Foreign relations milestones (outside of war )

  • Period: to

    Foreign relations

  • Declaration of Independence

    Declaration of Independence
    US declares independence from Great Britain and dissolves all political bounds, creating a new nation.
  • Treaty of Alliance

    Treaty of Alliance
    France threw its support behind the American rebels in our revolutionary war. We had recently proved ourselves at Saratoga and the France wanted to get back at the English for thier humiliating loss during the French and Indian War. The treaty gave the Americans the protection of French guns, soldiers, financials, and most importantly NAVY. The colonists also agreed to protect France should they go to war with England.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    This treaty officially ended the American war of independence. It made England recognize the new nation and its terms to the new Americans were rather generous so that England would be viewed more favorably by the new nation and to quickly heal the wounds the war has created. The agreement excluded a French representative.
  • Proclamation of Neutrality

    Proclamation of Neutrality
    The Proclamation of Neutrality was a formal announcement issued by United States President George Washington declaring America's neutrality in the conflict between France and Great Britain. It threatened legal proceedings against any American providing assistance to any country at war. During the agreement between the American-French alliance, America had told France that it would aid in any war France would fight in in the future. They then did not.
  • Washington Farewell Adress

    Washington Farewell Adress
    During his Farewell speech Washington made many warnings, those pertaining to foreign policy were those: America should not entangle in foreign alliances, take advantage of our isolated geographic, and avoid especially those of Europe. He reminds treaties to be honored, although not extended, they should be temporary, and he fears an America which bases its decisions off what is best for its allies, not America.
  • X Y Z affair

    X Y Z affair
    A group of diplomats sent from president Adams arrived in France to meet with the King.. Three French agents demanded major concessions from the United States as a condition for continuing bilateral diplomatic relations. The concessions demanded by the French included 50,000 pounds sterling, a $10 million loan from the United States, a $250,000 personal bribe. This was seen as a direct insult to USA, and it led to the Quasi War and alien and sedition acts and the Federalist backlash.
  • Naturalization Act

    Naturalization Act
    This act required that all US residents must first spend 14 years in the US before getting citizenship. It was moved from the former five years. The act attempted to weaken Irish and French vote.
  • Louisiana Purchase

    Louisiana Purchase
    The Louisiana Purchase was a land purchase made by United States president Thomas Jefferson in 1803. He bought the Louisiana territory from France, which was being led by Napoleon Bonaparte at the time, for $15,000,000. At first the men sent to France were allowed to spend up to $10,000,000 in order to buy New Orleans and, if possible, the west bank of the Mississippi River. But then the French government said that for five million more dollars they would sell all of the Louisiana territoty.
  • "damnbargo"

    "damnbargo"
    Officially it was the Embargo Act of 1807, but it was widely known as the "damnbargo". During the Napolionic wars U.S shipping was being abused by both powers, English and French. Jefferson's response was an embargo on all U.S shipping in an attempt to damage both powers. Jefferson preffered this method of economic warefare rather than conventional weapons. This led to federalist backlash
  • Non-intercourse Act

    Non-intercourse Act
    The reactions to the embargo were rather unpleasant , especially from U.S shippers and merchants. So in the last four days of Jefferson's presidency he liften the Embargo on all nations with the exception of England and France.
  • Macon's bill no. 2

    Macon's bill no. 2
    Should either Britain or France remove their trade restrictions on American trade, the US would open trade with that country and continue to avoid trade with the other.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Monroe Doctrine
    The Monroe Doctrine warned off further European colonization and establish American dominance in the Western Hemisphere. It established that any attempts to interfere in the Americas should be met with US force. It also noted that the US should not interfere in Europe; it became a defining moment in US foreign policy. It was written at the time that many Latin American countries began to declare independence from Spain.
  • Texas independence

    Texas independence
    Texas wins its independence from Mexico and established itself as an independent Republic, with huge American influence. The common consesus in Texas is pro American annexation, but many critics emerge.
  • Manifest Destiny

