DAH100 Timeline

  • Period: 20,000 BCE to 10,000 BCE

    Paleolithic period

    the earliest period of human development and the longest phase of mankind's history. It began about 2 million years ago and ended in various places between 40,000 and 10,000 years ago
  • 10,000 BCE

    Paleolithic period

    The earliest period of human development and the longest phase of mankind's history. It began about 2 million years ago and ended in various places between 40,000 and 10,000 years ago
  • 9500 BCE

    Neolithic Period

    a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 9500 BC in the Middle East that is traditionally considered the last part of the Stone Age. The Neolithic began with the rise of farming, which produced the "Neolithic Revolution" and ended when metal tools became widespread.
  • Period: 9500 BCE to 1900 BCE

    Neolithic period

    a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 9500 BC in the Middle East that is traditionally considered the last part of the Stone Age. The Neolithic began with the rise of farming, which produced the "Neolithic Revolution" and ended when metal tools became widespread
  • 3600 BCE

    The Ancient Period

    Began (with the first written records) sometime around 3600 BCE and ended right around 500 CE (AD) with the fall of multiple major empires including the Roman Empire, the Han Dynasty in China and the Gupta Empire in India.
  • Period: 1100 BCE to 256 BCE

    Zhou dynasty

    dances became more formalized and purposeful
  • 1000 BCE

    Bharata Natyam (classical dance)

    It has existed since 1000 BCE
    It is a temple dance that requires skill, grace and stamina.
    It is known for flowing arms movements, exact head and eye gestures and complex rhythms that are stamped out by feet.
  • 1000 BCE

    belly dance

    The origins of belly dance are debated. Some claim that belly dance has origins as early as 1000 BCE while others see it as descending from Egyptian social dances. Others claim that it started in India and migrated throughout the Middle East. There is some evidence that it was part of fertility rituals and/or was used as core strengthening exercises to prepare women’s bodies for labor and childbirth
  • Period: 575 BCE to 456 BCE

    Aeschylus of Athens

    first writer of tragedy and credited with producing the first real drama
  • 535 BCE

    Thespis of Africa

    Thespis of Africa added a new element to the dithyramb introducing the use of spoken verse while assuming the roles of the character mentioned in the song
  • 508 BCE

    Dithyrambic contest

    a contest of dithyrambic song and dance was established
  • Period: 500 BCE to 300 BCE

    The “golden age” of Greece

    lasted for a little more than a century, but it laid the foundation for civilization. The age began with the unlikely defeat of a vast Persian army by seriously outnumbered Greeks and it ended with an unglorious and lengthy war between Athens and Sparta
  • Period: 497 BCE to 405

    plays of sophocles

    exemplified fully the qualities that Aristotle had proposed as the for all good tragedies
  • Period: 484 BCE to 420 BCE

    Herodotus

    "the father of history" he asked the question about greek and persian war "why did they fight and what was the outcome in terms of its effect upon the people
  • Period: 460 BCE to 400 BCE

    thucydides

    recorded the history of Peloponnesian war
  • Period: 448 BCE to 380 BCE

    Aristophanes

    father of comedy
  • Period: 342 BCE to 291

    Menander

    writer of comedies during Hellenistic era did not produce serious messages but rather situational comedies
  • Period: 206 BCE to 220

    Han dynasty

    A formal agency was created that was in charge of the empire’s music and dance. The agency actively gathered, recorded, researched, refined and further developed as many dances from around the empire as they could.
  • 70 BCE

    Jews against roman oppressors

    Jews rose against roman oppressors in 70 BCE the temple was destroyed
  • 55 BCE

    Pantomime

    the Roman Empire was huge and composed of many cultures (cultures the Romans had conquered). Pantomime had one performer. He wore a mask with the mouth closed. Robes were used instead of changing costumes for the different roles he played. Pantomime performances drew from both Greek and Roman mythological stories. Pantomimes started out performing the beauty of nobility, but soon they deconstructed to violent, lewd and sexual themes. The Christian church vocally criticized this.
  • Period: 27 BCE to 180

    The “golden age” of Rome

    is also considered the Pax Romana, or Roman Peace. The Pax Romana began when Augustus came into power. During this era, the economy, arts architecture and commerce flourished.
  • Period: 400 to 500

    the fall of the Roman Empire

  • Period: 500 to 1400

    Medieval Period

    The Medieval Period is commonly said to have started with the fall of the Roman Empire between 400- 500 CE and ended with the start of the Renaissance between 1400- 1500 CE.
  • Period: 618 to 907

    Tang dynasty

    Chinese dance reached a cultural height during the Tang dynasty. Dancers trained heavily in developed academies and court performances were extravagant and over the top
  • Period: 1300 to

    Dance Mania

    dancing plague was a social phenomenon that occurred primarily in mainland Europe between the 1300-1600s. It involved groups of people dancing erratically, sometimes thousands at a time. The mania affected men, women, and children, who danced until they collapsed from exhaustion
  • 1374

    first dance mania outbreak

    A group of people were seen to dance uncontrollably in the streets, foaming at the mouth and screaming of wild visions. They kept on dancing until they collapsed from exhaustion, but even then they flailed about in agony until forcefully restrained. The dancing caught on, and spread rapidly throughout France and the Low Countries.
  • Period: 1400 to

    The Renaissance Period

    As a cultural movement, it encompassed a resurgence of learning based on classical sources, the development of linear perspective in painting, and gradual, but widespread, educational reform
  • Period: 1400 to 1500

    start of the Renaissance

  • 1518

    peak of dance mania

    The mania peaked in 1518 in Straussburg. Dancers filled the streets around the clock, accompanied by musicians. The presence of musicians was not unusual; it was widely believed that the order and patterns that are inherent in music was a cure not only for ailments of the spirit, but of the flesh as well
  • Period: 1519 to

    Catherine de Medici

    Catherine de Medici was an Italian noblewoman then married king henry and became queen of France
    Born in Florence Italy 1519-1589
    she helped create a new dance form ballet
  • 1581

