Fascist dictators did not have any one set of beliefs. It was rooted in extreme nationalism. The first Fascist dictator to rise to power was Mussolini. He “set the stage” for new dictators to rise.
Japanese Aggression in Asia
Japan Leaders were thinking that Japan shouold have an empire. Japan wanted to be as strong as a Western Power. Japan invaded Manchuria in 1931. Japan then withdrew from the League of Nations once they required a stop to the aggression.
Annexation of Austria
Nazi propaganda was very strong in Austria. Hitler had forced the Austrian Leader to put Nazis in the Austrian Cabinet. Hitler put in place Anschluss, and quickly began to move troops into Austria. Any people speaking out about their beliefs against Hitler and Anschluss were quickly silenced. No other country or democracy tried to stop Hitler and he came to more power.
Hitler wanted Sudetenland and at The Munich Conference, Britain and France were not willing to fight Hitler. Once again, Hitler gained land through appeasement. The Czechs surrendered Sudetenland. Hitler then assured peace and everyone believed him.
The Nazis and the Soviets signed the Nazi Soviet pact. This was a non-aggression pact. This guaranteed that both the countries would not attack each other. This helped Germany make sure they don’t have to fight a two front war in the upcoming World War II. The pact was broken in 1941 when Hitler attacked the Soviet Union.
Battle of the Atlantic
German U-boats and Italian submarines were pitted against Allied convoys trying to transport military equipment to Britain and the Soviet Union. Early in the lengthy war, the German navy focused on escalating the U-boat war. The U-boats benefitted greatly from these wars as they were very successful in sinking ships. IN 1941 they inflicted huge losses, sinking 875 Allied Ships.
The early stages of World War II. It was called the Phony War because nothing really happened. No land operations took place after September of 1939. The term was created by journalists.
Fall of France
Europe has been at war for 9 months. The Phony war came to an end when Hitler launched an attack at France. This attack would threaten the French troops at the Maginot line. This would start the fall of the French Empire. Once Italy joined the war allied with the Germans, the French Empire was defeated.
Miracle at Dunkirk
The evacuation of Allied troops at Dunkirk, France. Germany was cutting off the British, French and Belgian troops. 338,226 troops were eventually evacuated. This was considered a miracle because of how many lives were saved.
Battle of Britain
The Battle of Britain was a struggle between the German Luftwaffe and the British Royal Air Force. This was the first battle to be fought in the air. Although the Luftwaffe had the odds stacked against them, Hitler was able to win. He used Operation Sealion to help distract Britain from the air war.
The code name for Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during WWII. This is largest invasion in the history of warfare. Over 4 million soldiers of the Axis powers invaded USSR. Barbarossa used 600,000 motor vehicles and 750,000 horses.
The Nazis targeted many groups for extermination, including Gypsies, Slavs, the disabled and homosexuals. They were labeled as “undesirables”. The most notorious massacre was on the 29th and 30th of September 1941. 33,771 Jews were killed.
Attack on Pearl Harbor
Japan bombed the U.S. Naval base of Pearl Harbor. This sparked the interest of the Americans to get into WWII. More than 3,500 Americans were killed or wounded in the attacks. There were two waves of attacks.
The United Nations was created because of a necessity. It was needed to provide peace among the nations unlike the League of Nations could do. WWII became the real driving force for the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union to begin creating a new league of nations. Peace was needed to help the world’s economy.
Battle of Midway
The Battle of Midway was the most important naval battle of the Pacific Campaign of WWII. Only six months after Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States Navy defeated The Japanese Navy. The US attacked against Midway Atoll, inflicting irreparable damage on the Japanese fleet. The Japanese hoped that another demoralizing defeat would force the U.S. to capitulate in the Pacific War and thus ensure Japanese dominance in the Pacific. But it didn’t work.
Battle of El Alamein
There were two battles of El Alamein. The First Battle of El Alamein was fought on the northern coast of Egypt between Axis forces and Allied forces. The battle became a stalemate. The Second Battle of El Alamein would be required to drive the Axis armies out of Egypt for good.
Battle of Stalingrad
This battle is called the biggest turning point in WWII. Hitler wanted Stalingrad which Russia was not about to give up easily. It took place in Russia where the Germans were defeated. After this defeat, the Germany Army was in full retreat.
Invasion of Italy
The Invasion of Italy was the Allied landing on mainland Italy. The operation followed the successful invasion of Sicily during the Italian Campaign. The main invasion force landed around Salerno on the western coast in Operation Avalanche. After this, there were many German counter attacks.
The Battle of Normandy, which lasted from, resulted in the releasing of the Allied forces of Western Europe from Nazi Germany’s control. The D-Day operation had 156,000 forces landed on five beaches along a coast of France’s Normandy region. The invasion was one of the largest military assaults in history and required extensive planning. The Normandy landings have been called the beginning of the end of war in Europe.
Battle of Okinawa
The Battle of Okinawa was fought on the Ryukyu Islands of Okinawa. It was the largest assault in the Pacific War of WWII. the Allies were approaching Japan, and planned to use Okinawa as a base for air operations. The invasion was supported by naval, amphibious, and tactical air forces.
Battle of Berlin
The Soviet Army attacked the Germans as a result of the Vistula. When the offensive resumed, two Soviet army groups attacked Berlin from the east and south. A third group overran German forces positioned north of Berlin. The Germans surrendered on May 2.
Nazi Germany was defeated because of bad decisions made by the Führer, Adolf Hitler. Also the advantage the Allies had in number of troops. Hitler's decision to invade Russia was a difficult one from the outset. In the Winter of 1941, Germany lost the initiative and its forces became stuck in battle. Hitler would not allow any retreat, and decisions to attack the wrong targets were made.
Use of Atomic Weapons
America used the first atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. It instantly killed around 80,000 people. Later, a second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. This caused the deaths of 40,000 more people. The Atomic weaponry was revolutionary and very destructive.
Surrender of Japan
The surrender of the Empire of Japan brought WWII to a close. By the end of July 1945, the Imperial Japanese Navy was incapable of conducting operations. Japan was destroyed by the US and its atomic weaponry. An Allied invasion of Japan was about to happen. Japan's leaders were privately making treaties to the neutral Soviet Union to mediate peace.