    Manifest Destiny
    Roughly during this time the concept of Manifest Destiny began to pick up more and more support. Manifest destiny was the notion that that the US had a god-given duty to annex and capture land in the West and other parts of North America to spread liberty and freedom throughout the world. This belief was fueled by Polk and the support of Texas annexation.
  • Annexation of Texas

    Annexation of Texas
    President Polk, after much dispute, finally signs a document officially admitting Texas into the Union. Texas was formerly an independent Republic of Texas that was eager to join the Union. The absorbing of another state added to the idea of Manifest Destiny. We then absorbed Texas and its Mexican border disputes.
  • Chineese Exlcusion Act

    Chineese Exlcusion Act
    Passed in 1886. This act shows the peak of anti-Chineese sentiment. This was stirred mainly from American "native" workers who were infuriated with the compeition with "aliens". This act was advocated for the by the Kights of Labor and other Union groups. This act eventually became a law.
  • de Lôme Letter

    de Lôme Letter
    Written by the Spanish Ambassador to the U.S., Enrique Dupuy de Lôme, the de Lôme letter sparked public fervor toward starting a war with Spain. The letter was written to the former Spanish Minister in Cuba. In it, de Lôme portrays McKinley as weak and too docile. Yellow journalists used this letter to over exaggerate hatred toward the Spanish and proceeded to influence the war with Spain.
  • "Open Door" Policy Proclaimed

    "Open Door" Policy Proclaimed
    In September 1899, Secretary Hay asked the European super-powers to not interfere with American shipping rights in China, creating a free market. The reaction was noncommital awnsers but Hay, regardless, announced that they had accepted an "Open Door" policy to China.
  • United States sends troops into China

    United States sends troops into China
    In an effort to supress the "Boxers Rebellion", the United States sent 2,500 soldiers to join with other Eurpean forces to take back Beijing and rescue the occupants. This is the first time that the United States has sent troops into East Asia and worked as an equal with the other international powers.
  • Panama Canal Territory Aquired

    Panama Canal Territory Aquired
    Theodore Roosevelt aquired the land for the Panama Canal from Felippe Bunau-Varilla, the leader of the Panama Revoltuion and new ambassador to the U.S. There is some speculation of a "Gentleman's Agreement" between the two. Panama sold the land to the U.S. forever .
  • Roosevelt Corollary proclaimed

    Roosevelt Corollary proclaimed
    In December 1904, Roosevelt declared that any "chronic wrongdoing" in any Latin American country would justify intervnetion by the U.S. This is an extension of the Monroe doctrine of 1823. The Corollary was first used against the Dominican Republic. The Dominican Republic had just recently fallen into debt to European powers, and these European powers surrounded the island nation. The Roosevelt Corollary was then invoked to take over the Dominican Republic's custom services and manage its debt.
  • Roosevelt negociates Portsmouth treaty

    Roosevelt negociates Portsmouth treaty
    The Russo-Japanese war was being dominated by Japanese forces. Roosevelt feared an unbalanced power in the far east would lead to a constriction of American trade. So, he invited the two nations to a peace conference in Portsmouth, New Hampshire.
  • The Industrial workers of the World

    The Industrial workers of the World
    Nicknamed the Wobblies, they were founded in Chicago. Lead by William "big Bill" Haywood, they were filled with cultural rebels. The IWW led massive strikes, and has a reputation for violence
  • Gentleman's agreement

    Gentleman's agreement
    During 1907, anti-Japanese sentiment was strong in California. The California schools separated Asian students from the other students. This angered many Japanese, who felt disrespected with a sense of inferiority. The solution was a "gentleman's agreement" between the U.S and Japan. The Japanese would lower the amount of immigrants to the U.S and in return the U.S would cease segregating Japanese students from schools.
  • Root-Takahira agreement

    Root-Takahira agreement
    Created between Secretary of State Elihu Root and Japanese Ambassador Takahira, the Root-Takahira Agreement was American recognition of the Japanese territorial holdings(like Korea) and Japanese recognition of American holdings(like The Philippines) in the pacific. It also recognized China’s independence, reinforced the Open-Door policy, and quieted the call for war in both America and Japan.
  • Sinking of the Lusitania