    Ballet Comique de la Reine

    1st official ballet it lasted 51/2 hours long and was loosely based on the Circe fable from homers odyssey
  • Period: to

    Baroque Era

    The Baroque period saw an explosion of new musical styles with the introduction of the concerto, the sonata and the opera
  • Period: to

    Jean-Babtiste de Lully

    Jean-Baptiste de Lully was a French composer
    1632-1687
    he fought for a more structured ballet
    Hit his toe too hard his leg became infected but Lully refused surgery the gangrene killed him
  • Period: to

    Pierre Beauchamp

    French ballet dance teacher
    1636-1705
    created the 5 foot positions of ballet
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    King Louis XIV

    He was king of France

    1643-1715
    He was 4 when he became king
    he ruled for 72 years
    His mother Anne served as his regent
    He ruled by being involved in every aspect of the peoples life's even things that did not concern him like the way woman give birth
    He was obsessed with performances he had everything set up as a stage and viewed life as his own performance
  • The Academie d'Opera

    created in 1669 then merged into Paris opera
    still exists
  • Period: to

    Peter I (Peter the Great)

    Peter I (Peter the Great) (1672-1725)
    When Peter the Great, who is often called the modernizer of Russia, came to power, he decided that in order to compete with the rest of the world, Russia needed to build a navy (this was in about 1696, which means early ballet was already established in parts of Western Europe).
  • The Academie Royal de Danse

    1st ballet school and was an opportunity for those who wanted to perform in the shows to lean more complex steps
  • Period: to

    Empress Anna Ivanova

    Empress Anna Ivanova (1693-1740)
    Empress Anna, who was the niece of Peter the Great, began her rule of Russia in 1730 after the death Peter II. She was ultimately voted to rule by Senate, who thought they could manipulate her (which it turns out they couldn’t).
    One of the most important things she did for ballet is that she commissioned the start of the1st ballet school in Russia- the Imperial Ballet School.
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    Marie de Camargo

    French dancer
    1710-1770
    Françoise Prévost was her teacher
    she was the first to execute the entrechat quatre
    she wanted her technical accomplishments to be visible therefore shortened the skirts this was important for the future costumed and way movement was able to be performed in ballet
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    Jean George Noverre

    He was a French choreographer
    1727-1810
    he created more than 150 ballet dances and none survived
    "Lettres sur la danse et sur les ballets" was the name of the treatise he wrote
  • Filippo Taglioni

    Filippo Taglioni (November 5, 1777-February 11, 1871) from Milan Italy famous for choreographing La Sylphide
  • The Black Crook

    The Black Crook is given credit as the 1st modern musical (though it was still not exactly like what are called “book musicals”, which for our purposes, means modern day musicals). The Black Crook is considered a prototype of the modern musical in that the songs and dances were interspersed throughout the play and the songs and dances were performed by the actors (rather than being random divertissements performed by others).
  • Marie Taglioni

    Marie Taglioni (April 23, 1804-April 1884) performed in La Sylphide in a apart specifically choreographed by her father and was believed to be the first ballerina to dance on point.
  • August Bournonville

    August Bournonville,( August 21, 1805- November 30, 1879) from Copenhagen Denmark famous for his own version of La Sylphide
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    Thomas D. Rice

    Rice was a white comedian who is given the credit for popularizing blackface. Aside from popularizing blackface costume, he introduced the song “Jump Jim Crow” and accompanied the song with the dance
  • Pauline Leroux

    Pauline Leroux (August 19, 1809-February 5, 1891) Leroux had her first success when she created the role of Marie in La tentation by Jean Coralli and was a pupil of Auguste Vestris and Jean-Francois Coulon
  • Jules Perrot

    Jules Perrot (August 18, 1810- August 29, 1892) from Lyon France famous for La Esmeralda
  • Fanny Cerrito

    Fanny Cerrito (May 11, 1817-May 6, 1909) played the “Cieca di Portici” in the role of an actress in the first season of La Scala and danced in the “La Foresta Incantata” by Rugoli, becoming the uncontested star of the Milanese theater.
  • Period: to

    Marius Petipa

    He is the person who drove the revamping of this new era in ballet. He also restaged many of the ballets created during the Romantic Era and created many more. when one goes to see a ballet today it is most likely Petipa’s version.
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    Marius Petipa

    He is the person who drove the revamping of this new era in ballet. He also restaged many of the ballets created during the Romantic Era and created many more. when one goes to see a ballet today it is most likely Petipa’s version.
  • Carlotta Grisi

    Carlotta Grisi (June 28, 1819-May 20, 1899) Known famously for her classic role as Giselle. She trained at the ballet school of the famous Teatro alla Scala in Milan
  • Lucille Grahn

    Lucille Grahn (June 30, 1819-April 4, 1907) took on the leading role of Astrid in Bournonville's Valdemar in 1835 and was first Danish ballerina to attain international renown
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    Master Juba ( William Henry Lane)

    Master Juba” (1825-1852) He became well known when he participated in many dance challenges, or competitions, and often won them. He was pitted against Jack (John) Diamond, the most famous white dancer of the style of the time. The competitions between the two were widely advertised and seen as a very big deal because a white man and black man were competing against each other.
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    Romantic Ballet

    Elements of the etherealism and fantasy were expressed in the ballets.The idea of otherworldliness was furthered through extravagant sets.The idea of weightlessness was further expanded by use of “special effects".
  • La Sylphide

    La Sylphide Setting: Scotland, which would have been considered a “far off land” for the French during that time period.
    The main characters are James, Effie, the sylph and an old witch, Madge (who wants revenge on James). the original choreographed by Filippo Taglioni in 1832 Marie Taglioni was the principle ballerina
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    Jules Chéret

    Jules Chéret French painter and lithographer Chéret is often regarded as the originator of the artistic lithographic poster.
  • The Christy’s Minstrels

    The Christy’s Minstrels were an all black performance troupe formed in 1843. Aside from being an all black group, they were instrumental in solidifying the three-act form. They also popularized “the line”- the structured grouping that constituted the 1st act of the 3-act show.
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    Stéphane Mallarmé

