Israel & Egypt

By katyy
  • 🇵🇸Sykes-Picot Agreement

    It was the division of territory in the Middle East so far under Ottoman influence between France, Russia, and Great Britain with the goal of establishing an Arab State.
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    First Phase of the Arab-Israeli Conflict

    Internal conflicts between Jews and Arabs in Palestine before 1948
  • 🇮🇱 Balfour Declaration

    🇮🇱 Balfour Declaration
    It was a declaration of Great Britain to create a Jewish national home in Palestine, on the same land promised to an Arab state, therefore it can be seen as the root of the Arab-Israeli conflict.
  • 🇵🇸 Armistice of the Ottoman Empire with Russia and Great Britain

    It was the end of Ottoman rule over the Middle East, which gave way to the European powers carrying out the Sykes-Picot Agreement.
  • 🇮🇱 🇵🇸 Peace Conference of Paris

    🇮🇱 🇵🇸 Peace Conference of Paris
    On the conference, the Entente powers decided the official division of the territory in the Middle East: Great Britain got the Mandate for Palestinian territory, which was confirmed by the League of Nations in 1922.
  • 🇪🇬 Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence

    Egypt, before a "Veiled Protectorate" of Great Britain, was declared independent by the British, making Sultan Ahmad Fuad I the king of Egypt.
  • 🇪🇬 New Constitution for Egypt

    The new constitution was announced by king Fuad I, which established a parliamentary representative system in Egypt with a balance of power between king and government.
  • 🇪🇬 Assassination of Sir Lee Stack

    Sir Lee Stack commanded the British troops in Egypt and, following his assassination, Great Britain made demands, e.g. removing Egyptian troops from Sudan.
  • 🇮🇱 🇵🇸 Strike of Arab dockers

    In autumn, Arab dockers discovered weapons on a ship, clearly meant for the Jewish underground, which resulted in a strike inspiring strikes elsewhere, which ultimately lead to the uprising the following spring.
  • 🇵🇸 🇮🇱 Uprising of Arabs in spring

    The spring insurrection was the first violent opposition of a Jewish state in Palestine as well as the British Mandate, which was only crushed in 1939 due to the British having to resolve the growing tensions in Europe first before dealing with Palestine.
  • 🇪🇬 Anglo-Egyptian Treaty

    It was signed after the death of king Fuad I and included agreements about withdrawal of British troops from Egypt, except some forces to protect the Suez Canal.
  • 🇮🇱 🇵🇸 Suggestion of Partition by the Peel Commission

    🇮🇱 🇵🇸 Suggestion of Partition by the Peel Commission
    The Peel Commission, formed to investigate the sources of the uprising of Arabs in Palestine, came to the conclusion that Arabs rejected a Jewish state and that the British mandate with promises to both parties could not work, therefore they suggested a partition of the country, cautiously accepted by Jews, but fiercely rejected by Arabs.
  • 🇮🇱 🇵🇸 "White Paper" from the British government

    It was a response to the Arab insurrection of spring 1936, which basically withdrew all concessions from the Balfour declaration to fulfil Arab demands to some extent by limiting Jewish immigration and land acquisition.
  • 🇪🇬 Signing of the "Alexandria Protocol"

    This was an agreement between Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan, to militarily protect the states' sovereignty as well as strengthening collaboration among them.
  • 🇪🇬 🇮🇱 🇵🇸 Formation of the Arab League

    The official formation of the Arab League took place after the Cairo Conference with Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Jordan, Iraq, Syria, and Lebanon being the founding members. Central points were improved collaboration as well as no partition of Palestine.
  • 🇵🇸 🇮🇱 UN confirms partition plan of Palestine

    The United Nations General Assembly voted with a majority for the partition plan, which was followed by the formation of the UN Palestine Commission to establish governments and oversee their work on the way to creating two separate states.
  • 🇮🇱 🇵🇸 Start of the Civil War between Arabs and Jews in Palestine

    Arab inhabitants opposed the partition plan while Jews celebrated getting their own state, which led to a Civil War between Zionist and Arab forces. That contributed to the "Nakba" but also to a shortage of food and water in Jewish settlements due to Arab forces blocking roads.
  • 🇵🇸 🇮🇱 "Nakba": the "Catastrophe"

    🇵🇸 🇮🇱 "Nakba": the "Catastrophe"
    The mass displacement of Palestinian Arabs during the Civil War and following War of Independence was named "Nakba". The debate about whether it was a flight due to fear, voluntary migration to Arab territories or forced expulsion is as controversial as unsolved. Numbers of displaced persons vary between 600.000 and more than 800.000 depending on the source.
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    Second Phase of the Arab-Israeli Conflict

