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Supreme Court Milestones

  • Creation of Supreme Court

    Creation of Supreme Court
    The Supreme Court is the level of the judiciary branch that hears cases that involve amendments to the constitution, cases that interfere with one's constitutional rights. The significance of the Supreme Court is that it has the power to deam a new law proposed by congress unconstitutional, and ultimately protect us and our rights as American citizens. There is no higher law than the Supreme Court, making it essential that you have well educated and fair people as supreme court justices.
  • John Jay

    John Jay
    John Jay was born December 12, 1745. George Washington had appointed him as the first chief justice of the Supreme Court the same day Washington had signed the Judiciary Acto of 1789 which created the Supreme Court. He was unanimously accepted by congress.
  • John Marshall

    John Marshall
    Marshall was born on September 24, 1755. He was appointed as the 4th chief justice by president John Adamns. He was the Chief Justice during the case of Marbury vs. Madison which became the milestone court case that established judicial review/ checks and balances. He was mainly bent on maintaining personal rights for American citizens and he favored a stronge central government.
  • Marbury vs. Madison

    Marbury vs. Madison
    The case of Marbury v. Madison established judicial review on the other two branches of government. The case came about because William Marbury was appointed by Adams to be a federalist justice. A commission was to be delivered to him, but Jefferson had ordered Madison not to deliver the commissions to several of the appointed justices. Marbury sued Madison and the incident was viewed as unconstitutional, which was monumental to the country's judicial system.
  • Fletcher v. Peck

    Fletcher v. Peck
    A situation involving land that had been bribed for and then sold to land speculators. The law that approved the land to be sold was repealed and Fletcher took this up with Peck who had sold Fletcher land without fully possessing it. The Supreme Court ruled it unconstitutional to repeal the Land Act of 1795 even if the land which had been sold was first obtained illgally.This case showed that even state laws could be disputed and taken to the Supreme Court, anything that threatened one's rights.
  • McCulloch v. Maryland

    McCulloch v. Maryland
    The state of Maryland attempted to impose a tax on all banks outside of Maryland. The court saw it as an endeavor to target the Second Bank of the U.S. The bank was in Maryland but not chartered there. James McCulloch, head of the bank, refused to pay the tax and a lawsuit was filed. When the case reached the court Marshall ruled it unconstitutional to place any tax at all on the banks. By voiding the tax, Marshall further demonstrated that he was willing to protect businesses from government.
  • Dartmouth College v. Woodward

    Dartmouth College v. Woodward
    New Hampshire legislatures were attempting to change Dartmouth College's charter which had been given to them by George III in 1769. Since Marshall said that the state had no right to interefere with this charter, arguing that it was also a contract, and could not be modified by the legislature after it had been created. Marshall showed that he was determined to protect corporations and keep economic risk taking alive. He did not intend to allow the state to disrupt business.
  • Gibbons v. Ogden

    Gibbons v. Ogden
    Ogden and Gibbons had competing trading businesses on the same waterways. Ogden filed a complaint on Gibbon asking Congress to restrict Gibbons' trade. The case got to the Supreme Court which again, protected a business from Congress and allowed Gibbons to keep trading.
  • Worcester v. Georgia

    Worcester v. Georgia
    In 1830, Congress passed a bill that ordered for the removal of various Indian tribes in Georgia. The Cherokees took this case to court where John Marshall sided in favor of the Cherokees. Marshall decreed that the Indians had the right to their lands and Georgia could not interfere with those rights. Andrew Jackson ignored the Supreme Court ruling and ultimately the Constitution and ordered the removal to take place regardless of what the judiciary branch said.
  • Dred Scott v. Sanford

    Dred Scott was born a slave in Virginia. He was taken to a few free states and stationed there until his master sent for him. Because Scott had lived in a free state for an extended period of time, he believed that he had obtained his freedom. He sued Emerson's wife for his freedom. The case was appealed to the Supreme Court which ruled in favor of Emerson, arguing that they could not interfere with the property of an individual. They also said that the constitiution did not give freedom to blac