Period 9 1980-Present

  • Religious Fundamentalism

    Religious Fundamentalism
    A religious movement where objectives were to return to the foundations of the faith and to influence state policy where every word of the bible is interpreted literally
  • Sandinistas

    Was a socialist group in Nicaragua and funded by the CIA
  • PLO

    Palestinian organization aimed to liberate Palestine with violence against Israel
  • Nuclear Proliferation

    Nuclear Proliferation
    The spread of nuclear weapons to new nations
  • Yasser Arafat

    Yasser Arafat
    Chairman of the PLO
  • Walter Mondale

    Walter Mondale
    Vice President of Jimmy Carter
  • California v. Bakke

    California v. Bakke
    Imposed limitations on affirmative action to ensure that providing greater opportunities for minorities did not come at the expense of the rights of the majority
  • Saddam Hussein

    Saddam Hussein
    The leader of Iraq during the middle of the Cold War. Although initially supported by the U.S. to fight Iran, his invasion of Kuwait made him a prime enemy of America.
  • Moral Majority

    Moral Majority
    A political group made up of fundamentalist Christians
  • AIDS

    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Cases were beginning to be reported in America, but the Reagan administration chose to do little about the growing epidemic.
  • Brady Bill

    Brady Bill
    Gun-control law named for presidential aide James Brady who had been wounded and disabled by gunfire in the assassination attempt on Reagan.
  • Glasnost and Perestroika

    Glasnost and Perestroika
    Reformation in the Communist party to be more open and transparent
  • Ronald Reagan

    Ronald Reagan
    40th President of the United States
  • Supply Side Economics

    Supply Side Economics
    Economic growth can be affected​ by lowing taxes and decreasing regulation
  • PACTO Strike

    PACTO Strike
    Air traffic controllers went on strike and it was declared illegal by Reagan Presidency.
  • Trick Down Economics

    Trick Down Economics
    The theory​ that advocates reducing taxes on businesses as a means to stimulate investment
  • Economic Recovery Tax Act

    Economic Recovery Tax Act
    lowered income tax rates and allowed for incentives for small business and incentives for saving
  • Sandra Day O'Connor

    Sandra Day O'Connor
    First Woman to serve on the Supreme Court.
  • Boland Amendment

    Boland Amendment
    Amendments to limit U.S assistance to Contras in Nicaragua
  • SDI

    Strategic Defense Initiative to protect the ​U.S from ICBMs
  • Beirut bombings

    Beirut bombings
    Terrorist attacks against housings in Lebanon against the ​U.S and French Troops.
  • Geraldine Ferraro

    Geraldine Ferraro
    Running mate for Walter Mondale as Vice president
  • Iran-Contra Affair

    Iran-Contra Affair
    Scandal in which the U.S sold arms to Iran and the funds would be used to fund anti-contra​ movements.
  • Mikhail Gorbachev

    Mikhail Gorbachev
    The leader​ of the Soviet Union and eventual President of the Soviet Union.
  • Immigration Act of 1986

    Immigration Act of 1986
    outlawed the hiring of undocumented immigrants, but offered legal status to aliens who had lived in the U.S. for five years.
  • William Rehnquist

    William Rehnquist
    American Chief Justice in the Supreme Court
  • Tear Down that Wall

    Tear Down that Wall
    Speech by Ronald Reagan to tear down Berlin Wall in Berlin.
  • INF agreement

    INF agreement
    Treaty between USSR and USA over the elimination of medium and small range missles
  • "Read my lips, no new taxes."

    "Read my lips, no new taxes."
    said by George​ H. W. Bush at the 1988 Republican National Convention as he accepted the nomination on August 18.
  • Al-Qaeda

    An international alliance of anti-Western Islamic fundamentalist terrorist organizations
  • Osama Bin Laden

    Osama Bin Laden
    Arab terrorist who established al-Qaeda and was accused of planning the terrorist attacks on 9-11. Killed in 2011 in a covert assassination by US Seal Team 6 coordinated by President Barrack Obama.
  • Panama Invasion

    Panama Invasion
    The U.S sent in Marines to Panama to topple President Manuel Noriega, who was deeply involved in the drug trade. The action was taken because the U.S needed a stable government to complete the transfer of the Panama Canal to the control of the Panamanian gov't
  • Tiananmen Square

    Tiananmen Square
    A suppression of Chinese democrats by the PLA. It caused much condemning from western nations including the U.S.
  • George H.W Bush

    George H.W Bush
    Was the 41st president of the United States
  • Fall of the Berlin Wall

    Fall of the Berlin Wall
    The fall of the wall marked an end to Soviet influence in the country and allowed for Germany to become reunited
  • Lech Walesa

    Lech Walesa
    Polish president who co-founded Solidarity, the Soviet bloc's first independent trade union
  • Internet

    The use of the Internet exploded when British scientist Tim Berners-Lee developed what became known as the "World Wide Web."
  • Americans with Disabilities Act

