Mueggenborg Unit 5: 1914-Present

  • Period: to


    Was a pre-eminent political and ideological leader of India during the Indian independence movement. His philosophy was firmly founded upon ahimsa (nonviolence). His philosophy and leadership helped India gain independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world.
  • Period: to


    cause of WWI was assasination of France Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungray. Both Aust-Hung & Serbia had been fighting over Bosnia and A-H used the assassin. as excuse to declare war on Serb. To defend Serb, Russia declared war on A-H; however, their military plans also included attack on Germany, so they also declared war against Germ.
    In return Germ declares war on Russia. However, Germ's plan for an invasion of R uncluded an invasion of France. They declared war on France.
  • Period: to

    Russian Revolution

    Series of Revolutions in Russia. It destroyed the Tsarist autocracy and led to the creation of the Soviet Union. The Tsar was deposed and replaced by a provisional government in the first revolution of February. In the second revolution, during October, the Provisional Government was removed and replaced with a Bolshevik gov't.
  • Wilson's 14-Point Plan

    Was a speech delivered by United States President Woodrow Wilson to a joint session of Congress. The address was intended to assure the country that the Great War was being fought for a moral cause and for postwar peace in Europe. People in Europe generally welcomed Wilson's intervention, but his Allied colleagues were skeptical of the applicability of Wilsonian idealism.
  • Period: to

    Nelson Mandela

    President of South Africa, 1st president to be elected in a fully representative democratic election. Before his presidency, he was an anti-apartheid activist, and the leader of Umkhonto we Sizwe (armed wing of the African National Congress).
    He was arrested, convicted of sabotage and o/ = life in prison but served 27 years.
    After his release, he led his party in the negotiations that led to multi-racial democracy in 1994.
  • Treaty of Versailles

    Was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. The other Central Powers on the German side of World War I were dealt with in separate treaties.
  • Period: to

    Hitler comes to Power

    Began in Germany when Hitler joined the political party, Deutsche Arbeiterpartei. It was anti-marxist and was opposed to the democratic post-war government of the Weimar Republic and the Treaty of Versailles; and it advocated extreme nationalism and Pan-Germanism as well as virulent anti-Semitism.
  • Period: to

    Chinese Civil War

    Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party) vs. the governing party of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China, for the control of China which eventually led to China's division into two Chinas, Republic of China (Taiwan) and People's Republic of China.
    Last 3 years, War of Liberation
  • Period: to

    Stalin's 5-Year Plans

    Were a series of nation-wide centralized exercises in rapid economic development in the Soviet Union. The plans were developed by a state planning committee based on the Theory of Productive Forces that was part of the general guidelines of the Communist Party for economic development.
  • Period: to

    Great Depression

    Was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. It was the longest, most widespread, and deepest depression of the 20th century. It originated in the U.S starting with the fall in stock prices, then it became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929. It spread rapidly to almost every country in the world.
  • Period: to

    League of Nations

    Was an intergov't organ. founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended World War I, and it was the precursor to the United Nations. The main principal was to maintain world peace. The main goals are preventing war through collective security, disarmament, and settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration. O/ issues are labor conditions, treatment of native inhabitants, drug & people trafficking, arms trade, global health, prisoners of war, protect. minorities
  • Period: to


    Allies vs. Axis powers. The most widespread war in history, more than 100 million military personnel mobilised. In a state of "total war," the major participants placed their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities at the service of the war effort, distinction between civilian and military resources.
    Invasion of Poland by Germ & Slovakia.
    Subsequent declar. of war on Germ by France & British Emp.
    Germ Emp conquered big land in Europe.
  • Period: to

    Mao Zedong & Maoism

    Was a Chinese revolutionary, guerrilla warfare strategist, poet, political theorist, and leader of the Chinese Revolution. He was the architect and founding father of the People's Republic of China. He held authoritarian control over the nation until his deathin 1976. His theoretical contribution to Marxism-Leninism, along with his military strategies and brand of political policies, are now collectively known as Maoism.
  • Creation of Pakistan

    it was carved out of the two Muslim-majority wings in the eastern and northwestern regions of British India and comprising the provinces of Balochistan, East Bengal, the North-West Frontier Province, West Punjab and Sindh. The controversial, and ill-timed, division of the provinces of Punjab and Bengal caused communal riots across India and Pakistan.
  • Period: to

    Cold War

    Political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition between the Communist World (USSR) vs. Western World (U.S). Theyy expressed the conflict through military coalitions, strategic conventional force deployments, extensive aid to states deemed vulnerable, proxy wars, espionage, propaganda, conventional and nuclear arms races, appeals to neutral nations, rivalry at sports events, and technological competitions such as the Space Race.
  • Indian Independence

