Timeline of the Medici Family

  • Period: 1360 to 1429

    Giovanni de Medici

    Giovanni di Bicci de Medici was born in Florence around 1360. He became the founder of the Medici bank in Florence and was the father of Cosimo de Medici, considered the founder of the Medici political dynasty in Florence. He died in 1429 in Florence and is buried alongside his wife in the Old Sacristy of the Church of San Lorenzo.
  • 1382

    Loggia dei Lanzi built

  • 1385

    Basilica of Santa Croce built

  • Period: 1389 to 1464

    Cosimo the Elder

    Còsimo di Giovanni degli Mèdici, more popularly known as Cosimo the Elder ("il Vecchio"), was born in Florence in 1389 and is considered the founder of the Medici political dynasty in Florence and Tuscany. His father founded the Medici bank and was one of the wealthiest men in Europe. Cosimo died in 1464 and his son Piero the Gouty was entrusted with the Medici political fortunes. He is buried in the Church of San Lorenzo.
  • Period: 1395 to 1440

    Lorenzo the Elder

    The younger brother of Cosimo the Elder, Lorenzo the Elder is considered the founder of the "cadet" or dei Popolani branch of the Medici family.
  • 1397

    Medici Bank established

  • 1410

    Baladassare Cossa elected Pope John XXIII with the financial help of the Medici

  • 1412

    Medici family made official Papal bankers

  • Period: 1416 to 1470

    Piero the Gouty

    Piero di Cosimo de' Medici, or Piero the Gouty (Piero "il Gottoso"), was the son of Cosimo the Elder and father of Lorenzo the Magnificent. He was born in 1416 in Florence to Cosimo and his wife, Contessina de' Bardi. Piero was the de facto ruler of Florence for six years, 1464 to 1470.
  • 1418

    Brunelleschi, the Renaissance's premiere engineer, starts work on Church of San Lorenzo

  • 1420

    Brunelleschi commissioned to erect the dome of Florence Cathedral

  • Period: 1430 to 1476

    Pierfrancesco de' Medici

    The son of Lorenzo the Elder of the Medici "cadet" branch. He died in 1476 and his sons, Lorenzo and Giovanni, were adopted by Lorenzo the Magnificent.
  • 1433

    Cosimo de'Medici banished from Florence by the Albizzi family: a public vote banishes him for 10 years

  • 1434

    Cosimo de' Medici comes to power

  • 1434

    The Albizzi family collapse after making war against Duke of Milan Pope Eugenius IV demands Cosimo return from exile

  • 1436

    Duomo consecrated

  • 1436

    Brunelleschi's dome complete

  • 1437

    Cosimo opens world's first public library at San Marco

  • 1446

    Donatello unveils David

  • 1446

    Brunelleschi dies

  • Period: 1449 to 1492

    Lorenzo the Magnificent

    Lorenzo de' Medici, known more popularly as Lorenzo the Magnificent, was the grandson of Cosimo the Elder and was an influential statesman, diplomat, and political figure in Florence from 1469 until his death in 1492.
  • 1450

    Cosimo's friend, Francesco Sforza, becomes Duke of Milan

  • Period: 1463 to 1503

    Lorenzo il Popolano

    Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco (commonly called Lorenzo il Popolano, translated at times as "the Commoner" or "of the People") was the son of Pierfranceso de' Medici. When his father died in 1476, he and his brother Giovanni were cared for by Lorenzo il Magnifico, though Lorenzo often borrowed heavily from the boys' inheritance, leading to later strife between the two lines of the Medici family.
  • Period: 1467 to 1498

    Giovanni il Popolano

    Giovanni di Pierfrancesco was the younger brother of Lorenzo il Popolano and the grandson of Lorenzo the Elder, founder of the cadet line of the Medici family. His son, initially christened Ludovico de' Medici, was re-christened after his father's death as Giovanni dalle Bande Nere, the renowned condottiero.
  • Period: 1472 to 1503

    Piero the Unfortunate

    The oldest son of Lorenzo the Magnificent, Piero il Fatuo was the de facto leader of Florence for only a brief period of time. His mishandling of King Charles VIII's invasion of Tuscany and Florence led to his exile from Florence in 1494, after which the Medici did not govern Florence again until 1512.
  • Period: 1475 to 1521

    Pope Leo X

    One of three sons of Lorenzo the Magnificent, Giovanni de' Medici was named a cardinal-deacon at age 14 and ultimately became Pope Leo X in 1513 at age 37. As Pope, he ex-communicated Martin Luther.
  • 1478

    Pazzi conspiracy foiled

    This was a plot by the members of the Pazzi family to displace the Medici as the rulers of Florence
  • Period: 1478 to 1534

