Supreme Court Milestones
Creation of the Supreme CourtThe first Supreme Court consissted of a Chief Justice, and Associate Justices, The Judiciary Act of 1789 was the first Bill introduced in the United States Senate. It divided the country into 13 judicial districts.
John JayFirst Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Served in office from September 26, 1789 to June 29, 1795.
John MarshallFourth Chief Justice of the United States. Longest serving Chief Justice in Supreme Court history. Served from Jan 1801 to July 1835. He established that federal courts are allowed to exercise Judicial Review. Confirmed supremacy of Federal law over state law.
Marbury vs. MadisonFormed the basis for the exercise of Judicial Review. 1st time the Supreme Court declared something "unconstitutional". Helped define the 'Checks and Balances' of the American form of government.
Argued: Feb 11, 1803
Decided: Feb 24, 1803
Fletcher vs. PeckArgued: Feb 15, 1810
Decided: March 16, 1810
One of the 1st cases in which the Supreme Court ruled a state law unconstitutional. Helped create a growning precedent for thesancity of legal contracts. Hinted that Native Americans did not hold titles to their own land.
Dartmouth College vs. WoodwardDealt with the application of the Contract Clause of the United States Constitution to private corporations.
Decision: The Court upheld the sancity of the charter which was created before the formation of the State. Settled the nature of public verses private charters and resulted in the rise of the American business corporation.
McCullough vs. MarylandArgued: Feb 22, 1819
Decided: March 6, 1819
Maryland attempted to impede on an operation of a branch of the Second Bank of the United Sates by imposing a tax on all notes banks chartered.
Established 2 Principles:
1. Constsitution grants Congress implied powers for implementing the Constitutions express powers, in order to create a functional national government.
2. State action may not impede valid constitutional exercises of power by the federal government.
Gibbons vs. OgdenArgued: Feb 5, 1824
Decided: March 2, 1824
Supreme Court held power to regulate interstate commerce was granted to Congress by the Commerce Clause of the US Constitution.
Congressional power over commerce should extend to the regulation of all aspects of it, overriding state law to the contrary.
Worcester vs. GeorgiaArgued: Feburary 20, 1832
Decided: March 3, 1832
The Cherokee Indians brought a suit against Georgia in 1832 because Georgia overtuned the Cherokee constitution, declared their laws null and void, and decreed that tribal members would be tried in state courts. In order to avoid removal the Cherokee had tried to adopt the Americans' way of life, however, Georgia was not allowing that to happen.
Dred Scott vs StanfordDred Scott, a slave in Missouri but from 1833 to 1843 he lived in Illinios which was a free state. Once he returned to Missouri Dred sued unsuccessfully in Missouri courts for his freedom.
Dred Scott was not free because slaves were considered property and property could not be taken by the federal government.