    Political organizations, philosophies, and movements which had the common aim of ending first, East India Company, then British colonial authority in parts of South Asia.
  • NATO

    North Atlantic Treaty Organization is an intergovern't military alliance. The organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party.
  • Period: to

    Great Leap Forard

    of the People's Republic of China, was an economic and social campaign of the Communist Party of China, reflected in planning decisions which aimed to use China's vast population to rapidly transform the country from an agrarian economy into a modern communist society through the process of agriculturalization, industrialization, and collectivization.
    Mao Zedong was the Leader.
  • Period: to

    Korean War

    Was a military conflict between South Korea (supported by the U.S) and North Korea (supported by the People's Republic of China) with military material aid from the Soviet Union. The war was a result of the physical division of Korea by an agreement of the victorious Allies at the conclusion of the Pacific War at the end of World War II.
  • Period: to

    Warsaw Pact

    The treaty was a mutual defense treaty subscribed to by eight communist states in Eastern Europe. It was established at the USSR’s initiative and realized, Warsaw. It was a military analogue for CoMEcon and the communist (east) european economic community. The Warsaw Treaty was the Soviet Bloc’s military response to West Germany’s integration to the NATO Pact, per the Paris Pacts of 1954.
  • Period: to

    Vietnam War

    Was a Cold War era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia to the fall of Saigon. North Vietnam (supp. by communist allies) vs. gov't of South Vietnam (supported by U.S and ant-communist nations).
    The Vietnam People's Army engaged in a more conventional war. U.S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces, artillery and airstrikes.
  • Period: to

    Bay of Pigs

    Was an unsuccessful action by a CIA-trained force of Cuban exiles to invade southern Cuba, with support and encouragement from the US government, in an attempt to overthrow the Cuban government of Fidel Castro. The Cuban armed forces, trained and equipped by Eastern Bloc nations, defeated the invading combatants within three days.
  • Period: to

    Berlin Wall

    Was a barrier constructed by the German Democratic Republic that completely cut off West Berlin from surrounding East Germany and from East Berlin. The Soviet-dominated Eastern Bloc officially claimed that the wall was erected to protect its population from fascist elements conspiring to prevent the "will of the people" in building a socialist state in East Germany. IN practice, the Wall served to prevent the massive emigration and defection that marked Germany and communist E. Block
  • Period: to

    Cuban Missle Crisis

    Was a confrontation among the Soviet Union, Cuba and the United States, during the Cold War. After some unsuccessful operations by the U.S. to overthrow the Cuban regime, the Cuban and Soviet governments began to surreptitiously build bases in Cuba for a number of medium-range and intermediate-range ballistic nuclear missiles with the ability to strike most of the U.S continent.
  • Period: to

    Juan Peron

    Was an Argentine military officer, and politician. Perón was succeeded by his wife and Vice President of Argentina María Estela Martínez.
  • Period: to

    Helsinki Accords

    Was the final act of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe held in Helsinki, Finland. Thirty-five states, including the USA, Canada, and all European states except Albania and Andorra, signed the declaration in an attempt to improve relations between the Communist bloc and the West.
  • Period: to

    Islamic Revolution (Iran)

    Refers to events involving the overthrow of Iran's monarchy (Pahlavi dynasty) under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and its replacement with an Islamic republic under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the leader of the revolution.
  • Period: to

    Iran-Iraq War

    Was an armed conflict between the armed forces of Iraq and Iran.
    Iraq invaded Iran, border disputes, and fears of Shia insurgency among Iraq's long-suppressed Shia majority influenced by the Iranian Revolution. Iraq was also aiming to replace Iran as the dominant Persian Gulf state.
  • Period: to

    Tiananmen Square

    Were a series of demonstrations in and near Tiananmen Square in Beijing in the People's Republic of China. The movement used mainly non-violent methods and can be considered a case of civil resistance. Led mainly by students and intellectuals, the protests occurred in the year that was to see the collapse of a number of communist governments in eastern Europe.
  • Period: to

    Reunification of Germany

    The German Democratic Republic joined the Federal Republic of Germany, and when Berlin reunited into a single city. The end of the unification process is officially referred to as German unity
  • Period: to

    USSR Disintegrates

    Was a process of systematic disintegration, which occurred in its economy, social structure and political structure. It resulted in the destruction of the Soviet Federal Government ("the Union centre") and independence of the USSR's republics. The process was caused by weakening of the Soviet government, which led to disintegration.
  • September, 11 2001

    Were a series of coordinated suicide attacks by al-Qaeda upon the United States. Targets were the Two World Trade Center Towers, Pentagon and unsuccesful aim for The White House/Capital Building. 3,000 victims died.