    Sinking of the Lusitania
    German U-Boats sank the British ship Lusitania, a cargo ship, in the beginning years of WWI. The ship carried 1, 959 people, and 1, 198 died, including 128 Americans. America, neutral at the time, was enraged by this incident and bitter feelings toward Germany started to grow.
  • Sinking of the Sussex

    Sinking of the Sussex
    A French passenger ship, the Sussex, was passing through the English Channel when it was sunk by a German submarine. Several Americans were on board and injured. This further infuriated the American public and Wilson threatened to break up diplomatic relations with Germany. In response, Germany promised not to attack merchant vessels without warning, provided that Great Brittan will observe “the rules of international law” as well. Ignoring this remark Wilson proclaimed Germany’s acceptance for
  • Zimmerman Telegram

    Zimmerman Telegram
    A telegram sent from Germany to Mexico declaring that Mexico would get back some of the land it lost in the Mexican-American War if they would declare war on the U.S. This message was translated by Britian and told to the U.S. Wilson was outraged and told Congress to declare war on Germany.
  • US funds, but does not fight the war

    US funds, but does not fight the war
    By this time U.S investments into the Allies has reached $2.3 billion dollars, colossal compared to the 26 million lent to Germany.
  • Selective Service Act

    Selective Service Act
    Requires all men between twenty-one and thirty to register with local army recruitment stations, essentially a draft. Suggested by secretary of war, Newton D. Baker, the first day of drafts wasr refered to by Baker as a "festival and patriotic occasion".
  • Wilson's Fourteen Points

    Wilson's Fourteen Points
    Wilson gave a speech to Congress about what he feels the U.S. wants from the war. Many of Wilson's Fourteen Points were a part of the Treaty of Versailles. The major point was to form a central body to make sure that future wars don't happen aka the League of Nations.
  • Treaty of Versailles/ League of Nations

    Treaty of Versailles/ League of Nations
    The Treaty of Versailles was one of the major peace treaties between Germany and the Allies that ended WWI. Wilson's Fourteen Points were very influencial on the making of this treaty. In his Fourteen Points, he calls for a League of Nations, which is ultimately ratified by a majority of the Allied Powers and some Central Powers, but the U.S. never ratifies it.
  • Attorney General Palmer releases "the case against the reds"

    Attorney General Palmer releases "the case against the reds"
    In this Article Attorney General Palmer goes into detail to describe the efects on communism upon society, referring to "bolsheviki tyranny" and reminding americans that no-one is safe.
  • The senate denies the Treaty of Versailles

    The senate denies the Treaty of Versailles
    Wilson refuses to compromise with Senator Herny Cabot Lodge on the treaty, on the grounds of the league of nations. Henry Cabot Lodge believes it will revoke congress' ability to declare war and will force us into foreign wars. When changes are made for the treaty and it was put forward to the the senate, Wilson defiantly orders his fellow democratic senators to vote it down, it would be his way or no way
  • Washigton Disarmament Conference

    Washigton Disarmament Conference
    Also called the Washington Naval Conference it convened during 1921-1922. At the conference which was called by the United States the issue of the arms race and the idea of keeping peace on the Pacific ocean were discussed. From this conference came the ideal of setting a standard on the desired tonnage that each nation should have, and the desired amount of battleships that each nation should have.
  • 5-5-3-1.75-1.75 ratio

    5-5-3-1.75-1.75 ratio
    5-5-3-1.75-1.75 Were the ratios that were concluded at the end of the Washington Arms Conference. The numbers represent the amount of tonnage for each nation’s supply of battleships. The ratio was 5-United States, 5-Great Brittan, 3- Japan, 1.75-France, 1.75 Italy. The goal of this ratio was to prevent the arms race amongst the navies of the world powers.(picture is of one of the actual conferences)
  • The Dawes plan