    Pope Clement VII

    Born Giulio de Medici, the only son of Giuliano de' Medici, who had been assassinated one month before Giulio's birth. He was a cardinal for ten years before becoming Pope Clement VII in 1523, just two years after the death of his cousin Pope Leo X.
  • Period: 1487 to 1525

    Pierfrancesco the Younger

    Pierfrancesco II di Lorenzo, also known as Pierfrancesco the Younger, was a Medici banker who did not generally take in part in Florentine politics. He is most known as the father of Lorenzaccio de' Medici ("Lorenzo the Bad"), who assassinated Allessandro il Moro, Duke of Florence and the last male heir from the principal line of the Medici family.
  • Period: 1492 to 1519

    Lorenzo II

    Lorenzo di Piero de' Medici was the ruler of Florence from 1516 until his death in 1519. He was also Duke of Urbino during the same period. His daughter Catherine de' Medici became Queen Consort of France, while his illegitimate son, Alessandro de' Medici, became the first Duke of Florence.
  • 1494

    Palazzo Vecchio is built

  • 1498

    Niccolò Machiavelli becomes secretary

  • Period: 1498 to 1526

    Giovanni delle Bande Nere

    Ludovico de' Medici, later re-christened Giovanni delle Bande Nere ("Black Bands"), became a notorious Italian condottiero, or mercenary military captain. Pope Leo X (son of Lorenzo the Magnificent) first employed Giovanni as a mercenary military leader, as did Pope Clement VII, another Medici pope.
  • 1504

    Michelangelo's David sculpture installed in the Piazza della Signoria

    Michelangelo's artistic efforts were funded by the Medici family
  • Period: 1510 to 1537

    Alessandro de' Medici ("il Moro")

    Though recognized by the Medici as the only son of Lorenzo II, most scholars believe Alessandro de' Medici (nicknamed "il Moro") was in fact the son of Giulio de' Medici (later Pope Clement VII) and a mulatto servant working in the Medici household. Alessandro's assassination by Lorenzaccio in 1537 led to the passing of hereditary power to Cosimo I, the first member of the "junior" or "cadet" branch of the Medici family to rule Florence.
  • Period: 1511 to 1535

    Cardinal Ippolito de' Medici

    Ippolito de' Medici was the illegitimate only son of Giuliano de' Medici, who was youngest son of Lorenzo the Magnificent. His cousin, Pope Clement VII, appointed him archbishop of Avignon and subsequently cardinal and papal delegate to Hungary.
  • 1513

    Giulio de Medici becomes Archbishop of Florence.

  • Period: 1519 to 1574

    Cosimo I

    Cosimo I de' Medici was the second Duke of Florence from 1537 until 1569, when he became the first Grand Duke of Tuscany, a title he held until his death.
  • 1532

    Alessandro de Medici becomes duke of Florence; Republic of Florence ends.

  • Period: 1541 to

    Francesco I

    Francesco I (25 March 1541 – 19 October 1587) was the second Grand Duke of Tuscany, ruling from 1574 until his death in 1587.
  • Period: 1549 to

    Ferdinando I de' Medici

    Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany was Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1587 to 1609, having succeeded his older brother Francesco I.
  • 1562

    Accademia del Disegno established

    Founded by Cosimo I de Medici
  • 1565

    Fountain of Neptune inaugurated.

    Cosimo I de Medici commissioned Baccio Bandinelli to create this fountain
  • 1581

    Uffizi art museum built

  • Period: to

    Cosimo II

    Cosimo II de' Medici was Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1609 until his death. He was the elder son of Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Christina of Lorraine.
  • Wedding of Maria de 'Medici and Henry IV of France

  • Period: to

    Ferdinando II

    Ferdinando II de' Medici was grand duke of Tuscany from 1621 to 1670. He was the eldest son of Cosimo II de' Medici and Maria Maddalena of Austria. His 49-year rule was punctuated by the beginning of Tuscany's long economic decline. He married Vittoria della Rovere, a first cousin, with whom he had two children who reached adulthood: Cosimo III de' Medici, his eventual successor, and Francesco Maria de' Medici, Duke of Rovere and Montefeltro, a cardinal.
  • Period: to

    Cosimo III

    Cosimo III was the next to last Grand Duke of Tuscany. He maintained the longest reign over Florence (53 years) than any other member of the Medici family.
  • Period: to

    Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici

    The last of the Medici family, Anna Maria Luisa was the older sister of the last Medici ruler, Gian Gastone de' Medici. When he died in 1737 without any male heirs, Anna Maria Luisa inherited the vast moveable property of the Medici, including all of the Medici art, furniture, coins, and statuary. She willed that the Medici collection was to remain in Florence forever, in effect bequeathing it to the city.
  • Period: to

    Gian Gastone de' Medici

    Gian Gastone de' Medici was the seventh and last Medicean Grand Duke of Tuscany.