    Stéphane Mallarmé was a French poet and critic, who saw her perform in 1893, wrote in his essay on her that her dance was "the theatrical form of poetry par excellence."
  • Broadway development

    By 1850 a form of musicals were commonplace on Broadway, but were not called “musicals” yet. Rather, they were called burlettas, extravaganzas, spectacles, operettas, comic or light operas, pantomimes or parlor operas.
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    Enrico Cecchetti

    Enrico Cecchetti (1850-1928)
    Because he taught for so long, he also became influential in the ballet world through his students. He taught many dancers that then impacted the development of ballet throughout the world.
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    François-Raoul Larche

    François-Raoul Larche was a French Art Nouveau sculptor He was one of several artists inspired by the dancer Loie Fuller; one of his best-known statues depicts Fuller dancing with part of her drapery billowing.
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    Loie Fuller

    Loie Fuller was born January 15, 1862 and died January 1, 1928 she was an American actress and dancer. Her innovative use of colored lighting with music and movement profoundly altered the visual arts and theater of her day.
  • Coppelia

    Doctor Coppelius creates a life-size doll that is so lifelike that Frantz falls in love with her, even though he is betrothed to another.Swanhilde breaks into the inventor’s shop. Everyone is caught, but Swanhilde hides and sees the inventor trying to bring Coppelia to life with Frantz’s life force and secretly dresses as the doll. She shows everyone their folly and the ballet ends with Swanhilde and Frantz marrying
    choreographer Arthur St. Léon
    Giuseppina Bozzacchi was the principle ballerina
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    Sergei Diaghilev

    Sergei Diaghilev (1872-1929) from , Chudovsky District, Russia. He was not a dancer or choreographer, but was the reason Ballet Russes was created in the first place. He was also openly gay during this time.
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    Sergei Diaghilev

    Sergei Diaghilev born March 31, 1872 died August 19, 1929 was a Russian art critic. Diaghilev's innovation was to synthetize dance, music and visual arts with set decorations and costumes into a single performance.
  • Swan Lake: 1877

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    Classical Period

    almost everything changed, from the storylines, to the costumes, to the development of strong formulas that dictated how ballets were created.
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    Isadora Duncan

    Made her way in the world without a man, which also made her a symbol of the women’s movement. She developed a “New System” of dance based on emotion, music, nature, breath and “natural” movement.
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    Bill “Bojangles” Robinson

    1878-1949 He spent most of his career performing in nightclubs, revues and in Vaudeville. At one point he got a manager, who helped him establish himself as a solo act on the Vaudeville stage, which made him one of the only black men do so (breaking the two-act rule). Additionally, he made a great deal of money at this time-making up to $3,500 a week.
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    Agrippina Vaganova

    Agrippina Vaganova (1879-1951)
    She had great talent, but she was disliked by Petipa- anytime he mentioned her, her name was followed by comments like “awful” or “dreadful.
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    Ruth St. Denis and Ted Shawn

    Ruth St. Denis and Ted Shawn started Denishawn dance company. they were important because they approached movement as a spiritual outlet and legitimate profession for men and women. This school could be considered the first official training school of dance in America and trained many of those who would become the 1st major generation of true modern dance creators
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    Rudolf von Laban

    Rudolf von Laban (1879- 1958) Laban believed movement should be able to be accessed by ALL, and opened “dance farms” in Switzerland during the summers, where everyday people would come to dance and make work about their lives and livelihoods.
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    Michel Fokine

    Michel Fokine (1880- 1942) from, Saint Petersburg, Russia. He choreographed The Dying Swan, Petrushka, firebird etc.. He became a US citizen in 1932.
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    Vaudeville

    Vaudeville is defined as a genre of variety entertainment prevalent in the U.S. and Canada from early 1880s-the early 1930s.
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    Ana Pavlova

    Ana Pavlova (1881-1931) from Saint Petersburg, Russia. Her most famous dance was The Dying Swan. She was a principal artist of the Imperial Russian Ballet and the Ballets Russes of Sergei Diaghilev.
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    Mary Wigman

    Mary Wigman born November 13, 1886 and died September 18, 1973 she was a German dancer and choreographer, notable as the pioneer of expressionist dance, dance therapy, and movement training without pointe shoes.
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    Vaslov Nijinsky

    Vaslov Nijinsky (1889-1950) from Kyiv, Ukraine. he choreographed L'Après-midi d'un faune and Le Sacre du printemps. In 1909 he joined Serge Diaghilev's Ballets Russes.
  • The Sleeping Beauty: 1890

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    the Art Nouveau Movement

    1890-1914 The movement questioned the definition of art and blurred the line between “high art” and everyday objects.
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    Asadata Dafora

    His crossover from choral music into the medium of dance happened when he went to a performance of West African songs in a German nightclub in 1910. learned 17 different dialects. Horton's Dancers or the Lester Horton Dancers Horton's goal was to create a dance technique that was anatomically corrective and utilized the widest possible range of motion. His productions were called dance dramas because they included both narrative and song with dance.
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    Bronislav Nijinska

    Bronislav Nijinska (1891-1972) from, Minsk, Belarus. Her best works were Le Renard (1922); Le Mariage d'Aurore (1922); Les Noces (1923); Le Train Blue (1924); and Les Biches (1924). Her own career began in Saint Petersburg.
  • The Nutcracker: 1892

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    Hanya Holm

    Hanya Holm was dancer, choreographer, and above all, a dance educator. She is known as one of the "Big Four" founders of American modern dance. She won numerous awards for her modern dance and Broadway musical choreography. Holm's greatest contribution was as a teacher.
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    Martha Graham

    father was a psychologist she took inspiration from his work . 1st company to be integrated- the company had white, black and Asian members. Represented the physical manifestation of grief in the body
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    Doris Humphrey

    Partly due to financial concerns Humphrey opened a dance school, with her mother. Her role was to teach ballroom dance, among other social and fancy dances. she joined Denishawn dance company for about 10 years
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    Oscar Hammerstein II

    1895-1960
    As a duo Rogers and Hammerstein are credited with creating a revolution in musicals by creating musicals where the songs were necessary to tell the story and the stories they explored were emotionally deep and psychologically complex
  • Vaganova’s method

