Pledge of Allegiance

By silvesd
  • Hitler Bans (from what I don't know) Jehovah's Witnesses for refusal to join in flag saluting exercises

  • Joseph Rutherford (American Leader of Jehovah's Witnesses) denounces compulsory flag salute laws and asks all American Mitnessess to refuse to comply.

    The old version of reciting the Pledge had students place their right hand over their chest and slowly raise their hand, arm outstretched, toward the flag. Looked very similar to Nazi salutes and fell out of favor.
  • Lillian & William Gobitas (both Jehovah's Witnessess) take Rutherfords advice and begin refraining from daily recital of Pledge.

  • Minersville Superintendent of Schools asks School Board to create new policy making flag salutes and Pledge participation mandatory.

  • MInersville School Board makes Flag Slautes mandatory

  • Lillian and William Gobitas are expelled from school

  • Mr. Gobitas sues in District Court and wins. Minersville appeals decision.

  • Mr Gobitas wins again in Federal Court of Appeals

  • Gobitis Case heard by Supreme Court (Clerk spelled Gobitas name wrong)

    Question: "Did the mandatory flag salute infringe upon liberties protected by the First and Fourteenth Amendments?"
  • Supreme Court reverses lower courts with 8-1 Decision

    "National unity is the basis of national security and states retain the constitutional authority to select appropriate means to foster such unity--sometimes at a cost to personal liberty."
  • Supreme Court hears West Virginia v. Barnette case.

    Flag Salutes revisited. "Did the compulsory flag-salute for public schoolchildren violate the First Amendment?"
  • Supreme Court reverses Gobitis case with a 6-3 decision in W.V v. Barnette

    Can't force kids to salute flag.
  • Louis Bowman of Sons of the American Revolution adds "Under God" to the Pledge

  • Red Scare - Communism & Atheism scare Americans

    With the onset of the Cold War Americans grow fearful of Communism spreading and our religious liberties infringed upon.
  • Luke Hart (Supreme Knight) of the Knights of Columbus adds "under God" to their pledge and forwards it on to Congressman Edmund Radwan (NY) who enters it in the Congressional Record

  • Michigan Representative Louis Rabault (D) introduced House Joint Resolution 243 proposing "under God" be added to the Pledge.

  • Pastor George M. Docherty (President Eisenhowers pastor) gave a rousing sermon at his church in Wash DC reviving the "under God" movement

  • Michigan Senator Homer Ferguson (R) introduces his own joint resolution supporting "Under God"

  • President Eisenhower signs Joint Resolution inserting "Under God" into the Pledge

    The President states "millions of schoolchildren will daily proclaim in every city and town...the dedication of our nation and our people to the Almighty."
  • Michael Newdow sues in Federal Court as "next friend" of his daughter stating that "under God" in the Pledge was unconstitutional

  • Michael Newdow wins his case in the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals which effectivley bans recitiation of the Pledge with "under God" still in it. This was effective in all states falling under the 9th Circuits jursidiction.

  • Michigan Senate passes a Concurrent Resolution urging the Supreme Court to reverse the 9th Circuits decision.

  • Supreme Court decides that Michael Newdow does not have "standing" and therefore cannot sue on behalf of his daughter. This reverses the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals decision.

    "Standing" means the right to bring a case to trial. With "standing" you show actual harm.
  • Simple Resolution of U.S. Senate "expressing Support for the Pledge of Allegiance."

  • Governor Snyder signs SB 637 and HB 4934

    Schools are required to have a United States flag displayed in every classroom. The districts are required to "ensure that an opportunity to recite the Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag of the United States is offered each school day." Note* The state did not provide funding to ensure that there would be flags in every classroom. Flags were paid for by Veterans Groups, Community Organizations and Local Citizens.
  • Students at P-CEP begin the 2013-14 school year by reciting the Pledge of Allegiance.