    The Dawes plan
    Specified the reperations and payments from Germany to the United States, which was an anual allotment of 2.5 billion gold pieces.The Ruhr area was to be evacuated by Allied occupation troops.The Reichsbank would be reorganized under Allied supervision. This plan brought even more sorrow to the German people which assisted in the rise of Adolf Hitler. (poster reads "break the chains of the dawes plan)
  • Kellogg-Brian Pact

    Kellogg-Brian Pact
    The treaty denounced war between countries to be used as an instrument of national policy, Signed by Frank Kellogg of the United States and Aristicie Briand of France, it sought to change the way countries dealt with their foreign policy. Signed by Germany, Japan, Italy, US, and Brittan
  • US Enacts the Neutrality Acts

    US Enacts the Neutrality Acts
    US passed laws in response to the growing turmoil in Europe and Asia that eventually led to World War II. They were spurred by the growth in isolationism and non-interventionism in the US following its costly involvement in World War I, and sought to ensure that the US would not become engaged again in foreign conflicts.
  • Germany is allowed moratorium on its debt payments

    Germany is allowed moratorium on its debt payments
    Hoover postponed repayment of WW1 debts from Germany to America. This act coincides with the concept that international global forces caused the recession. Hoover not only claims that this is not only for the international economy, but so that mens minds "may swim from fear to confidence"
    (picture is of Germany in great depression)
  • US adopts Social Security

    US adopts Social Security
    Following several European nations including Germany and Brittian, the United States adopts Social Security under FDR, many percieved this program as radically socialistic.
  • quarantine speech

    quarantine speech
    In Chicago F.D.R made a speech about the international community and called for a "quarantine of the aggressor nations". The speech named no specific countries but was obviosly aimed to the axis. Roosevelt suggested the use of a forcefull response of economic pressure, but not outright war. This speech generated much disaproval from the large non-interventionist groups.
  • Destroyers for bases agreement

    Destroyers for bases agreement
    An agreement between the United States and The United Kingdom that the United States would sell United States Navy vessles and in erturn Brittian would give up some land possessions to the United States. This was another step closer to war.
  • America First Commitie

    America First Commitie
    The America First Committee was a response to the growing internationalism developing from the fear of the axis. The Committee’s goal was to prevent us from entangling ourselves in these foreign conflicts and to rather support "fortress America". Charles Lindberg and other prominent members joined this committee.
  • Lend-Lease

    Lend-Lease
    Lend-Lease Act essentially ended the United States neutrality. It provided materials to allied countries including the USSR, or specifically any country that needed assistance fighting the axis powers. A total of 50.1 billion dollars of material was shipped through this program.
  • Atlantic Charter

    Atlantic Charter
    It defined the Allied goals for the post-war world. It was drafted by Britain and the United States, and later agreed to by all the Allies. The Charter stated the ideal goals of the war: no territorial aggrandizement or changes made against the wishes of the people; restoration of self-government to those deprived of it; global cooperation to secure better economic and social conditions for all; freedom of the seas; and abandonment of the use of force, and disarmament of aggressor nations.
  • Executive order 9066

    Executive order 9066
    This was an executive order by the president that authorized secretary of war to prescribe any area as a military zone. This order eventually led to the internment of Japanese Americans both first generations (Issei) and older generations (Nisei). However this only occurred on the west coast with the exception of Hawaii. The internment also included American citizens.
  • Chinese Exclusion Act repealed

    Chinese Exclusion Act repealed
    With the Magnuson Act the Chineese exlclusiona Act was repealed. This was directly caused by the war on Japan and the importance of China as an ally.
  • United Nations Formed

    United Nations Formed
    An international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace. The UN was founded in 1945 after World War II to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between countries. It contains multiple sub-organizations to carry out its missions.
  • Marshall Plan

    Marshall Plan
    Officially know as the European Recovery Program the Marshall Plan gave European countries aid to rebuild thier countries. It was believed that if the countries could rebuild themselves they would be less likely to fall into the Soviet sphere of influence. The Marshall Plan gave these countries economic assistance.
  • Berlin Blockade and Airlift