    Vaganova’s style was a combination of graceful movement from the French, careful planning, steadiness, strength and endurance from the Italians and an emphasis on spirituality and poetic movement from the Russian
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    Fred Astaire

    1899-1987
    Firstly, by insisting dance sequences were filmed in a single shot, whilst keeping the dances in full view, and the other; insisting that all song and dance routines integrated seamlessly with the film plotlines, serving to move the story along
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    Kurt Joss

    Kurt Joss born January 12, 1901 and died May 22, 1979 a famous German ballet dancer and choreographer mixing classical ballet with theatre. He is widely regarded as the founder of Tanztheater. His dance dramas combined expressionistic modern-dance movements with fundamental ballet technique. Created several dance companies, including most notably, the Folkwang Tanztheater, in Essen.
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    Charles Weidman

    Weidman became interested in dance after seeing Ruth St. Denis and Ted Shawn perform, he trained and performed with the Denishawn Company but soon decided to break free from their exotic style of movement and create a new style that was unique to America. taught Bob Fosse, Jack Cole, Alvin Ailey and Gene Kelley
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    John William Sublett “Bubbles”

    John William Sublett “Bubbles”, 1902-1986 Bubbles is considered to be the “father of rhythm-tap”, which, if we go back to our styles, is what hoofing is. Bubbles is rumored to have been booed off stage at the Hoofer’s Club in Harlem, so he worked extra hard to produce something that would get him remembered. He is credited with adding the use of the heel to create rhythmic sounds on the off beats
  • The Wizard of Oz and Babes in Toyland

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    Ford Lee “Buck”

    Ford Lee “Buck” Washington, 1903-1955
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    George Balanchine

    George Balanchine January 22, 1904 died April 30, 1983. For Balanchine, the choreography was not tied to the virtuosity of the ballerina, the plot or the décor, but to the movement. He demanded that women be stronger, more flexible and skinnier than ever before. Some of his works The Four Temperaments, Stars and Stripes, Jewels.
  • The Dying Swan

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    Agnes de Mille

    1905-1993 She taught herself from watching film stars on the set with her father in Hollywood; these were more interesting for her to watch than perfectly turned out legs, and she developed strong character work and compelling performances.
  • the Ziegfeld Follies

    the Ziegfeld Follies began in 1907 and were immensely popular in the U.S.
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    Lincoln Kirstein

    Lincoln Kirstein born May 4, 1907 and died January 5, 1996 was an American writer and co founder of new your city ballet. Kirstein wrote the librettos for several ballets. He also founded and directed Ballet Caravan, an ensemble of dancers recruited from the American Ballet and the school.
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    Antony Tudor

    Antony Tudor born April 4, 1908 and died April 19, 1987. Tudor believed that ballet was a fusion of movements, not a series of separate dances that could be performed independently. Tudor’s ballets were known as “psychological ballets” because he used psychological tension and dramatic gestures to explore the human condition. Some of his works are Lilac Garden, Dark Elegies, and The Leaves are Fading.
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    Ballets Russes

    Ballets Russes, ballet company founded in Paris in 1909 by the Russian impresario Serge Diaghilev. The original company included the choreographer Michel Fokine and the dancers Anna Pavlova and Vaslav Nijinsky; the choreographer George Balanchine joined in 1925.
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    Katherine Dunham

    “Matriarch of Black Dance” (1909-2006) Studied dance and anthropology as both an undergraduate and graduate studen. her students took courses in humanities, philosophy, languages, aesthetics, drama and speech. Negro Dance Group, which later became the Katherine Dunham Dance Company. Dunham’s technique was a blend of ballet, modern and Caribbean movement.
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    Alwin Nikolais

    Alwin Nikolais (1910-1993)
    According to Nikolais, dance is “the art of motion which, left on its own merits, becomes the message as well as the medium.”
    -dance was only one element in an integrated spectacle; lights, props, music, costumes were all part of the spectacle.
    -depersonalizing and desexualizing his dancers. often used body altering costuming men and women often wore the same thing.
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    Ginger Rogers

    1911-1995 As a duo Rogers and Hammerstein are credited with creating a revolution in musicals by creating musicals where the songs were necessary to tell the story and the stories they explored were emotionally deep and psychologically complex
  • Afternoon of a Faun (1912)

    The story is of a young faun who meets several nymphs; he flirts with them and chases them.
    The ending scene, caused a major scandal because it portrayed the faun masturbating and climaxing.
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    Gene Kelly

    1912-1996 He achieved a significant breakthrough as a dancer on film when MGM lent him to Columbia to work with Rita Hayworth in Cover Girl (1944), a film that foreshadowed the best of his future work. He created a memorable routine dancing to his own reflection
  • The Rite of Spring (1913)

    Composed by Stravinsky, which in and of itself caused a lot of uproar simply because it was so dissonant and different, with some even calling it “ugly music.”
    The story is as the title suggests- it is a primitive “rite” where a virgin maiden is chosen to appease the gods and is sacrificed to do so.
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    Fayard Nichols

    1914-2006 one of the Nichols brothers
  • Denishawn

    Ruth St. Denis and Ted Shawn started Denishawn dance company. This school could be considered the first official training school of dance in America and trained many of those who would become the 1st major generation of true modern dance creators
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    Pearl Primus

    She was attending Hunter College when she discovered dance. Primus was hired as an understudy, thus beginning her first theatrical experience. Primus received a grant to study for 18 months on Central and West Africa. Primus received a M.A in 1959 for education and Ph.D in 1978 for anthropology from New York University.
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    Merce Cunningham

    Merce Cunningham (1919-2009) Cunningham’s movement style has been called modern on top and ballet on the bottom because it tends to utilize elements like contraction and release and unaligned torso, but legs and feet are quick and precise with exact execution.
  • Neoclassical (Modern Ballet)

    Neoclassical (Modern Ballet)
    the style is a sophisticated, but sleekly modern style that retains the pointe shoe aesthetic, but leaves behind the drama and pantomime of the full length story ballets
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    Harold Nichols

    1921-2000 one of the Nichols brothersStylistically, the brothers were the classic “flash” act. Their performances were showy, flashy and full of tricks and acrobatics.
  • Cechetti’s Method

    His method has a fixed regimen with set exercises for each day of the working week. All the exercises were executed on both sides where one side of the body was done one week and the other side the next week. Cechetti felt it was more important to execute a movement once correctly than many times carelessly.
  • Les Noces (1923)

    This ballet is a full length ballet, but not, at the same time. It tells a full story, but it is much shorter than the previous classical ballets.
    It is composed by Stravinsky, and the score, while originally written for the dance piece, is often performed on its own as a music production.
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    Gerald Arpino

    Gerald Arpino born January 14, 1923 and died October 29, 2008 American dancer and choreographer and co-founder of the Joffrey Ballet. He became known for his hard, fast, youthful ballets.
  • Vitaphone

    In 1926, Warner Brothers Studio took a gamble on a Vitaphone film even though the studio executives weren’t interested in making talking films.
  • Showboat

    Showboat (1927)
    Showboat is considered the earliest musical with the modern recipe, meaning that it had an integrated book and score and had dramatic themes told through music, dialogue, setting and movement. All parts of the musical were woven together to tell the story more seamlessly than previous musicals
  • The Jazz Singer

    they took a gamble on was The Jazz Singer (1927), which was the 1st full length feature to use recorded song and dialogue. It was still mostly silent, and when first presented, it was still completely silent in many venues because the theatres didn’t have the sound technology; nevertheless, the film was a smash hit. The success of the film pushed studio executives to see that the talking feature “fad” might not be a fad and that they should serious think about investing more into “talkies.”
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    Humphrey Weidman Company

    Humphrey felt that dance happened between ‘two deaths’- the moment of stillness of standing completely prone and the moment of stillness of lying completely flat. Based on this idea, she developed a movement style of fall and recovery to represent this “in between” place. Weidman expanded on the idea of what happens before and after the fall in the form of suspension. His ideas added a lot of floor work, jumping and falling to the technique.
  • Heretic

    Heretic (1929)
    One of Graham’s earliest pieces; it was made for 12 women and represents ideas of acceptance.
  • Lamentation

    Lamentation (1930)
    This piece is one of Graham’s most famous, and really represented what she desired to accomplish when exploring the human condition.
    Graham said "I wear a long tube of material to indicate the tragedy that obsesses the body, the ability to stretch inside your own skin, to witness and test the perimeters and boundaries of grief." Trying to break out of her own skin
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    Robert Joffrey

    Robert Joffrey born December 24, 1930 and died March 25, 1988 was an American dancer and co-founder of the Joffrey Ballet. He is credited with bringing a distinctly American approach to dance and with reviving experimental ballets from earlier eras.
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    classic modern

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    Paul Taylor

    Paul Taylor (1930-2018)
    Created movement from watching people move through their daily lives
    Made clearly weighted bodies seem ultimately graceful
    His works were compared to classical Ballet
    His work works well on Ballet as well as Modern dancers
    Few contemporary choreographers as versatile as Taylor. Was a choreographic chameleon
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    Alvin Ailey

    1931-1989 Ailey felt strongly that movement should be based on whatever techniques best suited the theatrical moment. He also went against the grain of his early contemporaries and created work specifically with the audience in mind and felt that a positive/moving experience was important. In a time when most choreographers were stripping the emotion out of the movement, he deliberately explored ideas that evoked emotion
  • Yvonne Rainer

    In 1964 this translated into stripping movements of expressive qualities. All her movement direct, functional and devoid of stylization. She questioned the role of entertainment in dance.
  • Period: to

    Arthur Mitchell

    Arthur Mitchell was a ballet dancer and choreographer. Mitchell was the FIRST African-American dancer to be granted the right to join ANY American ballet company. He was also the FIRST African-American dancer to be promoted to the role of principal. So, in a sense he opened the door for other African-Americans in ballet.
  • Porgy and Bess

    Porgy and Bess (1935)
    The musical is based on the novel “Porgy” and deals with African-American life in a fictitious neighborhood called Catfish Row in Charleston, South Carolina in the early 20s.
    The cast was 100% classically trained black singers and as such, was not widely accepted in the U.S. at first; it was not considered a legitimate work until 1976
  • Jardin Aux Lilas (Lilac Garden)

    Jardin Aux Lilas (Lilac Garden) (premiered 1936)
    This ballet was 1st performed by Ballet Rambert in London, but has been in the New York City Ballet repertory (definition in the hyperlink if you need it) since 1936 and in the Paris Opera Ballet repertory since 1985.
  • Period: to

    Trisha Brown

    1936- 2017 Brown wanted to make dance more accessible to the audience by demystifying dance, particularly the choreographic process
  • Dark Elegies

    Dark Elegies (premiered 1937)
    This ballet was also 1st performed by Ballet Rambert in London and has been in the repertory of the Paris Opera Ballet since 1985.
  • Katherine Dunham Dance Company

    After got back from researching in 1937 she started the Negro Dance Group, which later became the Katherine Dunham Dance Company. This company was the 1st black company that was successful without any outside funding
  • Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs

    animated musicals make an appearance with the first being Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937)
  • Barrelhouse Blues

    Barrelhouse Blues (1938)
    This piece is considered to be one of Dunham’s first Americana works. Dunham once explained that the piece was about a “beat old woman who goes to a dance to recapture her youth.” The movement in the piece is taken from a social dance called the Shimmy; it is considered, more specifically, as a Florida swamp shimmy.
  • L'ag'ya

    L'ag'ya (1938)
    This piece was Dunham’s first full evening length piece. The movement was a blend of ballet, modern dance, and traditional folk and social dance forms such as the habanera (Cuba), the majumba (Brazil), and the mazouk, the béguine, and the ag’ya (Martinique).
  • Steve Paxton

    Paxton believed untrained dancers could contribute to dance and took great interest in pedestrian movement.
    Paxton sought to minimize the differences between the audience and the performer.
    Paxton showed interest in how objects could impact movement and how the body would manipulate itself around different objects.
  • Period: to

    Pina Bausch

    Pina Bausch (1940-2009)
    Bausch’s works were a mixture of dance and theater and often included extravagant sets, props and text/dialogue to fully set the mood and create the whole. Bausch also felt that the audience should be challenged mentally and emotionally through the work they view Bausch felt that art is a vehicle for social criticism
  • Period: to

    The “Golden Age” of musicals

    1940- 1970s- The “Golden Age” of musicals
    The musicals during this period hit the perfect cohesive balance between book, music, storyline, songs and dance. During this period, ALL the elements came together and contributed to furthering the story.
  • Twyla Tharp

    Twyla Tharp
    Twyla Tharp is an American dancer, choreographer, and author who lives and works in New York City. In 1966 she formed the company Twyla Tharp Dance. Her work often uses classical music, jazz, and contemporary pop music
  • Rodeo

    De Mille originally created Rodeo (1942) for Ballet Russes de Monte Carlo. The score was by Aaron Copland and de Mille starred in the original and was so popular she received 22 curtain calls
  • Oklahoma

    Oklahoma (1943)
    The musical Oklahoma ushered in the Golden Age and is considered to be the first musical of the period.
    It finished what Showboat started by integrating all the aspects of musical theatre- cohesive plot, songs that furthered the action of the story, and dances that advanced the plot and development of the characters.
  • Appalachian Spring

    Appalachian Spring (1944)
    This piece was in collaboration with famous American composer Aaron Copland, and was a celebration of settlers building a new farmhouse for a new couple. There characters were a bride, a groom, an older pioneer woman who oversees the events surrounding the new bride and groom, and a preacher and his congregation.
  • On the Town

    One of the most popular themes of musicals during this time, particularly during the first part of the Golden Age, or during wartime (WWII), were displays of Americana. One example of an Americana musical was On the Town (1944)
  • cover girl

    He danced with his own reflection in a store window a camera trick that had never been done before
  • Mats Ek

    Mats Ek born April 18, 1945 he is a Swedish dance and ballet choreographer, dancer and stage director. Regarded as being one of the best Swedish ballet dancers and instructors. He was the manager of the Cullberg Ballet from 1985 to 1993. some of his works The House of Bernarda (1978), Giselle (1982), and Le Sacre du printemps (1984).
  • Carousel

    Carousel (1945)
  • anchors aweigh

    a story of two sailors on leave in Hollywood who get recruited by police to convince a little boy who keep running back home to his aunts
  • Period: to

    Gregory Hines

    1946-2003
  • William Forsythe

    William Forsythe born December 30, 1947 is an international choreographer credited with revolutionizing ballet. He founded The Forsythe Company, which he directed from 2005 to 2015. His methods are grounded in a deconstructive reconsideration of classical ballet structures and theatricality. Some of his works are In the Middle, Somewhat Elevated, The Loss of Small Detail, and One Flat Thing, reproduced. He is currently a professor at the University of Glorya Kaufman School of Dance.
  • Jiri Kylian

    Jiri Kylian born March 21, 1947 is dance choreographer who studied in Prague and London. He joined the Stuttgart Ballet in 1968 where he began to choreograph in addition to dancing. He became artistic director of Nederlands Dans Theatre in 1975 and remained in this position until 1999. Over the years the company has won several awards both nationally and internationally. some of the works Sarabande and Petite Mort.
  • Day on Earth

    Day on Earth (1947)
    This piece explored humanity- the cycles of birth, love, work, loss, companionship, death, etc.
  • Brigadoon

    Brigadoon (1947)
  • Mikhail Baryshnikov

    Mikhail Baryshnikov was born January 27, 1948 he is a Russian-American dancer, choreographer, and actor. He choreographed several iconic pieces which have made him one of the greatest ballet dancers of the 20th century. He was the preeminent male classical dancer of the 1970s and 1980s. He subsequently became a noted dance director
  • Liz Leman

    A core element of Lerman’s works are the community aspect. She brings pieces to the communities they are going to perform in by sending members out prior to performance to do workshops, interviews, etc. with community members. Then members often have the opportunity to be a part of the performances
  • South Pacific

    South Pacific (1949)
    South Pacific was based on the book “Tales of the South Pacific” and explores issues of racism through the stories of two couples: an American nurse stationed at a U.S. Naval base during WWII and an expatriate French plantation owner (she struggles to accept his biracial children) and a U.S. Lieutenant and an Asian woman.
  • Gentleman Prefer Blondes

    Gentleman Prefer Blondes (1949)
  • Guys and Dolls

    “Guys and Dolls” (1950)
  • The King and I

    On a more serious note, works during this time often explored hot button social issues (inspired by the pre-Golden Age work Porgy and Bess). One hot button topic explored was racial tolerance, as demonstrated in The King and I (1951).
  • An American in Paris

    An American in Paris (1951)
  • Paint Your Wagon

    Paint Your Wagon (1951)
  • An American in Paris

    An American in Paris (1951)
    This film is the story of an American painter living in a starving artists community in Paris and his adventures trying to get his work sold and pursue love
  • Ohad Naharin

    Ohad Naharin born June 22, 1952 is an Israeli choreographer and contemporary dancer. He served as artistic director of Batsheva Dance Company from 1990 to 2018. He has been hailed as one of the world's preeminent contemporary choreographers. He is creator of the Gaga movement language.
  • Bill T. Jones

    Bill T. Jones
    He is, known for what and how he chooses to explore through movement.

