Classical Era 1750-1800

  • Christoph Willibald Gluck

    Christoph Willibald Gluck
    Christoph Willibald Gluck was a German composer known for his operas. His father was very stern about him continuing the family line of forestry so to difuse any disagreements, Gluck left home and went to Italy. While in Italy, he pkayed for several churches and then composed six trio sonatas in London. In Milan is when Gluck started composing operas. Some of those works being ‘Artaserse’, ‘Poro’, and ‘Sofonisba’.
  • Poor Richard's Almanac

    Poor Richard's Almanac
    Poor Richard’s Almanac was written by Benjamin Franklin in 1732. The book was filled with proverbs preaching industry and prudence. It also contained crop predictions, a chart of the phrases of the moon, recipes, notes on fashion and other comments on daily life.
  • Joseph Haydn

    Joseph Haydn
    Haydn was and Austrian composer who helped establish forms and styles for the string quartet and symphony. He was engaged as a musical director and chamber composer for the Bohemian count Ferdinand Maximilian von Morzin. Haydn was also put in charge of an orchestra of about 16 musicians and for that ensemble he wrote his first symphony. Joseph Haydn is remembered as the first great symphonist and the composer who essentially invented the string quartet.
  • Johann Christian Bach

    Johann Christian Bach
    Johann Christian bach born in Germany 1735 was the son of Johann Sebastian Bach of the Baroque period. J.C Bach received most of his training from his father until J.S Bach died. After making his way to Italy he became the organist for the Milan Cathedral but not long after he wanted to work with operas. In 1762 Bach became the composer for the King’s Theatre in London. He produced Italian operas, orchestral, chamber, and keyboard music and a few cantatas.
  • William Billings

    William Billings
    William BillingsWilliam Billings is one of the earliest representatives for American Music. He was self trained in music and most of his works were patriotic. Billings’ New Englan Psalm-Singer was the first collection of music to be entirely by an American. Among his other works was a hymn called Chester. This hymn is very patriotic and unofficially became the national hymn of the American Revolution.
  • Benjamin Banneker Clock

    Benjamin Banneker Clock
    Benjamin Banneker was a self taught inventor. In the early 1750s he invented the first American clock. He borrowed a pocket watch and took it apart to study the inside. After doing so, he put together a fully functioning clock entirely out of carved wood. The clock ticked for 40 years and this inventions allowed Banneker to get out of his family’s tobacco farm and own a watch and clock repair business.
  • Minuet

    Minuet comes from the French menu meaning small. It is however an elegant couple dance. Minuets are usually in triple meter and has three sections, minuet to trio to minuet. The usual form is AA-BB but the repetition can be a variation (AA’-BB’). Typically minuets are the third movement of chamber music or symphonies. Beethoven, however, replaced minuets with scherzos.
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    Classical Era

  • Antonio Salieri

    Antonio Salieri
    Antonio Salieri born in Italy 1750 was a composer whose operas were known all throughout Europe. He wrote his first opera in Vienna 1770 called ‘Le Donne Letterate’. He wrote many more while he was there until 1804 when he decided to devote himself to sacred music. Salieri was also an important teacher to Franz Lizt, Franz Schubert, and Beethoven. Beethoven even dedicated his ‘Three Violin Sonata, Op.12’ to Salieri and Haydn.
  • Publication of Diderot's Encyclopedia

    Publication of Diderot's Encyclopedia
    Denis Diderot was approached with a project by Andre Le Breton, a bookseller and printer. His project was for Diderot to translate Ephraim Chamber’s Cyclopaedia or Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences into French. He succeeded and his Encyclopedie was the first to include contribution from many named contributors. Denis Diderot said in the article “Encyclopedie” that the Encyclopedie’s aim was to change the way people think. (continued on 2nd event)
  • Publication of Diderot's Encyclopedia Continuation

    Publication of Diderot's Encyclopedia Continuation
    . He even included the thought of Enlightenment in his encyclopedia. The full title of Diderot’s Encyclopedia was Encyclopedie, ou dictionnaire raisonne des sciences, des arts et des metiers, par une societe de gens de lettres, mis en ordre par M. Diderot de l’Academie des Sciences et Belles- Lettres de Prusse, et quant a la partie mathematique, par M. d’Alembert de l’Academie royale des Sciences de Paris, de celle de Prusse et de la Societe royale de Londres.
  • Maria Anna Mozart

    Maria Anna Mozart
    Mozart was the first child prodigy of Leopold Mozart. She toured all around Europe as a pianist. However, once her brother Wolfgang Armadeus Mozart was born, she was overshadowed by his great talent. When she was 8 years old she learned to play the harpsichord. Once Wolfgang excelled in music, Leopold made Maria Anna stay home and give people piano lessons to finance her brother’s Italian tour. Maria Anna lived to be known as Wolfgang’s shadow but virtuosic piano teacher.
  • Muzio Clementi

