7314fed5 f6dc 4bf0 9ce7 757908a30800

Eje cronológico 1ª evaluación. Irene Silva Cano 4º C

  • Period: 1492 to

    ANCIEN RÉGIME

    Political, social and economic system of Europe before the French Revolution [16th - 18th centuries]. It was characterized by having the absolute monarchy as a form of goverment and an agrarian economy. Its society was divided into three estates (nobility, clergy and the third estate).
  • Montesquieu

    Montesquieu
    Enlightenment French philosopher who became famous for the publication of “The Spirit of the Laws”, in which he elaborated his theory of the division of powers: legislative, executive and judicial. His work had great influence on the French Revolution.
  • Voltaire

    Voltaire
    He was one of the greatest philosophers of the Enlightenment, who lived in France in the late Modern Age (18th century). He was born in France. He was famous for his advocacy of civil liberties, including freedom of religion and separation of church and state. He wrote “Candide”. His political ideas greatly influenced the French Revolution.
  • Rousseau

    Rousseau
    He was one of the greatest philosophers of th Enlightenment, who lived in France in the late Modern Age (18th century). He was born in Switzerland. He defended the idea that sovereignty should be in people’s hands. He wrote “The Social Contract”. His political ideas greatly influenced the French Revolution.
  • Period: to

    ENLIGHTENMENT

    Intellectual movement that started in France and was spread throughout Europe in the Modern Age [18th century]. It defended the use of reason to explain the world and establish moral codes of conduct, criticizing the structures of the Ancien Régime and religious dogmas. It served as a support for the ideas of Liberalism, and its ideology triggered the French Revolution.
  • Adam Smith

    Adam Smith
    He was one of the greatest philosophers and economists of the Enlightenment, who lived in Scotland (Great Britain) in the late Modern Age (18th century). He was born in Scotland. He argued against the regulation of trade and defended a free-market economy. He wrote “The Wealth of Nations”. He is considered the father of economic liberalism and capitalism.
  • George Washington

    George Washington
    He was the first president of the United States, who lived in USA in the late Modern Age and the early Contemporary Age, during the American Revolution War [18th century]. He was born in Westmoreland county (Virginia, USA) in 1732 and died in 1799. He was the United States’ military leader during the American Revolution War. He led the USA to victory. He is considered one of the America Founding Fathers.
  • James Watt

    James Watt
    He was an engineer and inventor of the steam engine, who lived in the late Modern Age and early Contemporary Age (18th and 19th centuries). He was born in Scotland in 1736 and died in 1819. In 1765 he invented the steam engine and he patented it in 1769. In 1775 he partnered with Boulton, they manufactured lots of steam engines and the invent became a commercial success. His invention turned out to be essential for the development of the Industrial Revolution.
  • Thomas Jefferson

    Thomas Jefferson
    He was the third president of the United States, who lived in USA in the late Modern Age and the early Contemporary Age, during the American Revolution War [18th and 19th centuries]. He was born in Albemarle county (Virginia, USA) in 1743 and died in 1826. He was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence. He was a powerful advocate of liberty and a spokesman of democracy. He is considered one of the America Founding Fathers.
  • Period: to

    LIBERALISM

    Thinking that defends freedom and equal rights for all men. It was against absolutism and class society. It appeared during the Enlightenment, and it will continue until the middle of the 19th century. The Third Estate wanted to participate in politics without being discriminated and thus end inequality. It will be the bourgeoisie that influenced this fight. It will cause the outbreak of the French and American Revolutions, causing the end of the Ancien Régime in America and Western Europe.
  • Louis XVI of France

    Louis XVI of France
    He was the king of France when the monarchy was overthrown during the French Revolution. He lived in Versalles (France) in the late Modern Age and early Contemporary Age [18th century]. He supported the colonists during the American War of Independence. In September 1792 the new National Convention abolished the monarchy and declared France a republic. Louis was found guilty of treason and executed at the guillotine on 21st January of 1793.
  • Robespierre

