McKenzie Campalong's Famous "Warren Court" Legal Decisions Timeline

  • Period: to

    Famous "warren Court" Legal Decisions

  • Roth v. United States

    A man from New York named Roth had a business that used the mail to invite people to buy obscene materials. At first it was considered censorship and created the "prevailing" community standards" rule. The court defined obscene as as something that offends "the average person, applying contemporary community standards."
  • Mapp v. Ohio

    Mapp was convicted after Cleveland Police had raided her home without a warrant since they had found "obscene" materials. After appealing the decision, the court agreed that the 4th and 14th amendments should have protected her against improper police behavior. The "exclutionary rule" was extended to citizens in state court.
  • Baker v. Carr

    When the population in Nashville grew and rural Tennessee legislature wouldn't redraw state districts, Nashville Mayor Baker asked the courts for help. The courts refused to get involved with the redistricting, so the case was appealed.
  • Engel v. Vitale

    In New York, it was required to say a nonsectarian prayer at the start of each school day. A group of parents filed a suit against the prayer claiming it was in violation of their children's First Amendment Rights. The Court ruled the prayer was "unconstitutional" since religious beliefs are recited in the prayer.
  • Gideon v. Wainwright

    In Florida, Gideon was charged with breaking into a poolroom, but could not afford an attorney The state did not provide a lawyer when the death penalty was not involved. Gideon had to defend himself, but did not do a very good job. He was sentenced to five years in prison, but the Court called for a new trial since the Due Process Clause of the 14 Amendment applied to the 6th Amendment's guarantee of an attorney for all poor people facing felony charges. He was later found not guilty.
  • Reynolds v. Sims

    With the changes in the U.S., a complaint was filed by a group of residents, taxpayers, and voters of Jefferson County, Alabama to challenge the apportionment of the Alabama legislature. "One person, one vote" was supported in this case and the reapportionment was ordered.
  • Escobedo v. Illinois

    Chicago area police had a man in custody who confessed to a murder, but did not have a lawyer with him. Since his lawyer and the police did not warn him of his right to remain silent, he was denied counsel, thus violating the Sixth Amendment.
  • Griswold v. Connecticut

    The director of Planned Parenthood, Griswold, was arrested for counseling married couples since he was considered to be "preventing conception". The courts ended up overturning the law since "various guarantees of the Constitution create zones of privacy".
  • Miranda v. Arizona

    Miranda was arrested for kidnapping and sexual assault. He had signed a confession saying he also had full knowledge of his legal rights. He was convicted, but had later appealed saying his confession was unlegally obtained since he was unaware of his rights. The court agreed that he must be warned prior to any questioning that he has the right to remain silent, that anything he says can be used against him in a court of law, that he has the right to an attorney.