    He explores issues that can relate to humanity at large, things like loss, hurt, anger, etc. These explorations happen through the lenses of racism, sexuality, gender roles and illness and his work can be somewhat controversial, but relatable to many.
    His works are often infused with multimedia elements like video and text and often have a biographical or autobiographical flair.
  • Singin’ in the Rain

    Singin’ in the Rain (1952)
    The story of this musical is based in the transition of films from silent to talking. Kelly plays the lead male of the silent films and he falls in love with a woman who is a backup dancer for the movie studio he is a part of. He convinces his love to be a temporary voice over role for his leading lady, who has a horrible voice, in hopes that it would jumpstart her career, but they have bumps in the road along the way.
  • Edouard Lock

    Edouard Lock born March 3,1954 is a Canadian dance choreographer and the founder of the Canadian dance group, La La La Human Steps. In 1988 he used pointe shoes and classically trained dancers for the first time, creating Bread Dances for the National Ballet of Holland. Over the years Edouard Lock has been invited to create works for some of the world’s leading dance companies.Many of Lock’s works have appeared on film. He is counted as one of the ground breaking choreographers of modern dance.
  • White Christmas

    White Christmas (1954)
  • The Girl in Pink Tights

    The Girl in Pink Tights (1954).
  • “Seven Brides for Seven Brothers”

    It was based on the story “The Sobbin Women” by Stephen Vincent Benet; the story is about seven brothers who live in the mountains. Adam, the oldest, comes to town to get supplies and meets a woman who marries him after a short courtship.
  • Mark Morris

    Mark Morris
    Morris uses a broad mix of movements that range from everyday movement, to folk dance. to articulated movement and pointe work. ➢Morris treats men and women as equals in choreographic terms; he also works with many body types and his dancers come in all shapes and sizes. ➢Morris’s work is often quirky and even kitschy (Links to an external site.), but can also be extremely formal; he mixes the serious with the humor in ways that are unexpected and often surprising.
  • My Fair Lady

    “My Fair Lady” (1956)
  • The Music Man

    “The Music Man” (1957)
  • Seven Brides for Seven Brothers

    Seven Brides for Seven Brothers (1957)
  • The Sound of Music

    “The Sound of Music” (1959)
  • The Sound of Music

    The Sound of Music (1959)
    The The Sound of Music loosely told the story of the von Trapp family (an actual family), of which Maria becomes a governess (although in real life she was supposed to be a tutor).
  • Anna Teresa de Keersmaeker

    objectives
    Intensify the relation between dance and music
    Build a repertory
    Launch a dance school
  • The Fiddler on the Roof

    In addition to racial issues being explored, religious issues were also sometimes explored. Toward the end of the era, for example, one musical explored Jewish subjects and issues: The Fiddler on the Roof (1964).
  • Paul Lightfoot

    Paul Lightfoot born 1966 in Kingsley, England. He got trained at the Royal Ballet School London. He became a member of the Nederlands Dans Theater in 1985. After two years with NDT 2 he got promoted to NDT 1 in 1987.
  • Cabaret

    Cabaret (1966)
  • Satisfyin’ Lover

    Satisfyin’ Lover (1967)
    This piece was both an exploration of Paxton’s interest in pedestrian movement and in the general public participating in dance as dancers.
    The piece had anywhere from 34-84 performers who walked, stood and sat according to a movement score
  • Hair

    The Golden Age essentially closed out with a musical that had it all- Hair (1968). Hair was racially integrated, explored issues like homosexuality and sexuality in general, drugs, the Vietnam War, questioned/made fun of the government and contained a nude seen
  • Wayne McGregor

    Wayne McGregor born March 12, 1970 British choreographer and director. He is the Artistic Director of Studio Wayne McGregor and Resident Choreographer of The Royal Ballet. He has used the choreographic device of manipulation of numbers to show the choreographic intention of inferences between 2 people. Internationally renowned for trailblazing innovations in performance that have radically redefined dance in the modern era.
  • Contact improvisation

    Contact is defined as “the communication between two moving bodies and their combined relationship to the physical laws that govern their motion: gravity, momentum, friction and inertia.” The movement includes weight transfer, weight sharing, counter balance, rolling, falling, suspension and lifting.
  • Cry

    Cry (1971)
    This piece was dedicated to Ailey’s mother and to “all the black mothers out there.”
    This piece was the signature piece for Judith Jamison, one of Ailey’s main dancers
  • Jesus Christ Superstar

    Jesus Christ Superstar (1971)
  • Christopher Wheeldon

    Christopher Wheeldon born March 22,1973 is English international choreographer of contemporary ballet. He began dancing at 8 and He attended the Royal Ballet School between the ages of 11 and 18.He choreographs for leading international companies, including Boston Ballet, San Francisco Ballet,Dutch National Ballet and Joffrey Ballet.In 2007 he became the first British choreographer to create a new work for the Bolshoi Ballet. some works are After the Rain and Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland.
  • The Rocky Horror Show

    The Rocky Horror Show (1973)
  • Savion Glover

    He was at a benefit for Benny chlorine at Hines and Hatchett Dance school and Frank Hatchet announced that you can sign up for tap classes and his mother signed him up at the age of 7.
  • rocky horror show

    “Rocky Horror Show” (1974)
    The stage musical is the longest-running British horror comedy stage musical. It opened in America in 1974, but only had limited showings.
  • The Leaves are Fading

    The Leaves are Fading (premiered 1975)
    This ballet was 1st performed by ABT (American Ballet Theater) and was originally created for ballerina Gelsey Kirkland
  • The Rite of Spring

    The Rite of Spring (1975)
    You saw part of this piece in our ballet unit when you compared Bausch’s version to the original Nijinsky version, so unless you want to google it, I won’t have you watch it again, but I wanted to mention it to make sure you had the connection.
  • Chicago (1975)

    Chicago (1975)
  • A Chorus Line

    A Chorus Line (1975)(1985)
    As a musical, A Chorus Line received 12 Tony Award nominations and won 9; it also won the 1976 Pulitzer Prize for Drama and was the 5th longest running Broadway musical.
  • rocky horror picture show

    “Rocky Horror Picture Show” (1975) The film version is still in limited release and is longest-running theatrical release in film history. In fact, it was selected in 2005 for the U.S. National Film Registry by the Library of Congress and was said to be “culturally, historically or aesthetically significant.”
  • Kontakthof

    Kontakthof (1978)
    This piece is an evening length work portraying the struggle of courtship and human “mating” rituals. The following clips is small snippet of the work as a whole.
  • Accumulation with Talking plus Water Motor