    Robespierre
    He was a French lawyer and politician, who was born in Arrás (France) and lived in the late Modern Age and early Contemporary Age [18th century]. He became leader of the jacobins during the French Revolution and a dictator during the Reign of Terror, elliminating all the enemies of the Revolution. The intensification of the Reign of Terror and Robespierre’s dictatorship made him very impopular. He was overthrown and executed. He was one of the most influential figures of the French Revolution.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte

    Napoleon Bonaparte
    He was military and political leader, who was born in Ajaccio (Corsica, France) and lived in the late Modern Age and early Contemporary Age, during the French Revolution [18th century]. He ruled France from 1799 and was emperor from 1804 til 1814. He defended some liberal ideas, although he controlled all the powers. His army invaded some European countries, creating the Napoleonic Empire and spreading the French Revolution’s ideas. He was one of the most influential figures of the 19th century.
  • Period: to

    FIRST INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

    The demographic revolution and the increased production in the agricultural sector allowed the invention of machines. In Britain, familiar businesses created factories using steam-powered machines, which increased production through the division of labor. The dominant sectors were the textile and steel industries. The steam engine was applied to means of transport: steam ships and locomotive (railway). Economic liberalism spread throughout the western world, creating a capitalist system.
  • Period: to

    AMERICAN WAR OF INDEPENDENCE

    It was the war of the American colonies, led by Washington and supported by Spain and France, against Great Britain to achieve independence. It blowed up due to the discontent of the colonists at the commercial control by the United Kingdom and the lack of representation in Parliament. After the colonial victories of Yorktown and Saratoga, the war ended with the Peace of Versailles and the independence of the United States.
  • Declaration of Independence of the United States

    Declaration of Independence of the United States
    Political document on which the independence of the American colonies is based. Signed on July 4, 1776 in Philadelphia, during the American Revolution and written by Thomas Jefferson and signed by the representatives of the 13 colonies, it proclaims the values of freedom and equality required by the colonists. It will mean the outbreak of the American Revolution, the end of monarchy in USA and the economic development of the colonies. It will also influence the outbreak of the French Revolution.
  • George Stephenson

    George Stephenson
    He was an engineer and inventor of the steam locomotive in 1814, who lived in the late Modern Age and early Contemporary Age (18th and 19th centuries). He was born in England in 1781 and died in 1848. He built the first freight rail line in 1825, and the first public rail line that carried passengers in 1830. Rail transport was one of the most important technological inventions of the 19th century and a key component of the Industrial Revolution.
  • Period: to

    THE FRENCH REVOLUTION

    The Third Estate revolted and established a Constitutional Monarchy, driven by moderate bourgeoisie, that established a Constitution (moderate liberalism).
    The radical bourgeoisie proclaimed the Republic and a democratic society. Louis XVI was found guilty of treason and executed. Then, Robespierre established a dictatorship and The Reign of Terror began.
    After Robespierre was overthrown, the moderate bourgeoisie implemented a Conservative Republic and a new moderate liberalism.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    The people of Paris, trying to defeat absolutism, stormed the Bastille, used as a prison and a symbol of the absolute power of the king. Then, the Revolution spread to the countryside, where noble’s homes were burnt (the Great Fear).
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    When the National Convention abolished monarchy, Louis XVI was found guilty of treason and executed at the guillotine. In response to the king’s death, monarchies in Europe forme an absolutist coalition against France.
  • Period: to

    THE CONSULATE OF NAPOLEON

    The Consulate was a personalist regime. Napoleon monopolized all power in France and this was reflected in the Constitution of the year VIII, in which there was no division of powers. In 1799 he was appointed first consul and in 1802 he was proclaimed consul for life.
    Napoleon took various measures to modernize France: he drew up a civil code that simplified the laws, the Bank of France was created, and the Concordat with the Holy See was signed.
  • Napoleon’s coup

