World War II and Great Depression Timeline

Timeline created by 16dudleyk0820
  • Black Tuesday- Economic event

    In September 1929, investors started to think that stock prices were unnaturally high. They began to sell their stocks with the belief that the prices would soon go down. By October 24, the stock prices stopped gradually lowering and began all-out sliding downward, resulting in a panic. No one wanted to buy stocks, everyone wanted to sell them. Prices hit a new low on October 29. 16 million stocks were sold and the market collapsed.
  • Adolf Hitler appointed Chancellor- Political event

    Hitler was appointed as the chancellor of Germany by President Paul Von Hindenburg. He called for new elections in hopes of winning a parliamentary majority. By stirring up fear of the Communists, the Nazis and their Allies won by a small majority. Hitler used his power to make Germany a totalitarian state. He had opponents arrested and banned all other political parties.
  • The German Reich Expands- Social event

    Hitler announced to his advisers the plan he had to absorb Austria and Czechoslovakia into the German Empire, or the Third Reich. The Treaty of Versailles prohibited a union between Austria and Germany. However, many Austrians supported uniting with Germany.
  • The Munich Conference- Social event

    Mussolini proposed a meeting of Germany, France, Britain, and Italy when France and Britain were preparing for war. The Czechs were not invited. The British prime minister, Neville Chamberlain, thought that he could preserve peace by giving in to Hitler's demand. Britain and France agreed that Hitler could take Sudetenland. In return, Hitler pledged to respect Czechoslovakia's new borders.
  • The Night of the Broken Glass- Social event

    On the night of November 9, 1938, Nazi mobs attakced Jews on the street and in their homes. They also destroyed thousands of Jewish-owned buildings. This rampage is called Kristallnacht, meaning "Night of the Broken Glass". This was the start of the process of eliminating Jews from German life.
  • Nazis and Soviets Sign Nonaggression Pact- Social event

    France and Britain asked the Soviet Union to join them in effort to stop Hitler's aggression. Stalin talked with France and Britain, and also bargained with Hitler. The two dictators made an agreement that Fascist Germany and Communist Russia will never attack each other.
  • Germany's Lightning Attack- Military event

    Hitler moved ahead with plans to conquer Poland. He made a surprise attack as German tanks and troop trucks travelled across the Polish border. Also, German aircraft and artillery began a bombing of Warsaw, Poland's capital. This invasion was the first test of Germany's new military strategy, blitzkrieg.
  • France Falls- Military event

    Resistance in France began to fall. The Germans had taken Paris by June 14. French leaders surrendered on June 22, 1940. The Germans took control of the northern part of the country.
  • Pearl Harbor- Military event

    American sailors awoke to explosives from a Japanese attack. U.S. military leaders knew from a coded Japanese message that an attack would happen but they were not sure when or where. In a two hour time span, the Japanese had damaged or sunk 19 ships including eight battleships. More than 2,300 Americans were killed and 1,100 were wounded from the attack.
  • The Battle of Midway- Military event

    Japan targeted Midway Island. The commander in chief of the U.S, Pacific Fleet, Admiral Chester Nimitz, knew that a large Japanese force was heading toward Midway. With American forces hidden beyond the horizons, Nimitz alllowed the Japanese to begin their assault on the island. American planes attacked the Japanese fleet as they first got into the air. American pilots destroyed 332 Japanese planes, all four aircraft carriers, and one support ship. By June 7, 1942, the battle was over.
  • Battle of Guadalcanal- Military event

    Several thousand U.S. Marines, with Australian support, landed on Guadalcanal and Tulagi. The marines did not have much trouble seizing Guadalcanal's airfield. However, the battle for control of the island turned into a big struggle when both sides brought in fresh troops. After six months of fighting, in February 1943, the battle ended. The Japanese lost 24,000 out of a force of 36,000 and abandoned the island.
  • The Invasion of Italy- Military event

    Roosevelt and Churchill decided to attack Italy. On July 10, 1943, Allied forces landed on Sicily and captured it from Italian and German troops a month later.
  • Mussolini Falls from Power- Social event

    The conquest of Sicily toppled Mussolini from power. On July 25, King Victor Emmanuel III had him arrested.
  • D-Day- Military event

    D-Day was code-named Operation Overlord and it was the invasion of Normandy. It was the largest land and sea attack in history. At dawn, British, American, French, and Canadian troops fought their way onto a beach of Normandy that stretched 60 miles. The Germans dug in with rocket launchers, cannons, and machine guns and sheltered behind walls three feet thick. 2,700 men died on the beaches that day among the American forces alone.
  • Battle of the Bulge- Military event

    Allied forces moved toward Germany from the west and the Soviet army was moving toward Germany from the east. Hitler decided to counter-attack in the west to split up American and British forces and break up Allied supply lines. German tanks broke through American defenses along a 75 mile front in the Ardennes.
  • The Assassination of Mussolini- Social event

    Italian resistance fighters ambushed some German trucks near Milan. Inside one of the trucks, they found Mussolini disguised as a German soldier. They shot him the next day and hung his body in downtown Milan for everyone to see.
  • First Atomic Bomb Explosion- Technological event

    The first atomic bomb was exploded in a desert in New Mexico. President Truman woarned the Japanese that if they did not surrender, they could expect a "rain of ruin from the air".
  • Bombing of Hiroshima- Military event

    The Japanese did not reply to President Truman's warning. The United States dropped a bomb on Hiroshima. Between 70,000 and 80,000 people died in the attack.
  • Bombing of Nagasaki- Military event

    A second bomb was dropped on the city of Nagasaki. 70,000 people were immediately killed by the bombing. Radiation fallout from the two explosions killed many more people.
  • The Japanese Surrender- Military event

    The Japanese surrendered to General Douglas MacArthur. The ceremony took place on the United States battleship, "Missouri", in Tokyo Bay. The war had ended with Japan's surrender.