Mussolini became dictator of Mussolini with world's first fascist government. Benito outlawed all other political parties and established a secret police and controlled all media.
Death of Vladimir Lenin
Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin died, which left the U.S.S.R. in a struggle for power between competing leaders in Communist Party.
Stalin outmaneuvered opponents expelling them and placed himself in charge of the USSR keeping it strong but poor, industrial, communist nation. He created a Five Year Plan, which was a economic and industrial plan to increase the Soviet's industrial output making them self-sufficient.
Tojo became prime minister of Japan and created a military government.
Hirohito was the emperor of Japan wishing to modernize the country.
Kellogg Briand Pact
International outlaw of war.
Italy invaded Ethiopia
Italy invaded Ethiopia was important because it allowed Italy to have access to materials like rubber and oil.
Japan invaded Manchuria
This is important because it started Japans expansion into China.
Hitler became a Nazi leader after World War I with the help of his brown shirted paramilitary group who terrorized political opponents. He rose quickly in the Nazi party to become its leader and chancellor of Germany.
The Enabling Act responded to a terrorist attack on the capitol, the Reichstag gave Hitler absolute dictatorial power for four year, which was renewed three times.
Germany increase troops to 600,000 and builds air force. This is important because it violated the Treaty of Versailles.
Germany & Rhineland
Germany reoccupies Rhineland. This is important because it was the beginning of Germany's terror.
Japan Invades China
Japan invades China hoping to team up with Germany to invade the Soviet Union.
Rape of Nanjing
This is important because Japan invades eastern China killing and raping thousands.
Germany Merged With Austria
Munich Conference held to decide the fate of Sudetenland after Hitler threatens was over it.
The Year 1939
This is important because a lot of things happened in this year.
March - Germany invades rest of Czechoslovakia and demands a port in Poland.
May - Germany and Italy form a military alliance (Axis Powers)
August - Germany and Soviet Union sign non-aggression pact, which means they won't attack each other.
Germany Invades Poland
This is important because this is what causes Britain & France to declare war on Germany and this starts World War II.
This is the German military tactic that means, "lightning war". This is when they combined airplanes bombing raids with tanks supported by ground troops
After Poland, Hitler doesn't attack again for 6 months which made many people believe the war to be a "phony war" until Germany unleashed modern warfare on Europe in Spring of 1940.
Germans overrun Denmark & Norway
This is important because it prevented the British from creating a blockade.
Germans Attack the Netherlands
Germans turn their attention to Western Europe launching an attack on the Netherlands and Luxembourg who offer no resistance and Belgium who does but fails six days later. This shows how fast they are taking control.
Fall of France
The Allies attempt to oppose Germans pushing through Belgium, as Germans go around Maginot Line penetrating to English Channel trapping Allied forces.
Miracle at Dunkirk
330,000 Allied troops barely escape across English Channel leaving France to Nazis as Britain stood alone against Nazi Germany. This is important because if they had not been saved it would've been a devastating tragedy.
Battle of Britain
German Luftwaffe, air force, attempt to gain air superiority over Royal Air Force before a planned invasion of Britain in 1st major battle of air forces. Hitler calls off invasion at end of October.
Hitler betrays Stalin and invades Soviet Union with 3, 500, 000 and reaches the outskirts of Moscow & Leningrad by December. This is important because the Soviets counterattacks along with winter halt German advance for 1st time.
Siege of Leningrad
1941 - 1944
After longest siege in history, Soviets break through German line and push Germans back across Baltic states where Germans held firm for months.
Attack on Pearl Harbor
Japanese conduct sneak attack on U.S. military port in Hawaii in attempt to eliminate U.S.'s ability to retaliate against Japanese expansion. This is important because this is what causes the U.S. to enter World War II.
Battle of the Coral Sea
Turning point in the war as U.S. navy stops Japanese invasion of Australia. First naval battle to take place entirely with airplanes.
Battle of Midway
The turning point in the war in the Pacific as U.S. decoders knew the attack was coming and prepared an ambush for the Japanese. This is important because it marks the end of Japanese expansion into the Pacific and a turning point because Japanese are now on the defense.
Battle of El Alamein
In this battle, British forces drove the Germans, led by General Rommel, out of Egypt pushing them westward across North Africa.
Roosevelt and Churchill meet to discuss allied strategy and declared unconditional surrender. This is important because this means they are going to fight until someone gives up not until someone signs a treaty, therefore the war will last longer.
Battle of Stalingrad
August 1942 - February 1943
The Germans relaunched attack of Soviets breaking through in south pushing back to Stalingrad becoming a turning point of war. The Germans take the city, but are stuck as winter arrived and reinforced Soviet army counterattack and surrounds German army. This is the worst battles of the war and of world history.
Battle of Kasserine Pass
U.S. troops go into battle in N. Africa after humbling defeat before working with British pushing Nazi's out of Africa. This is important because it shows that the U.S. wasn't as prepared/trained as the Germans.
Battle of Kasserine Pass
U.S. forces commanded by Dwight D. Eisenhower and led by George Patton landed on the beaches of northwest Africa and engaged the retreating German forces during this battle.
British and U.S. forces began invasion of Italy starting with Sicily. Mussolini was forced out by his own people as southern Italy made peace with Allies. German troops rush to Italy to reinforce it while weakening their lines of Eastern Front.
Soviets fortify on the Eastern Front in anticipation of renewed German offensive.
Battle of Kursk
Germans fail to cut off and surround bulge in Soviet lines in last German offensive on Eastern Front giving Soviets the initiative pushing Germans out of Soviet territory.
This was the first meeting of the "big three", Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill, agreeing to open up the Western Front in 1944.
Battle of Normandy "D-Day"
Allied troops cross English Channel and invade beaches of Normandy in the largest amphibious invasion in history. They divided into 5 code-named beaches, western Allies secure beach head spreading out to take northern France & Paris by August.
Battle of the Bulge
Germany’s last offensive attempt to drive Allies from Western German border in the largest battle on the Western Front.
Battle of Leyte Gulf
U.S. forces begin campaign to retake Philippines in largest naval battle in history. Japanese begins to use kamikaze pilots for the first time
Allied leaders discussed postwar Europe along with dividing and occupying Germany after the war.
U.S. drops incendiary bombs filled with napalm on Tokyo creating huge firestorms. This is important because it was the most destructive bombing.
Battle of the Atlantic
British attempt to use convoys to transport supplies across Atlantic as Germany respond with u-boat "wolf packs" that sink British ships (36:1). U.S.'s entry into war with its industrial output and advanced radar turn the tide.
New Allied leaders, Truman & Attlee, decide Japan must unconditionally surrender or face destruction.
U.S. Detonates 1st of 3 Atomic Bombs
U.S. detonates 1st of 3 atomic bombs in the New Mexican desert. Truman decided to use the others on Japan and save lives and shorten the war.
Bombing of Hiroshima
The U.S. drops the first atomic bomb, "Little Boy", on Hiroshima killing 70,000 people. There was also 70,000 injured, 1 mile radius total destruction, and 4.7 miles destroyed. This is important because it led to Japanese surrendering.
Bombing of Nagasaki
The U.S. dropped second atomic bomb, "Fat Man", killing 40,000 people. There was another 80,000 injured, 1 mile radius total destruction, and 3 miles destroyed. This is important because it led to Japanese surrendering.
Japan surrenders avoiding need for U.S. to invade. Allies celebrate it as V-J Day (Victory in Japan day).
End of World War II
This is important because this is when peace treaties were signed which officially ended the war in the Pacific and World War II. This war costed 60,000,000+ lives in deadliest conflict in world history and destroyed Europe.