    Accumulation with Talking plus Water Motor (1978)
    This piece was a solo work that combined elements of three different pieces. In this piece Brown talks about the choreographic process while dancing; through this process she was working to demystify dance creation for the audience.
  • Glacial Decoy

    Glacial Decoy (1979)
    This piece was the 1st of Brown’s large scale works intended for the stage. It is most notable for its slithery and highly articulated movements
  • Evita

    Evita (1979)
  • Channels/Inserts

    Channels/Inserts (1981)
    This work was a dance for film piece divided around the building where the studio was located. It was divided into sixteen sections and put together using chance operations
  • Rosas danst Rosas

    Rosas danst Rosas (1983)
    This piece was done both as both a live work and on film. It’s set in 5 parts and focused on repetitive and minimalist principles.
  • Creole Giselle (1984)

    This ballet is not actually choreographed by Mitchell, but is important because it demonstrated a shift in how ballet was accessed by non-white and mostly middle class and wealthy dancers and patrons.
  • The Phantom of the Opera

    The Phantom of the Opera (1986)
  • Sol Leon

    Sol Leon born in Córdoba, Spain is a Dutch choreographer. She received her dance training at the National Ballet Academy of Madrid with teachers such as Victor Ullate. In 1987 she joined NDT 2, 1989 she became a member of NDT 1. Sol León and Paul Lightfoot have been a chorographic duo for 30 years.
  • L'Allegro, il Penseroso ed il Moderato

    L'Allegro, il Penseroso ed il Moderato (1988)
    This piece originally premiered in Belgium and is considered to be Morris’s masterpiece.
  • Dead Dreams of Monochrome Men

    Dead Dreams of Monochrome Men (1988, 1989)
    According to DV8’s website this piece “was DV8's first stage show to be professionally adapted for film. Loosely based on the story of serial killer Dennis Nilsen, it explores the interwoven notions of loneliness, desire and trust. Founded upon the conviction that societal homophobia often results in tragic consequences, the work grapples with the disturbing forces that drove Nilsen to kill for company.”
  • National Tap Day

    To go along with the resurgence of tap, in 1989 President George Bush Sr. created National Tap Day. It is on May 25th in honor of “Bojangles” birthday
  • Maple Leaf Rag

    Maple Leaf Rag (1990)
    This work is the last full work she choreographed before her death and was a collaboration with Scott Joplin. It is a perfect representation of her softer side.
  • Achterland

    Achterland (1990)
    This piece has also been done as both a live work and video work. It’s a full evening length piece when it’s done in full-coming in at just over an hour, and more than anything was de Keersmaeker’s manifestation of interactive dancer/musician relationships throughout the performance. The piece also utilizes a variety of set materials/props including low platforms, desks, shoes and clothing
  • The Hard Nut

    The Hard Nut (1991)
    This piece is Morris’s restaging of The Nutcracker. He’s set it in the 60s/70s and used set design by a graphic novelist and costumes designed in the sensibility of the graphic novelists world.
  • Strange Fish

    Strange Fish (1992)
    As quoted from a review about this film: Strange Fish “looks at attraction in relationships between people and their incessant need and search for a person to love together with their underlying need for someone or something to believe in. Newson also explores the tyranny of couples and groups, and the pain that is experienced when people are ostracized from these social arrangements which is tied to a deep fear humans have of being left alone.”
  • Rent

    Rent (1996)
  • Bring in ‘da Noise, Bring in ‘da Funk

    Savion Glover, Bring in ‘da Noise, Bring in ‘da Funk, 1996
  • Pond Way

    Pond Way (1998)
    This piece was an exploration of the effects of water and was inspired of Cunningham’s experiences of skipping stones over water as a kid.
  • South African Suite

    South African Suite (1999)
    This ballet is a fun demonstration of contemporary ballet performed by members of Dance Theater of Harlem.
  • Still/Here

    Still/Here (1999)
    This piece was created around the idea of dealing with life threatening illness and the possibility of death and the movement was inspired by workshops Jones had with people with terminal illnesses
    There was a documentary created about the making of the piece in 1997 and the clip below is the documentary
  • Seussical

    Seussical (2000)
  • Cost of Living

    Cost of Living (2004)
    A story about some carnival workers, following the ups and downs of their daily lives.
  • Full Moon

    Full Moon (2006)
    You saw part of this piece in the first lecture of the modern unit when you compared Wignam, Joss, and Bausch, so unless you want to google it, I won’t have you watch it again, but I wanted to mention it to make sure you had the connection
  • Ferocious Beauty: Genome

    Ferocious Beauty: Genome (2006)
    This piece premiered at Wesleyan University after two years of development and hundreds of interviews with scientists, ethicists and scholars. The piece explores the complex world of genetic research.
  • Fondly Do We Hope...Fervently Do We Pray

    Fondly Do We Hope...Fervently Do We Pray (2010)
    Jones was commissioned to create the work as a sort of tribute to Lincoln. As Jones explored how to create the work, he chose to look at the humanity of Lincoln rather than the myth/legend and explored the human issues that are important to all of us. One of the clips shows him discussing the creation of the work and the other shows clips of the work
  • “PINA”

    “PINA”- 2011
    “Pina” was a documentary started just after Pina’s death and works as a tribute to her. The documentary is a stunning demonstration of her works and the feelings of those who worked with her. The following is a clip of one of her pieces, and the entire documentary is available in places like Netflix.
  • The Matter of Origins

    The Matter of Origins (2011)
    This piece was created in collaboration with CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research), which is an organization that probes the fundamental structure of the universe. The piece is in two acts; Act I takes places in a formal theater setting, while Act II is a structured/guided Tea Party where the audience sits around tables and eats chocolate cake and sips tea and has conversation that is guided by members of the company
  • Hamilton

    Hamilton (2015)
    This musical is based on a biography written about Alexander Hamilton. Its recently taken the musical theatre world by storm, and is known for two things- racial role reversals where people that aren’t white are playing men from U.S. history that were white, and it’s a rap musical where many of the songs are sung in a rap format vs. the traditional musical theatre or rock musical format.