Kite Runner :)

  • Independence

    In 1919, Afghanistan gained independence from British occupying forces.
  • 49-year reign

    In 1933 Amanullah’s nephew Mohammad Zahir Shah, the last king of Afghanistan, began a 40-year reign.
  • The Taliban

    A mullah in Kandahar, Mohammad Omar Akhund (commonly known as Mullah Omar), forms a group which he calls Taliban, meaning 'students' - in this case Sunni students of the Qur'an.
    (Exact date not given)
  • Constitution

    The 1964 constitution proclaims Islam the "sacred religion of Afghanistan" and states that religious rites of the state shall be performed according to Hanafi doctrine. (Exact date not given)
  • Communism

    An attempt to set up a parliamentary government after 1963 resulted in serious social troubles—leading to the seizure of power by the Communists in 1978, many of whom were young, recently urbanized, detribalized people seeking social advancement. (Exact date not given)
  • No More War

    In 1988 the Soviet Union agreed to create a neutral Afghan state, and the last Soviet troops left Afghanistan in 1989. The agreement ended a war that killed thousands, devastated industry and agriculture, and created 5 to 6 million refugees.
  • Refugee Population

    There has been a huge refugee population outside the country since 1978, numbering over six million in 1990—it constituted the largest refugee population in the world. (Exact date not given)
  • Population

    In 1997, the population was estimated to be 23,738,000.
  • Capture of Mazar-e-Sharif

    When the Taliban briefly capture Mazar-e-Sharif in 1998, they similarly masssacre thousands of Shia Muslims in the city.
  • Terrorist Attack

    The terrorist attacks against the USA on 11 September 2001 transform the situation in Afghanistan.
  • AIA

    In December 2001, Afghan leaders in exile signed the Bonn Agreement, forming an interim government, the Afghan Interim Administration, under the leadership of the Pashtun moderate Hamid Karzai
  • Missile Attack against Taliban

    America holds back longer than many have feared, but on October 7 missile attacks are launched against Taliban and al-Qaeda targets in Afghanistan (in an operation code-named Enduring Freedom).
  • The Fall

    Mazar-e-Sharif falls on November 9, to be followed by Kabul just four days later. But it is almost another month before the Taliban original base and centre of power, Kandahar, is taken.
  • president

    In October 2004, an overwhelming popular vote elected Karzai president of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan