Caesar's timeline

  • 185

    death (and almost death) of Gaius Julius Caesar, Sr. and Jr., age 15

    His dad dies. A few years later he is betrothed and possibly married to a wealthy young woman, Cossutia. They broke up quickly. Instead, he married Cornelia, the daughter of a prominent member of the Popular faction. She gave him his only daughter, Julia. When Sulla was in power, he ordered Caesar to divorce Cornelia. When he refused, Sulla was going to execute him, and he decided to hide. Caesar's friends and relatives eventually got him a pardon.
  • 279

    Caesar's beginning, age 21

    Caesar was awarded the civic crown for saving the life of a citizen in battle. His general sent him on an embassy to Nicomedes to obtain a fleet of ships. He got the ships, but it was said that he had persuaded the gay king only by agreeing to sleep with him. When Sulla died the year before, Caesar returned to Rome and began a career as a orator.
  • 375

    kidnapping and piracy, age 25

    kidnapping and piracy, age 25
    While sailing to Greece, Caesar was kidnapped by pirates and held for ransom. When he was told that they intended to ask for 20 talents, he was said to have told them that he was worth at least 50. He maintained a friendly, joking relationship with the pirates while the money was being raised, but he warned them that he would track them down and have them crucified after he was released. He did that as a warning to other pirates, but he cut their throats first because they treated him well.
  • 472

    Caesar age 28

    Caesar was elected military tribune.
  • 569

    death of aunt and wife, age 31

    He spoke at the funerals of both his aunt, Julia, and his wife, Cornelia. He emphasized his connections with Marius and the ancient nobility of his family at both funerals.
  • Jan 31, 668

    Caesar gets involved in politics, age 32

    Caesar was elected quaestor and got a seat in the Senate. He married Pompeia, Sulla's granddaughter. Caesar supported Gnaeus Pompey and helped him get a generalship against the Mediterranean pirates which was later extended to command of the war against King Mithridates in Asia Minor.
  • Jan 31, 765

    Caesar #1, age 35

    He was elected aedile and spent lavishly on games to win popular favor. He got a lot of loans from Crassus. There were rumors that Caesar was having an affair with Gnaeus Pompey's wife, Mucia, as well as with the wives of other prominent men.
  • Jan 31, 863

    promoted, age 37

    Caesar spent heavily in a successful effort to get elected Pontifex Maximus. In 62, he was elected praetor. He divorced Pompeia because of her involvement in a scandal with another man. In 61 he was sent to the province of Further Spain as propraetor.
  • Jan 31, 960

    The First Triumvirate is born, age 40

    The First Triumvirate is born, age 40
    He returned from Spain and joined with Pompey and Crassus to form The First Triumvirate. In 62, Pompey had returned victorious from Asia, but had been unable to get the Senate to ratify his arrangements and to grant land to his veteran soldiers because he had disbanded his army on his return and Crassus was blocking his efforts. Caesar persuaded the two men to work together and promised to support their interests if they helped him get elected to the consulship.
  • Jan 31, 1059

    consulship, age 41

    Caesar was elected consul. Caesar married his only daughter, Julia, to Pompey to consolidate their alliance, and he married Calpurnia, the daughter of a leading member of the Popular faction. Caesar pushed Pompey's measures through, helped Crassus' proposals, and got for himself a five-year term as proconsul of Gaul after his consulship was over. However, he used some strong-arm methods in the Assembly. Caesar was safe from prosecution for such actions as long as he held office.
  • Jan 31, 1158

    Caesar's campaign, age 42

    Caesar left Rome for Gaul. He would not return for 9 years. In which he would conquer most of central Europe. However, much of the conquest was prompted by personal ambition.
  • Jan 31, 1256

    renew, age 44

    Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus met in Caesar's province to renew their alliance, since Pompey had been increasingly moving toward the Optimate faction. Pompey and Crassus were to be consuls again, and Caesar's command in Gaul was extended until 49 BCE.
  • Jan 31, 1354

    expedition, age 46

    Caesar led a three-month expedition to Britain, but he did not establish a permanent base there. Meanwhile, Caesar's alliance with Pompey was increasingly strained, especially after Julia died in childbirth in 54. In 55, Crassus received command of the armies of the East but was defeated and killed by the Parthians.
  • Jan 31, 1452

    friendship?, age 48

    Riots in Rome led to Pompey's election. Without Julia and Crassus, there was little to bond Caesar and Pompey together, and Pompey moved to the Optimate faction, since he had always been in favor of the aristocrats.
  • Jan 31, 1551

    tables are turned, age 49

    After he conquered Gaul, Caesar set up an administration to govern the vast territories. He published his history The Gallic Wars. The Good Men in Rome attempted to cut short Caesar's term as governor and made it clear that he would be prosecuted immediately if he returned to Rome as a private citizen. Pompey and Caesar were backed into a corner. They couldn't afford to back down.
  • Caesar crosses the Rubicon and dictatorship, age 51

    Caesar crosses the Rubicon and dictatorship, age 51
    Caesar tried to keep his power, but when he no left other choice, he led his armies across the Rubicon which led to automatic civil war. Pompey's legions were in Spain, so he and the Senate retreated to Brundisium and from there sailed to the East. Caesar quickly advanced to Rome, set up a Senate and declared himself dictator. Throughout his campaign, Caesar practiced his policy of clemency.
  • a Pyrrhic victory?, age 52

    a Pyrrhic victory?, age 52
    Pompey and the Good Men had established a strong position in Greece. Caesar didn't have sufficient ships to transport all his legions. He crossed with only about 20,000 men, leaving Mark Antony to try to bring across the rest of the soldiers. After some rather desperate situations for Caesar, the rest of his forces finally landed, though they were greatly outnumbered by Pompey's men. Caesar won but at a great price.
  • Egyptian revolt, age 52

    Caesar landed in Alexandria. He wanted some payment for a job he did earlier. Cleopatra demanded that he help her control the throne. He did, and burned the fleet. He also acidentally burned the library.
  • just keep swimming, age 53

    just keep swimming, age 53
    After some months under siege, Caesar tried to capture a lighthouse on an island in the harbor. At one point, when he was cut off from his men, he had to jump in the water and swim to safety. Plutarch says that he swam with one hand, using the other to hold some important papers above the water. Suetonius adds that he also towed his purple general's cloak by holding it in his teeth so that it would not be captured by the Egyptians.
  • Egypt again?, age 53

    Caesar had sent for reinforcements, two Roman legions and the army of King Mithridates. When they arrived outside Alexandria, he marched out to join them. On March 26, he defeated the Egyptian army. Although he had been trapped in the palace for nearly six months and had been unable to exert a major influence on the conduct of the civil war, which was going rather badly without him, Caesar nevertheless remained in Egypt until June.
  • Caesar - ruler, dictator, daddy?, age 53

    Caesar left Alexandria, having established Cleopatra as a client ruler in alliance with Rome. He left 3 legions under the command of Rufio. Either immediately before or soon after he left Egypt, Cleopatra bore a son, whom she named Caesarion, claiming that he was the son of Caesar.
  • I came, I saw, I conquered

    After leaving Alexandria, Caesar swept through Asia Minor to settle the disturbances there. On August 1, he met and immediately overcame Pharnaces. He later publicized the rapidity of this victory with the slogan veni, vidi, vici.
  • Optimates again?, age 53

    Caesar arrived back in Rome and settled the problems caused by the mismanagement of Antony. When he attempted to sail for Africa to face the Good Men, his legions mutinied and refused to sail. In a brilliant speech, Caesar brought them around totally, and after some difficult battles, decisively defeated the Optimates at Thapsus, after which Cato committed suicide rather than be pardoned by Caesar.
  • celebration and messed up politics, age 54

    Caesar returned to Rome and celebrated. He called for Cleopatra and his "son", and he built them a home on the Tiber. Holding the position of dictator, Caesar governed more like a general than a politician. Although he nominally used the political structure, he often simply announced his decisions to the Senate and had them entered on the record as senatorial decrees without debate or vote.
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    Caesar's life

  • birth of Julius

    Gaius Julius Caesar was born. He was the son of Gaius Caesar and Aurelia. It was a patrician family, the gens Julia. His uncle was Faius Marius, leader of the Popular faction.
  • revolt, age 55

    Gnaeus and Sextus led a revolt in Spain. Since Caesar's legates were unable to quell the revolt, Caesar had to go himself, winning a decisive but difficult victory at Munda. Gnaeus Pompey was killed in the battle, but Sextus escaped to become the leader of the Mediterranean pirates.
  • starting to lose it, age 55

    Caesar returned to Rome and celebrated. He had a consul that was in power from about 1 P.M. to sundown. Caesar's statue were made to be similar like gods. Two senators objected and were promptly removed from power.
  • another campaign, age 55

    Caesar was named dictator perpetuus. At the feast of Lupercalia, Caesar wore his purple garb for the first time in public. At the public festival, Antony offered him a diadem, but Caesar refused it, saying Jupiter alone is king of the Romans. Caesar was preparing to lead a military campaign against the Parthians, who had taken the legionary eagles. He was supposed to leave on March 18. Although Caesar was apparently warned of some personal danger, he refused to have a bodyguard.
  • Caesar's death, age 55

    Caesar attended the last meeting of the Senate before his departure. The 60 conspirators, led by Brutus, Longinus, Albinus, and Trebonius, came to the meeting with daggers concealed in their togas and struck Caesar at least 23 times as he stood at the base of Pompey's statue.