    Berlin Blockade and Airlift
    During the multinational occupation of post-World War II Germany, the Soviet Union blocked the Western Allies' railway and road access to the sectors of Berlin under Allied control. Their aim was to force the western powers to allow the Soviet zone to start supplying Berlin with food and fuel, thereby giving the Soviets practical control over the entire city. In response, the Western Allies organized the Berlin Airlift to carry supplies to the people in West Berlin.
  • NATO formed

    NATO formed
    North Atlantic Treaty Organization(NATO) was formed as a collective military alliance against any foreign party. It was rivaled by the Warsaw pact. Eisenhowever lead the NATO forces.
  • "Massive Retaliation"

    "Massive Retaliation"
    In the event of an attack from an aggressor, a state would massively retaliate by using a force disproportionate to the size of the attack. The aim of massive retaliation is to deter an adversary from initially attacking. Massive retaliation works on the same principles as mutually assured destruction, with the important caveat that even a minor conventional attack on a nuclear state could conceivably result in all-out nuclear retaliation.
  • US advisors take over training of South Veitnam Army

    US advisors take over training of South Veitnam Army
    At this year the first American advisors enter Vietnam and organize their military forces to repel the "monolithic" communists, and to create a barrier in the domino theory.
  • "New Look" Foreign Policy

    "New Look" Foreign Policy
    The New Look was the name given to the national security policy of the United States during the administration of President Dwight D. Eisenhower. It reflected Eisenhower's concern for balancing the Cold War military commitments of the United States with the nation's financial resources and emphasized reliance on strategic nuclear weapons to deter potential threats, both conventional and nuclear, from the Eastern Bloc of nations headed by the Soviet Union.
  • Sputnik is launched by USSR

    Sputnik is launched by USSR
    The first man-made satellite to go around the Earth. It was made by the Soviet Union.The United States was very surprised when the Soviet Union sent Sputnik into space. It did not want to fall behind, it began spending more money on science and education.This was when the Space Race between the Soviet Union and the United States began.
  • U-2 Incident

    U-2 Incident
    During the Eisenhowever presidency an American U-2 spy plane was flying over Soviet air space, it was shot down by Soviet anti air craft and the pilot survived. Eisenhower claimed that the plane was a weather plane at first, however the Soviets showed the American pilot alive.
  • Peace Corps. founded

    Peace Corps. founded
    Founded by the Kennedy administration, the Peace Corps embodied the ideas of the New Frontier. It was a group of volunteer workers of professions such as teachers, health workers, sanitation engineers, and crop specialists. These people aided forty different third world countries and were "missionaries of democracy". This was an attempt to stop the pandemic of Communist revolutions in third world countries.
  • Bay of Bigs incident

    Bay of Bigs incident
    The Bay of Pigs was an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow the Castro Communist government in Cuba. The CIA trained exiled Cuban rebels to return to Cuba and create an uprising against the Cuban regime; however the attack was a failure because Fidel already knew about it. Kennedy, fearing total war with Cuba and repercussions from Russia, refused to send in American air to provide cover.
  • Flexible Response

    Flexible Response
    The Foreign policy of JFK, Flexible response was very different from the "massive retaliation" that was used previously under Eisenhower. Instead, flexible response allowed for all forms of retaliation, not just nuclear weapons, to respond to the threat. This attempted to lessen the dependence on U.S nuclear weapons to resolve problems.
  • Nikita Khrushchev demands U.S troops leave Berlin

    Nikita Khrushchev demands U.S troops leave Berlin
    Comparing the American troops as a "bone stuck in the throat" Khrushchev threatened war unless the United States and its allies retreated from Berlin. In shock the president returned to America to request an additional $3 billion for defense, rally 150,000 reserves and doubled draft calls. This led and other factors led to the construction of the notorious Berlin Wall.
  • Cuban missile Crisis

    Cuban missile Crisis
    see email
  • Nixon sends positive signs to China...secretly

    Nixon sends positive signs to China...secretly
    Using third party nations such as Romania and Pakistan, Nixon sends positive signals to China using them as a form of proxy.
  • Nixon Secretly bombs Cambodia!

    Nixon Secretly bombs Cambodia!
    Fearing the supply lines between North Vietnam and Cambodia and the Vietcong, Nixon ordered the secret bombing of Cambodia; this tilting their civil war to the benefit of the Communists, ironically.
  • Man (American!) steps foot on moon

    Man (American!) steps foot on moon
    Costing more than $25 billion, the race to the moon finally proved American space superiority and redeemed the US after "flopnik" and "sputnik".
  • Nixon unviels the Nixon Doctrine

    Nixon unviels the Nixon Doctrine
    Also known as the Guam doctrine because it was delivered in Guam, the Nixon doctrine made it known that American would still financially aid its allies in its wars, but would not dedicate its full military support. We can see this Doctrine in Nixon's Vietnamization, where American soldiers would be slowly relieved of duty by Vietnamese soldiers in the Vietnam War. This was also attempted by the French previously and referred to as "juanissement" or yellowing, and did not work.
  • Nixon invades Cambodia!

    Nixon invades Cambodia!
    After the secret bombing of the tiny Asian republic, North Vietnam began to increase troops in the area to assist in the communist civil war, and to escalate the war in Southern Vietnam. Nixon created a joint invasion from South Vietnamese troops and U.S. The invasion enraged anti-war protestors and created massive student riots at both Kent State and Jackson State. It also crumbled the small nation
  • Chinese premier visits North Vietnam

    Chinese premier visits North Vietnam
    Sino-American relations took a nasty downturn when the Chinese premier visited Hanoi, the capial of North Veitnam.
  • "ping-pong" diplomacy

    "ping-pong" diplomacy
    A group of American ping pong players travel to China, marking the first signifigant cultural exchange between the two nations since 1949. The act delighted the average American voter. Most importantly, it convinced the Soveits to lighten up thier own relations with the United States.
  • Nixon takes a trip to China

    Nixon takes a trip to China
    The disengagement of Veitnam by American forces led to a window of oppertunity for American diplomacy in China. The engagement with china would also play on communist country against the other (USSR). He also no longer reffered to it as "red china" but rather as the "People's Republic of China".
  • Arms reduction meeting in Moscow

    Arms reduction meeting in Moscow
    This meeting can be tied to the competition for U.S favor on behalf of both the Soviets and Chinese. The two leaders signed ten agreements, among them was the anti-ballistic missile treaty (ABM), a strategic arms reduction treaty (SALT) which essentially froze further nuclear arms developments, and a billion dollar trade agreement (far from the hatred of American markets that we saw before).
  • Senate ratifies SALT 1

    Senate ratifies SALT 1
    Senate ratifies the arms treaties on Soviet and American nuclear arsenals
  • Salvador Allende is killed in Coup

    Salvador Allende is killed in Coup
    A supporter of Marxism, Allende created fears in Washington of Chile going Communist and joining in the monolithic communist expansion, which already included Cuba. Nixon was given three options by his staff, he could admit Chile as a free country and enforce the idea of self determination, use overt action and go to war with Chile Communists, or use covert action and secretly fund against him. It was very probable that the United States took part in this coup, but it is not proven.
  • OPEC oil embargo

    OPEC oil embargo
    In response to the U.S support of Israel in the Yom Yuppor war, OPEC, a largely Arabic oil producing oil counties commitie, created an Embargo against the U.S. This severely damaged the U.S economy.
  • Nixon goes mad-man-mode

    Nixon goes mad-man-mode
    Frustrated with the stall for a peace treaty, for twelve days in December Nixon attempted to convey the idea that he was insane and would do anything to get what he wanted. The proper way to convey this message was, of course, a ferocious bombing of Hanoi, and giving no reasonable explanation. This "act crazy" image paid off and Hanoi settled down for peace talks in January of 1973.
  • Time Tables for Palestine autonomy created at Camp David