    Americans with Disabilities Act
    This act banned discrimination against the disabled in employment and mandated easy access to all public and commercial buildings.
  • Breakup of the Soviet Union

    Gorbachev decreased nuclear arsenals, Communist Party lost power, Boris Yeltsin (president of Russian Republic) led Muscovites to take control.
  • Persian Gulf War

    Persian Gulf War
    After Iraq invaded Kuwait, the US invaded Iraq to liberate Kuwait; Iraq set Kuwait's oil fields on fire so the Americans couldn't gain the oil; this conflict caused the US to set military bases in Saudi Arabia.
  • EU

    Economic union between countries in Europe for mutual gain. European Union.
  • Deficit Reduction Budget

    Deficit Reduction Budget
    Law that mandated automatic spending cuts if the government failed to meet fixed deficit reduction goals leading to a balanced budget
  • Boris Yeltsin

    Boris Yeltsin
    First President of the Russian Federation from 1991 to 1999
  • Start 1 & 2

    Start 1 & 2
    START I is the U.S.-Soviet Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty. First treaty to provide for deep reductions of U.S. and Soviet/Russian strategic nuclear weapons. START II established a limit on strategic weapons for each Party.
  • Clarence Thomas

    Clarence Thomas
    An African American jurist, and a strict critic of affirmative action. He was nominated by George H. W. Bush to be on the Supreme Court in 1991, and shortly after was accused of sexual harassment by Anita Hill. Second African American to hold a seat in the SC.
  • Welfare Reform

    Welfare Reform
    Legislation that made deep cuts in welfare grants and required able-bodied welfare recipients to find employment. Part of Bill Clinton's campaign platform.
  • Ross Perot

    Ross Perot
    Ran on the independent ticket for the 1992 Presidential election.
  • West Bank and the Gaza Strip

    West Bank and the Gaza Strip
    Oslo Accords made agreement (1993) where Israel gave Palestinian self-rule in Gaza Strip and West Bank
  • Hillary Clinton

    Hillary Clinton
    wife of President Bill Clinton, she was also the First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001 and also headed the committee of health-care reform.
  • Failure of Health Reform

    Failure of Health Reform
    Was under the Clinton Administration and required each US citizen and permanent resident alien to become enrolled in a qualified health plan
  • Bill Clinton

    Bill Clinton
    First democratic president since Jimmy Carter and a self-proclaimed activist. 42nd president of the United States.

    North American Free Trade Agreement. Established free trade zone between Canada, United States and Mexico, net gain in jobs due to opening of Mexican markets
  • "Don't ask, don't tell."

    "Don't ask, don't tell."
    The policy was intended as a "compromise" — one that purports to restrict the United States military from "witch-hunting" secretly gay, lesbian, and bisexual service members or applicants, while absolutely barring "openly" gay or bisexual people from joining the military.
  • Contract with America

    Contract with America
    Proposed smaller government, Congressional ethics reform, term limits, great emphasis on personal responsibility, and a general repudiation of the Democratic party. by Newt Gingrich.
  • Oklahoma City Bombing

    Oklahoma City Bombing
    Truck-bomb explosion that killed 168 people in a federal office building
  • Newt Gingrich

    Newt Gingrich
    controversial Republican Speaker of the House
  • Bob Dole

    Bob Dole
    Attorney and retired United States Senator from Kansas, longest serving Republican leader. Was the 1996 presidential nominee for the Republican party but lost to Bill Clinton
  • Taliban

    The protectors of Al Qaeda. They were a Pakistan-based movement of strict and militant Muslims, and they had controlled Afghanistan since 1996.
  • Kyoto Accord

    Kyoto Accord
    Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change dealing with global warming. It is an environmental treaty.
  • G-8

    Group of Eight. An international organization of the leading capitalist industrial nations: US, Britain, Germany, France, Italy, Japan, Canada, Russia. Largely controlled the world's major international financial organizations: World Bank, IMF, and GATT.
  • Madeleine Albright

    Madeleine Albright
    The first woman to serve as secretary of state
  • Clinton Impeachment

    Clinton Impeachment
    The House narrowly approved 2 counts of impeachment; lying to the grand jury and obstructing justice
  • "Ethnic Cleansing"

    "Ethnic Cleansing"
    Process in which more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region
  • Bosnia and Kosovo

    Bosnia and Kosovo
    hundreds of thousands of members of ethnic and religious minorities were killed in a process that was labeled "ethnic cleansing".
  • WTO

    World Trade Organization. International trade organization that prompted strong protests from anti-global trade forces in Seattle, Washington.
  • Bush v. Gore

    Bush v. Gore
    Because of the closeness in the election of 2000, Gore ordered that ballots be recounted in Florida because of a potential mistake. The Florida Supreme Court authorized a recount in all counties. Result: Such a recount is unconstitutional because there is no standard set in the Constitution to do such nor does the state of Florida have the right to set up a new election law.
  • Al Gore

    Al Gore
    Was Clinton's vice-president and a candidate for the 2000 presidential election. His running caused one of the closest elections in history and a fiasco with the voting system.
  • George W Bush