    Arab-Israeli Interstate wars
  • 🇮🇱 🇵🇸 Massacre of Deir Yassin

    🇮🇱 🇵🇸 Massacre of Deir Yassin
    A massacre of about 100 inhabitants of the Arab village Deir Yassin committed by the radical Zionist Irgun group and Stern gang with reference to operation "Nachshon", which was a part of a military offensive to get the roads to Jerusalem under Jewish control. It spread the fear of Jewish troops across the country.
  • 🇮🇱 Declaration of Independence of the State of Israel

    🇮🇱 Declaration of Independence of the State of Israel
    As the last British troops left the country on this day, an independent Jewish state, the State of Israel, was declared by David Ben Gurion in Tel Aviv. Ben Gurion became the first prime minister of the parliamentary democratic republic.
  • 🇮🇱 🇵🇸 🇪🇬 Invasion of Israel by countries of the Arab League

    🇮🇱 🇵🇸 🇪🇬 Invasion of Israel by countries of the Arab League
    Transjordan, Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, and Iraq invaded Israel as a response to their declaration of independence, claiming to protect the Palestinians (Arabs) from the brutality of the Zionists. The invasion represented the start of the War of Independence.
  • First truce of the War of Independence

    The time was used by Ben Gurion to unite the different paramilitary forces into the Israel Defense Forces, the official army of the new state. Therefore, he could overwhelm the Arab armies after the end of the truce, though violating the ceasefire agreements by this. Also Egypt strengthened its position during the truce breaking the agreement as well, so the war continued after 28 days on July 8.
  • 🇮🇱 🇪🇬 Series of Armistices

    The first one was signed in February between Egypt and Israel, followed by Lebanon and Jordan, and eventually Syria on the 20th of July. These agreements defined the new borders, allocating more territory to Israel than envisioned in the UN partition plan.
  • 🇪🇬 Coup d'état in Egypt

    🇪🇬 Coup d'état in Egypt
    Mohamed Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser instigated a coup d'état against the king, seizing power, which made Nasser prime minister under Naguib. Their ultimate goal was to remove British influence from the area. Two years later, Nasser became the head of state following another coup. He transformed Egypt into a socialist republic under USSR influence and threatened to nationalize the Suez Canal.
  • 🇪🇬 🇮🇱 Nationalization of the Suez Canal by Egypt

    🇪🇬 🇮🇱 Nationalization of the Suez Canal by Egypt
    By dispossessing the operating company and closing the Straits of Tiran, Israels connection to the Red Sea, Nasser realized his earlier threat. Israel, France, and Great Britain constructed a plan to get the control back and to extend Israel's influence in the Sinai area.
  • 🇮🇱 🇪🇬 Israeli attack on Egypt

    🇮🇱 🇪🇬 Israeli attack on Egypt
    The attack was part of the plan to gain control over the Suez Canal and was also militarily supported by Great Britain and France, but the US and USSR quickly forced a withdrawal of the armies and an armistice. Therefore, their influence was extended and Nasser celebrated as hero in the Arab world, while Israel, France, and Great Britain were humiliated.
  • 🇵🇸 Foundation of the Fatah Militia

    Yasser Arafat and Khalil al-Wazir, also called Abu Jihad, founded the militia to defend the Palestinian cause. Their tactic was guerrilla warfare against Israel by launching attacks on Jewish targets.
  • 🇵🇸 Founding of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)

    🇵🇸 Founding of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)
    The PLO was founded as an umbrella organization for the different Palestinian task forces in an attempt to centralize power for a greater impact to destroy Israel. It was also supported by Egypt.
  • 🇪🇬 Pact between Egypt, Syria, Jordan, and Iraq

    In May, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, and Iraq made a pact including the closure of the Straits of Tiran, which Israel regarded as a declaration of war. Additionally, Egyptian channels disseminated propaganda of destroying Israel and troops were assembled at the border, which convinced Israelis that a war was inevitable.
  • 🇮🇱 🇪🇬 Start of the Six-Days War

    🇮🇱 🇪🇬 Start of the Six-Days War
    Israel carried out a pre-emptive strike to surprise Syria, Jordan, and Egypt, that destroyed most of their air forces. That made the Israeli ground offensive more successful, so they could occupy the Sinai area, the Golan Heights and the east half of Jerusalem. On the 10th of June, the war was over.
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    🇪🇬 🇮🇱 War of Attrition

    Nasser was not willing to accept the occupation of the Sinai by Israel, so he launched several attacks on Israeli forces in the area, who responded with attacks on Egypt, which started a guerrilla war lasting for around two years.
  • 🇵🇸 Yasser Arafat became the Chairman of the PLO

