theory.
  • Fall of Saigon

    Fall of Saigon
    On April 23, President Gerald Ford gave a televised address, declaring the end of the war and all U.S. aid. Six days later, on April 30th, The U.S.-supported government in Saigon fell to the Communist government in North Vietnam’s capital, Hanoi. The U.S. was able to evacuate around 150,000 Vietnamese in support of the U.S., however South Vietnam’s fall marked a low point for the American confidence and overseas prestige.
  • Arthur Ashe wins Wimbledon

    Arthur Ashe wins Wimbledon
    American Tennis player Arthur Ashe becomes the first black man to win Wimbledon’s singles’ championship.
  • Bicentennial Celebration

    Bicentennial Celebration
    The U.S. celebrates it’s 200th birthday. Americans’ pride helps them put Vietnam, Watergate, and the lackluster presidency of Gerald Ford aside.
  • Presidential Election of 1976

    Presidential Election of 1976
    Republican Candidate: Gerald Ford, Vice President: Bob Dole
    Democratic Candidate: Jimmy Carter, Vice President: Walter Mondale
    Electoral Votes: Carter – 297 Ford – 240
    Popular Vote: Carter – 50.1% Ford – 48% This election was extremely close, but with the Watergate scandal, and Ford's innability to deal with serious economic problems, Democrat Jimmy Carter won and became the 39th president of the United States. The Democrats also won strong majorities in both houses of Congress
  • Star Wars

    Star Wars
    Star Wars opens in theaters and becomes the highest grossing film of all time to date. The movie’s release corresponds perfectly with the U.S.’s ongoing Space Race with the Soviet Union, and hope in reaching “the final frontier”.
  • Elvis Dies

    Elvis Dies
    The King of Rock and Roll, Elvis Presley, dies at age 42.
  • Panama Canal

    Panama Canal
    The U.S. and Panama sign treaties transferring control of the Panama Canal to Panama gradually, by the end of the 20th century. The original Panama Canal Treaty of 1903 is ratified by the Senate in 1978.
  • The Food Stamp Act of 1977

    The Food Stamp Act of 1977
    The Food Stamp Act of 1977 was passed, reforming the previous Food Stamp program. Among other reforms in the program, the new Food Stamp Act’s rallying cry became “EPR”, or eliminate the purchase requirement which is exactly what it did.
  • Regents of the University of California v. Bakke

    Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
    This was a landmark Supreme Court case that argued the University’s violation of the 14th Amendment’s equal protection clause, by instead practicing affirmative action which resulted in Bakke’s rejection for admissions. Bakke contended that he was excluded from the admissions process solely due to his race and ultimately won the lawsuit.
  • Camp David Accords

    Camp David Accords
    Largely seen as Carter’s single greatest accomplishment, the President acted as an intermediary in the Camp David Accords. Following13 days of secret negotiations at Camp David, Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin took great steps towards a peace settlement.
  • Iran Hostage Crisis

    Iran Hostage Crisis
    The Iran Hostage Crisis begins when sixty-three Americans are among ninety hostages taken at the American embassy in Tehran by three thousand militant student fundementalist followers of Ayatollah Khomeini, who demand that the former shah return to Iran to stand trial.