    Napoleon’s coup
    Supported by the Girondists, Napoleon gave a Coup d'état on Brumaire 18 and established the Consulate, in which power was performed by three consuls: Napoleon, Ducos and Sieyès.
  • Period: to

    TRANSOCEANIC MIGRATIONS

    They were population movements to other continents that occurred in the 19th century, during the Industrial Revolution, in the Contemporary Age. It was given thanks to the transport and communications revolution. European cities could not absorb all the rural exodus, so the population migrated to other countries in search of work, mostly to the United States.
    Until 1870 most emigrants were British and Scandinavian and from 1870 until 1914, they were Italian, Spanish, Greek and Turkish.
  • Period: to

    NAPOLEONIC EMPIRE

    After proclaiming himself emperor, Napoleon invaded several European countries using an imperialist policy and a modern army, creating a vast empire and spreading the liberal ideas. After some difficulties against the Spanish, Russians and English, he was defeated at Leipzig and exiled in 1814. After the Hundred Days Empire he was definitively defeated at Waterloo and exiled in 1815.
  • Pierre Joseph Proudhon

    Pierre Joseph Proudhon
    He was a journalist and socialist that defended anarchism, who lived in the Contemporary Age. He was born in 1809 in France, and died in 1865. He believed that if all forms of government were abolished, people would live in natural harmony. He was opposed to the personal ownership of property. His philosophy, called mutualism, sought to achieve its end through economic action by cooperative associations of workers.
  • The first commercial steamship

    The first commercial steamship
    In 1809, the American Fulton patented the first steamship and put into operation the first commercial line with this type of transport, which crossed the Hudson River on its first journey to Clermont.
  • Abraham Lincoln

    Abraham Lincoln
    He was the 16º president of the United States, who lived in USA in the early Contemporary Age, during the American Revolution War [19th century]. He was born in Hardin county (Kentucky, USA) in 1809 and died in 1865. His presidency was dominated by the American Civil War (1861 - 1865). He defended the emancipation of all slaves and preserved the Union during the American Civil War. After the war finished, Lincoln was shot and died. He was one of the great American leaders.
  • Period: to

    VIENNA CONGRESS

    After the victory over Napoleon, the representatives of the Great Britain, Austria, Russia and Prussia decide to make a meeting in which they applied four principles to international politics: monarchical legitimacy, balance, international responsibility and the right of intervention. It will involve the reordering of the map of Europe, the return to the Old Regime and the elimination of the revolutionary principles of freedom, reason and change implanted after the French Revolution.
  • Mijail Bakunin

    Mijail Bakunin
    He was a socialist and anarchist, who lived in the Contemporary Age. He was born in 1814 in Russia, and died in 1876. He was against any form of government and he aimed to replace it for voluntary associations between people. He defended the collectivization of property and he was opposed to political parties and the participation in elections. He thought that union action and strike should be the revolutionary methods.
  • Karl Marx

    Karl Marx
    He was a German theorist of scientific socialism, who lived in the Contemporary Age. He was born in 1818, and died in 1883. He published the "Communist Manifesto" in 1848, in which he affirmed that in society there was a class struggle between the oppressors and the oppressed. He proposed to launch a revolution and, after a phase of dictatorship of the proletariat, to establish a communist society, without social classes or private property. This gave rise to the socialist parties in 1875.
  • First revolutionary wave

    First revolutionary wave
    Commander Riego spoke out against the absolute monarchy of Fernando VII. Then began a stage of liberal government in which the king had to rule respecting the Constitution of 1812. This period ended with the intervention of the Holy Alliance, whose armies invaded Spain and restored absolutism.
  • Friedrich Engels

    Friedrich Engels
    He was a German theorist of scientific socialism, who lived in the Contemporary Age. He was born in 1820, and died in 1895. Together with Karl Marx, he published the "Communist Manifesto" in 1848, in which they affirmed that society was a class struggle between the oppressors (bourgeoisie) and the oppressed (workers). He defended a communist society, without social classes or private property. Therefore, the government would disappear. This gave rise to the socialist parties, developed in 1875.
  • Greek independence