    George W Bush
    43rd President of the United States
  • 9/11

    Two planes hit the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, causing them to collapse. One plane crashed into the Pentagon in Washington, DC, and the fourth, overtaken by passengers, crashed into a field in rural Pennsylvania. Terrorist attacks.
  • No Child Left Behind

    No Child Left Behind
    An education bill created and signed by the George W. Bush administration. Designed to increase accountability standards for primary and secondary schools, the law authorized several federal programs to monitor those standards and increased choices for parents in selecting schools for their children. Linked results on standardized to federal funding for schools and school districts.
  • Enron

    Enron had manipulated energy prices in California to create a fake crisis, along with other illegal deceptions. These illegal acts were unearthed after the company filed for bankruptcy in 2001.
  • Bush Tax Cuts

    Bush Tax Cuts
    Two laws passed in 2001 and 2003 that reduced taxes for virtually every American:
    1) cut income tax rates;
    2) eliminate estate tax;
    3) reduce taxes on capital gains and dividends
  • Homeland Security

    Homeland Security
    US federal agency created in 2002 to coordinate national efforts against terrorism.
  • "Axis of Evil"

    "Axis of Evil"
    Used by George W. Bush in his State of the Union address to describe gov'ts that his administration accused of sponsoring terrorism and seeking weapons of mass destruction.
  • Abu Ghraib Prison

    Abu Ghraib Prison
    An Iraqi Prison where some Iraqi prisoners of war were abused by their American guards and interrogators.
  • Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Operation Iraqi Freedom
    A protracted military conflict in Iraq that began in 2003 with an attack by a coalition of forces led by the United States and that resulted in the overthrow of Saddam Hussein's regime.
  • John Kerry

    John Kerry
    Decorated Vietnam War veteran who lost the 2004 presidential election.
  • Hurricane Katrina

    Hurricane Katrina
    Natural disaster that decimated New Orleans; the Bush administration was widely criticized for its slow and insufficient response to the emergency.
  • Great Recession

    Great Recession
    Due to the pop of the housing bubble and bank's risky investment into loans, the banks also began to falter. Wages and jobs decrease, creating a downward spiral
  • Tea Party

    Tea Party
    An American political movement known for its conservative positions and its role in the Republican Party. Members of the movement have called for a reduction of the U.S. national debt and federal budget deficit by reducing government spending, and for lower taxes.
  • Housing Bubble

    Housing Bubble
    The Federal Reserve lowered interest rates in response to the end of the technology surge, encouraging investors to purchase real estate, causing another "bubble" and increased housing prices.
  • Sarah Palin

    Sarah Palin
    Ran for Republican VP in the 2008 election
  • D.C. V. Heller

    D.C. V. Heller
    held that the Second Amendment protects an individual right to possess a firearm unconnected with service in a militia, and to use that firearm for traditionally lawful purposes, such as self- defense within the home.
  • Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac

    Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac
    Reassured investors who were worried about homeowners defaulting on mortgages by selling bonds to investors and using the funds to purchase mortgages from banks
  • WMD's

    Weapons of mass destruction
  • John McCain

    John McCain
    Republican nominee for President of the United States in the 2008 election
  • Sonia Sotomayor

    Sonia Sotomayor
    Associate Justice of the Supreme Court. First Latina justice
  • Barack Obama

    Barack Obama
    44th President of the United States
  • Affordable Care Act

    Affordable Care Act
    An expansion of Medicaid, most of employers must provide health insurance, have insurance or face surtax, prevents rejection based on pre-existing condition.
  • Dodd-Frank Act

    Dodd-Frank Act
    Congress enacted this act in response to the collapse of the economy that began with the 2007 meltdown of the mortgage lending market.
  • Citizens United

    Citizens United
    Court rules that corporations have first amendment right to spend as much as they like in elections.
  • Syrian Civil War

    Syrian Civil War
    The Syrian leader, Bashar al-Assad used poisonous gas on the people in the country who were rising up against him. Military action was avoided when the Syrians agreed to give up all their chemical weapons.
  • Arab Spring

    Arab Spring
    A revolutionary wave of protests and demonstrations overtaking dictators in the Middle East
  • Mitt Romney

    Mitt Romney
    Republican nominee for 2012 election
  • Debt Ceiling

    Debt Ceiling
    Legislative mechanism to limit the amt debt that can be issued by Treasury by limiting money gov't can borrow.
  • Shelby County v. Holder

    Shelby County v. Holder
    concerned constitutionality of two parts of the Voting Rights Act, one struck down because it was outdated and potentially limited voters' rights.
  • Boston Marathon Bombing

    Boston Marathon Bombing
    2 homemade bombs detonated 12 seconds and 210 yards apart at 2:49 p.m., near the finish line of the annual Boston Marathon, killing three people and injuring several hundred others. terrorist attack
  • Same-sex marriage

    Same-sex marriage
    Legalized in 2015