    🇵🇸 Yasser Arafat became the Chairman of the PLO
    With Yasser Arafat as head of the PLO, his Fatah militia became the most powerful group, organizing more efficient attacks targeted at Israelis. Additionally, the PLO was increasingly recognized as representation of all Palestinians, which made Arafat a symbolic figure throughout the Arab world as "father of all Palestinians".
  • 🇮🇱 🇪🇬 Israeli rejection of a peace offer from Egypt

    Following the ceasefire in the War of Attrition, Egypt made a peace offer to Israel containing recognition of the State of Israel in exchange for the Sinai area. But Israel declined that offer.
  • 🇮🇱 🇪🇬 Yom Kippur War

    🇮🇱 🇪🇬 Yom Kippur War
    Egypt and Syria launched surprise attacks on Israel, that were quite effective, so Israel got into a defensive position with quickly exhausting resources. Consequently, they asked the US for help, who agreed only after the USSR provided support for Egypt and Syria. With US help, Israel managed to gain the upper hand and win the war, which also had international consequences as Arab states placed an oil embargo on western countries supporting Israel, that caused an energy crisis in the west.
  • 🇮🇱 🇪🇬 Peace Treaty for the Yom Kippur War between Israel and Egypt

    It followed UN resolutions of October to stop the war and showed the necessity of a permanent peace agreement between Egypt and Israel. A peace treaty with Syria followed on May 31, 1974.
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    Third Phase of the Arab-Israeli Conflict

    recurrence of the intrastate conflict between Israelis and the Palestinians
  • 🇮🇱 🇪🇬 "Camp David Accords" between Egypt and Israel

    🇮🇱 🇪🇬 "Camp David Accords" between Egypt and Israel
    With US president Jimmy Carter as mediator, Menachem Begin and Anwar al-Sadat managed to negotiate a peace treaty, ffficially called "Framework for Peace in the Middle East". The accords were considered a historic moment in the Egyptian-Israeli relationship and involved a vow to peacefully settle any conflicts, the right for Palestinian self-governance in the Gaza strip and West Bank, and defined rules for permanent peace agreements with all of Israel's neighbors.
  • 🇪🇬 🇮🇱 Nobel Peace Prize for Anwar al-Sadat and Menachem Begin

    🇪🇬 🇮🇱 Nobel Peace Prize for Anwar al-Sadat and Menachem Begin
    The leaders of Egypt and Israel received the Nobel Peace Prize for their peace agreement that same year.
  • 🇪🇬 🇮🇱 Permanent Peace Agreement between Egypt and Israel

    🇪🇬 🇮🇱 Permanent Peace Agreement between Egypt and Israel
    Following the Camp David Accords, Egypt and Israel negotiated a permanent peace treaty, that officially ended war between the countries. Therefore, it was considered a milestone in the Arab-Israeli conflict. It defined borders, organized the withdrawal of Israeli forces from the Sinai and set regulations for military measures for mutual security.
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    🇮🇱 🇵🇸 Oslo Peace Process

    Negotiations about peace between the PLO as representation of the Palestinians and Israel became known as the Oslo Peace Process after the location of the discussions. It consisted of two agreements to establish a peaceful relationship between Israelis and Palestinians recording the right to self-governance in certain areas. That was another historic event in the Arab-Israeli conflict.
  • 🇮🇱 🇵🇸 Signing of the Oslo Accords I by Israel and the PLO

    🇮🇱 🇵🇸 Signing of the Oslo Accords I by Israel and the PLO
    The essential part of Oslo I was the recognition of the State of Israel by the PLO and in turn the recognition of the PLO as representation of the Palestinians. Additionally, Israel granted them the right to self-governance in the West Bank and Gaza Strip as previously recorded in the Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty of 1979. A Palestinian Authority was created to govern the areas.
  • 🇮🇱 🇵🇸 Nobel Peace Price for Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat

    🇮🇱 🇵🇸 Nobel Peace Price for Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat
    Due to their historic peace negotiations, the prime minister of Israel and the leader of the PLO received the Nobel Peace Prize the year after.
  • 🇮🇱 🇵🇸 Signing of the Oslo Accords II by Israel and the PLO

    The second part specified the first Oslo Accords in terms of how self-governance of Palestinian areas should be carried out as well as security measures for both parties. It was another step towards a more peaceful Middle East.
  • 🇮🇱 Assassination of Yitzhak Rabin

    The Oslo Peace Process was brought to a halt with the assassination of Yitzhak Rabin by a Jewish extremist. Benjamin Netanyahu became Israel's prime minister, who was a critic of the Oslo Accords. Thus, he continued the settlement policy in the West Bank, that counteracted the agreements, which increased tensions between Palestinians and Israelis again and ceased the process for lasting peace, therefore the Arab-Israeli conflict was taken along to the 21st century.