Supreme court

Supreme Court Milestones

  • Creation of the Supreme Court

    Creation of the Supreme Court
    The first Supreme Court consissted of a Chief Justice, and Associate Justices, The Judiciary Act of 1789 was the first Bill introduced in the United States Senate. It divided the country into 13 judicial districts.
  • John Jay

    John Jay
    First Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Served in office from September 26, 1789 to June 29, 1795.
  • John Marshall

    John Marshall
    Fourth Chief Justice of the United States. Longest serving Chief Justice in Supreme Court history. Served from Jan 1801 to July 1835. He established that federal courts are allowed to exercise Judicial Review. Confirmed supremacy of Federal law over state law.
  • Marbury vs. Madison

    Marbury vs. Madison
    Formed the basis for the exercise of Judicial Review. 1st time the Supreme Court declared something "unconstitutional". Helped define the 'Checks and Balances' of the American form of government.
    Argued: Feb 11, 1803
    Decided: Feb 24, 1803
  • Fletcher vs. Peck

    Fletcher vs. Peck
    Argued: Feb 15, 1810
    Decided: March 16, 1810
    One of the 1st cases in which the Supreme Court ruled a state law unconstitutional. Helped create a growning precedent for thesancity of legal contracts. Hinted that Native Americans did not hold titles to their own land.
  • Dartmouth College vs. Woodward

    Dartmouth College vs. Woodward
    Dealt with the application of the Contract Clause of the United States Constitution to private corporations.
    Decision: The Court upheld the sancity of the charter which was created before the formation of the State. Settled the nature of public verses private charters and resulted in the rise of the American business corporation.
  • McCullough vs. Maryland

    McCullough vs. Maryland
    Argued: Feb 22, 1819
    Decided: March 6, 1819
    Maryland attempted to impede on an operation of a branch of the Second Bank of the United Sates by imposing a tax on all notes banks chartered.
    Established 2 Principles:
    1. Constsitution grants Congress implied powers for implementing the Constitutions express powers, in order to create a functional national government.
    2. State action may not impede valid constitutional exercises of power by the federal government.
  • Gibbons vs. Ogden

    Gibbons vs. Ogden
    Argued: Feb 5, 1824
    Decided: March 2, 1824
    Supreme Court held power to regulate interstate commerce was granted to Congress by the Commerce Clause of the US Constitution.
    Congressional power over commerce should extend to the regulation of all aspects of it, overriding state law to the contrary.
  • Worcester vs. Georgia

    Worcester vs. Georgia
    Argued: Feburary 20, 1832
    Decided: March 3, 1832
    The Cherokee Indians brought a suit against Georgia in 1832 because Georgia overtuned the Cherokee constitution, declared their laws null and void, and decreed that tribal members would be tried in state courts. In order to avoid removal the Cherokee had tried to adopt the Americans' way of life, however, Georgia was not allowing that to happen.
  • Dred Scott vs Stanford

    Dred Scott vs Stanford
    Dred Scott, a slave in Missouri but from 1833 to 1843 he lived in Illinios which was a free state. Once he returned to Missouri Dred sued unsuccessfully in Missouri courts for his freedom.
    Dred Scott was not free because slaves were considered property and property could not be taken by the federal government.