    Greek independence
    Greece had been part of the Ottoman Empire. The Greeks declared independence, but it wasn’t recognized by the Turks, and resulted in the beginning of a war.
    In 1829, thanks to the help of French and British military intervention, Greece gained its independence.
  • Second revolutionary wave

    Second revolutionary wave
    The movement began in France when Charles X, the absolute monarch who succeeded Louis XVIII a few years after the fall of Napoleon, was overthrown in July 1830. Louis Philippe I became the new constitutional monarch. He was called the “Citizen King”.
  • Belgian independence

    Belgian independence
    Belgium was made part of the Kingdom of Holland by the Congress of Vienna in 1815.
    In 1830, there was an uprising in Brussels and Belgium separated from the Netherlands. This led to the Belgian independence in 1831
  • Thomas Alva Edison

    Thomas Alva Edison
    He was an American inventor, scientist and entrepreneur, who lived in the Contemporary Age (19th and 20th centuries). He was born in 1847 and died in 1931. He is famous for inventing the phonograph (which then would develop to the telephone), the motion picture camera (that would led to the cinema) and the first commercial model of the electric light bulb in 1880. His inventions have had a widespread impact on the modern industrialized world.
  • The revolutions of 1848

    The revolutions of 1848
    In France, Louis Philippe’s monarchy was overthrown and the Second Republic was proclaimed. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was elected as president of the Republic, but he organized a coup d’etat and proclaimed the Second Empire.
    This revolution spread through other European cities, where people demanded Constitutions.
    However, those Constitutions were abolished and the revolutions failed. Nevertheless, democratic reforms were consolidated, and this meant a progress of liberalism.
  • Period: to

    THE ITALIAN UNIFICATION

    In 1859, the liberal monarchy of Piedmont-Sardinia, governed by prime minister Cavour, started a unification process. They declared war on Austria and annexed Lombardy. At the same time, a popular uprising led by Garibaldi overthrew the absolute monarchies in central and southern Italy.
    In 1861, Victor Manuel II of Savoy was proclaimed king of Italy. In 1866, Austria left Venetia, and in 1870, the Papal States were annexed by Italy. The newly unified state established its capital in Rome.
  • Period: to

    THE GERMAN UNIFICATION

    In 1834, Prussia created a customs union that united the majority of Germanic states. In 1848, Germany’s parliament met and offered the crown of Germany to the king of Prussia, who refused it.
    In 1861, Wilhelm I became king of Prussia, made Bismarck chancellor and declared war on Denmark in 1864, on Austria in 1866, and on France in 1870.
    Prussia was victorious in all three wars, making the unification of Germany possible: in 1871, Wilhelm I was proclaimed Kaiser of the Second German Reich.
  • Period: to

    INTERNATIONAL WORKINGMEN’S ASSOCIATION

    It was a labor organization created in 1864 in London, in the Contemporary Age. Its aims were the political organization of the proletariat in Europe and the rest of the world, as well as a forum for examining common problems and proposing lines of action. Disappeared in 1876 due to disagreements between socialists and anarchists. It resulted in the formation of the Socialist International in 1886 and the International Workers' Association in 1922.
  • Period: to

    SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

    Two new sources of energy appeared: electricity and oil. The steel, chemical, and electrical industries developed in the USA and Germany. New means of transportation (electric railway, subway, tram, automobile and airplane) and of communication (telephone, telegraph, radio and cinematograph) are invented. Corporations are created and banks finance the system (financial capitalism). Work is organized through Taylorism and Fordism. Forms of business concentration emerge: cartel, holding and trust.
  • May Day

    May Day
    It is a symbol of the labor movement that arose from a workers' strike in Chicago, USA, in 1886, in the Contemporary Age. The workers reclaimed the law that promulgated the 8-hour workday. These types of movements were coordinated by the Socialist International (Second International). This strike led to International Workers' Day or Labor Day, May 1.