    Muzio Clementi
    Muzio Clementi was an Italian-born british pianist and composer. He was known as the “Father of the Piano” because his studies and sonatas developed the technique of the early piano to a great extent. He was an organist at the age of 9 and composed his first oratorio at 12. Throughout his life he was known for his piano sonatas. Clementi’s work influenced many composers of the 19th century.
  • Seven Years' war continued

    Seven Years' war continued
    Due to this, France lost all their allies and the war came to an end in 1763 with signing of the Treaty of Paris. This treaty made France lose all acclaims to Canada, gave Louisiana to Spain and gave Spanish Florida, Upper Canada, and French holdings to Britain.
  • Seven Years' War

    Seven Years' War
    7 Years War was a global conflict also known as the French-Indian War. French expansion into the Ohio River valley brought France into armed conflict with British colonies.The first year of fighting in 1756 made the British suffer and great series of defeats against the French and their Native American Allies. However, in 1757 the British Prime Minister recognized the potential imperial expansion if they defeated the French so he heavily funded to expand war effort...(continued on 2nd event)
  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

    Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
    Amadeus Mozart was born in Salzburg in 1756. Him, as well as his siblings, were taught by their father how to play piano and violin. Mozart was essentially an operatic composer but their was no real opportunity for that in Salzburg. He was also very well known for his symphonies and piano sonatas. As part of his smaller works he wrote church music as well as vocal and choral music. Some of his works are ‘Das Veilchen’ (opera), ‘Jupiter’ (symphony), and ‘Fugue in G minor’ (piano/organ).
  • King of England Crowned

    King of England Crowned
    George III became the King of England in 1760. He was the longest ruling monarch before Queen Victoria. During his reign he lead the British to victory in the Seven Years’ war, led a successful resistance to Revolutionary and Napoleonic France, and presided over the loss of the American Revolution. His reign ended when he spent his last decade in a fog of insanity and blindness.
  • American Revolution

    American Revolution
    American Revolution also known as the U.S War of Independence started in 1775. The conflict was between Great Britain;s 13 North American colonies and the colonial government. The fight started in the summer of April 1775 between the British troops and colonial militiamen. France joined in on the side of the colonists three years after the war started turning this war international. Due to the French’s assistance, the Americans had won although the fighting didn’t end until 1783.
  • Declaration of Independence

    Declaration of Independence
    Declaration of Independence is a document written by Thomas Jefferson. This document was divided into five sections, including an introduction, a preamble, a body(divided into two sections) and a conclusion. The document states that seeking independence from Britain had become necessary and then lists grievances against the British crown and asserts the nation’s right to choose their own government. This document was signed on July 4 1776 by 56 state representatives.
  • Nicolo Paganini

    Nicolo Paganini
    Paganini was born in Italy 1782. By the time he was 12 he had composed his first sonata which lead to concert tours around Italy and triumph after triumph. Most of Paganini’s composititons were written for his own performances. He made these pieces extremely difficult. He composed 24 caprices for unaccompanied violin,12 sonatas for violin and guitar,6 violin concertos, and 6 quartets for violin, viola,cello and guitar. Some works are 'Nel Cor', 'A minor caprice No.24 and 'The Carnival of Venice
  • U.S Constitution

    U.S Constitution
    The U.S Constitution was sighned on September 17 1787 by delegates to the constitutional convention in Philadelphia. The constitution establishes America’s national government and fundamental laws, and guaranteed certain basic rights for its citizens. The Bill of Rights was added into the constitution in 1791.The Bill of Rights are 10 ammendments guaranteeing basic individual protections such as freedom of speech and religion.To this date there have been a total of 27 constitutional ammendments
  • French Revolution

    French Revolution
    French Revolution was also called the Revolution of 1789. This was the revolutionary movement that recognized the end of the ancient regime in France. It was influenced by Enlightenment ideals. Specifically, popular sovereignty and inalienable rights. The people of France were rioting, looting and sometimes lead to a chaotic bloodbath. To save France, a constitution was written up but it did not sit well with the people because the King enjoyed royal veto power (continued)
  • French Revolution continued

    French Revolution continued
    and the ability to appoint ministers. In August 1795 a new constitution was created but Napoleon Bonaparte’s army silenced anyone who disagreed. The new executive power was called the Directory and after 4 years they were in a financial crises, popular discontent, ineffiency and political corruption. The directors relied entirely on the military to maintain their authority. This ended when Napoleon came into power.
  • Cotton Gin

    Cotton Gin
    Cotton Gin was patented and invented by Eli Whitney in 1794. The cotton gin revolutionized the production of cotton by greatly speeding up the process of removing the seeds from cotton fiber. It also gave southern planters justification to maintain and expand slavery even though most supported abolition. The cotton was run through a wooden drum with a series of hooks that caught the fibers and dragged them through a mesh. This machine allowed 50 pounds of cotton to be unseeded in a day.