Afghanistan 1945-Present

By nem911
  • General Mohammed Daud- Prime Minister

    General Mohammed Daud- Prime Minister
    General Mohammed Daud becomes prime minister. Turns to Soviet Union for economic and military assistance. Introduces a number of social reforms, such as abolition of purdah (practice of secluding women from public view). Later, in 1964, A Constitutional Monarchy is put in place, however it leads to power struggles.
  • Mujahedeen Creation

    Mujahedeen Creation
    Those who disagree with Daud join forces against him, conservative Islamic leaders and other ethnic leaders of mainly Pashtuns, create the Mujahedeen and begin an armed revolt. The Afghan civil war began when the communist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) took power in a military coup on in 1978. Most of Afghanistan subsequently experienced uprisings against the unpopular Marxist-Leninist PDPA government. The Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in 1979 to keep PDPA in power.
  • Shift of Power

    Shift of Power
    Babrak Karmal, leader of the People's Democratic Party Parcham faction, is installed as ruler, backed by Soviet troops. But anti-regime resistance intensifies with various mujahideen groups fighting Soviet forces. US, Pakistan, China, Iran and Saudi Arabia supply money and arms.
  • Displacement of Afghan Population

    Displacement of Afghan Population
    Mujahideen come together in Pakistan to form alliance against Soviet forces. Half of Afghan population now estimated to be displaced by war, with many fleeing to neighbouring Iran or Pakistan. New Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev says he will withdraw troops from Afghanistan. After seven years of war nearly half of the Afghan population have been internally displaced or have become refugees in Iran, Pakistan or futher afield in Europe and the US.
  • Economic Development

    Since its inception in 1991, the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) to Afghanistan has channelled more than $1 billion in multilateral assistance to Afghan refugees and vulnerable persons inside Afghanistan. The United States, the European Union (EU), and Japan are the leading contributors to this relief effort.
  • Resignation

    Afghan president Najibullah (replaced Karmal in 1986) resigned after almost 5 years in power in order to form a coalition government according to a UN agreement.
  • Social Issues

    Social Issues
    Water, phones, and sewage systems have been destroyed. Years of war have separated and impoverished extended families that traditionally cared for widows and fatherless children. Now many are left to fend for themselves. Some provinces began experiencing famine in the 1990s and diseases of malnutrition are being reported for the first time in decades.
  • Rise of the Taliban

    Rise of the Taliban
    Sharia Law
    The Taliban rises as a fighting force, an army of former Islamic seminarians, and seeks establishment of an Islamic state governed by Sharia Law.
  • More Social Issues

    More Social Issues
    Civil war has brought a variety of social ills in Afghanistan, such as poverty, interethnic strife, inequality of women, and widespread thievery, kidnapping, and banditry. Blood feuds handed down through generations are legendary, and revenge is regarded as a necessary redress of wrongs. The civil war has strengthened these tendencies. The ongoing civil war had continued to kill, wound, and displace hundreds of thousands of civilians. Kabul has been largely without electricity since 1994.
  • Taliban capture power

    Taliban capture power
    Taliban militia, who introduced hardline version of Islam- banning women from work and introducing Islamic punishments, capture power in Kabul.
  • United States Strike Afghanistan

    United States Strike Afghanistan
    The United States strike Afghan territory with close to 80 cruise missiles, targeting the Osama Bin Laden's headquarters- accused of bombing US embassies in Africa. Also, Taliban controls 90% of Afghanistan and seeks a Un seat and international recognition.
  • Terrorist Attacks

    Terrorist Attacks
    New York and Washington are attacked in a Terrorist attack. The hijackers intentionally crashed two of the airliners into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City. The hijackers crashed a third airliner into The Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia, just outside of Washington D.C. The fourth plane crashed into a field near Shanksville in rural Pennsylvania after some of its passengers and flight crew attempted to retake control of the plane.
  • Gas Pipeline

    Gas Pipeline
    President Karzai (head of a 30-member interim power-sharing government) and Pakistani, Turkmen leaders sign deal to build gas pipeline through Afghanistan, carrying Turkmen gas to Pakistan.
  • Period: to

    Nato takes over

    Nato troops take over the leadership of military operations in the south. Fierce fighting ensues as the forces try to extend government control in areas where Taliban influence is strong.
  • Operation Achillies

    Operation Achillies
    Pakistan says it has arrested Mullah Obaidullah Akhund, the third most senior member of the Taliban's leadership council.
    Nato and Afghan forces launch Operation Achilles, said to be their largest offensive to date against the Taliban in the south. There is heavy fighting in Helmand province.
  • Opium Production Soars

    Although there has been a lot of fighting going on, Economically, opium production has soared to a record high, the UN reports.
  • Relations with Pakistan

    Taliban engineers massive jail-break from Kandahar prison, freeing at least 350 insurgents.
    British Defence Secretary Des Browne announces British troop numbers in Afghanistan to increase by 230 to new high of more than 8,000 by spring 2009.
    President Karzai warns that Afghanistan will send troops into Pakistan to fight militants if Islamabad fails to take action against them.
  • New Us Approach

    US Defence Secretary Robert Gates replaces commander of US forces in Afghanistan, Gen David McKiernan, with Gen Stanley McChrystal, saying the battle against the Taliban needs "new thinking".
    US military says a US-Afghan force arrested 60 militants and captured more than 100 tonnes of drugs in Helmand province, in the largest drug seizure since foreign troops arrived in 2001.
  • Increase in Us Troops

    Increase in Us Troops
    US President Obama increases the numbers of US troops by 30,000, bringing total to 100,000, he says he will begin withdrawing troops by July 2011.
  • Economic Status

    Economic Status
    The economy of Afghanistan has improved significantly since 2002 because of multi-billion dollars in international assistance. It is also due to dramatic improvements in agricultural production and the end of a four-year drought in most of the country. However, Afghanistan still remains one of the poorest and least developed countries in the world that is highly dependent on foreign aid. As of 2010, the nation's GDP is $29.89 billion. Most people suffer from housing shortage and electricity.
  • More Attacks

    Ten people are killed and many more are injured in bomb blasts at an illegal dogfight in the South. This attack is the latest in the increase of insurgent attacks aimed at crowded public places, since the beginning of the year more than 100 people have been killed in similar attacks across the country.
  • Osama Bin Laden Killed

    Osama Bin Laden Killed
    President Barack Obama announces that Bin Laden has been killed by US special forces during a covert operation in Abbottabad, Pakistan. It is alleged that Bin Laden used his fourth wife as a human shield, but this is later disputed. His body is buried at sea within 24 hours