    Time Tables for Palestine autonomy created at Camp David
    While at Camp David (Maryland) Sadat and Begin made negotiations on the Palestinian unrest in Israel. The agreement was under Carter Administration and granted greater autonomy to Palestinians living in the West Bank and Gaza strip, which were acquired by Israel from war. Ratified in 1979 by congress.
  • The Islamic revolution in Iran

    The Islamic revolution in Iran
    The pro-Us Shah is disposed of and is replaced by Ayatollah Khomeini. The former government relentlessly oppressed Marxist groups, now the government relentlessly oppresses non-Islamic groups. The New government is (still today) focused around the Koran and has strong anti-west sentiment, the beginning of worse foreign relations to come.
  • SALT II negotiations

    SALT II negotiations
    SALT II negotiations attempted to slow the production of nuclear weapons further than SALT I. It also banned new missile programs, but the Strategic Defense Initiative. SALT II was the first nuclear arms treaty which assumed real reductions in strategic forces to 2,250 of all categories of delivery vehicles. However this treaty was not passed through the senate because of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.
  • Iran Hostage Crisis

    Iran Hostage Crisis
    The overthrow of Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlevi of Iran by an Islamic revolutionary government earlier in the year had led to a steady deterioration in Iran-U.S. relations. In response to the exiled shah's admission to the United States for medical treatment, a crowd of about 500 seized the embassy.
  • USSR invades Afghanistan

    USSR invades Afghanistan
    Reffered to as the Soviet Union's Vietnam. The war was a proxy war in which the Soviets funded a Marxist, left regime. Afghan Mujahedeen guerillas were unofficially financed for their resistance of the new regime by US, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and many more. More importantly, the invasion caused the boycott of the 1980 Olympics in Moscow. The war made Ford withdraw the SALT II proposal to the senate.
  • Period: to

    Iran-Iraq war

    The war was fought mainly for the domination of oil. It was wage by the new Islamic Iran. Iraq was covertly supplied by U.S weapons from the U.S government. The US favored Iraq in this war so that the anti-west regime (Iran) would have less power.
  • Reagan sends Marines to Lebanon

    Reagan sends Marines to Lebanon
    In response to the Beirut slaughter in which 700-800 unarmed civilians, largely women and children, were slaughtered. Reagan decides to send the marines in as part of a multinational peacekeeping force. Muslims, mostly Shiites saw the U.S peacekeeping forces as too pro-Israel. The forces were trying to push the PLO (Palestinian Liberation Organization) out of the area.
  • Reagan takes Marines out of Lebanon

    Reagan takes Marines out of Lebanon
    Reagan takes U.S marines out of Lebanon after a suicide bomber attacked a poorly defended U.S barracks killing 299 Americans and several French servicemen. The organization Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility for the bombing.
  • Period: to

    Iran-Contra Scandal

    Under Reagan, the U.S replaces Israeli weapons. Israel then sells the old weapons (former Israeli weapons) to Iran. Iran now satisfied uses its influence in Lebanon to release U.S hostages. This cycle was a continuous process. Profits generated by Israel went to the Contras to fight Sandinistas in Nicaragua. Reagan was in favor of funding the Contras, but congress rejected this. The operation was run by Oliver North.
  • Economic Sanctions imposed on South Africa

    Economic Sanctions imposed on South Africa
    Due to the recent segregational apartheid polciy adopted by the Nation of South Africa, the U. S voted on a ban of all corporate investments in the white ruled nation. This effort was supported by Black Civil Rights leaders, and was passed over a Reagan veto.
  • Berlin Wall is taken town, travel is allowed

    Berlin Wall is taken town, travel is allowed
    Deeply symbolic of the end of the Cold War. Berlin was finally re-united not too long after Reagan demanded "tear down this wall"."Wood-peckers" begin to take down parts of the wall to save as souvenirs.
  • USSR dissolves

    USSR dissolves
    The USSR allows more and more freedoms during reform and the most powerful Communist country crumbles leaving all 15 states as sovereign powers. The dissolution of the USSR finally ends the U.S's most powerful enemy.