Pearl harbor

Pacific Theater by Ashley Speicher

  • Pearl Harbor

    Pearl Harbor
    Just before 8 a.m. on December 7, 1941, hundreds of Japanese fighter planes attacked the American naval base at Pearl Harbor near Honolulu, Hawaii. The barrage lasted just two hours, but it was devastating: The Japanese managed to destroy nearly 20 American naval vessels, including eight enormous battleships, and almost 200 airplanes. More than 2,000 Americans soldiers and sailors died in the attack, and another 1,000 were wounded. The day after the assault, President Franklin D. Roosevelt asked
  • Pearl Harbor

    Pearl Harbor
    Congress to declare war on Japan; Congress approved his declaration with just one dissenting vote. Three days later, Japanese allies Germany and Italy also declared war on the United States, and again Congress reciprocated. More than two years into the conflict, America had finally joined World War II.
  • Loss of the Philippines

    Loss of the Philippines
    The Philippines Campaign (Filipino:Labanan sa Pilipinas) or the Battle of the Philippines was the invasion of the Philippines by Japan in 1941–1942 and the defense of the islands by Filipino and United States forces. The defending forces outnumbered the Japanese invaders by 3 to 2, but were a mixed force of non-combat experienced regular, national guard, constabulary, and newly created Commonwealth units; the Japanese used their best first-line troops at the outset of the campaign. The Japanese
  • Loss of Philippines

    Loss of Philippines
    14th Army also concentrated its forces in the first month of the campaign, enabling it to swiftly overrun most of Luzon. The Japanese high command, believing they had won the campaign, made a strategic decision to advance by a month their timetable of operations in Borneo and Indonesia, withdrawing their best division and the bulk of their airpower in early January 1942. This, coupled with the decision of the defenders to withdraw into a defensive holding position in the Bataan Peninsula
  • Loss of Philippines

    Loss of Philippines
    enabled the Americans and Filipinos to successfully hold out for four more months.
    In March 1942, MacArthur was ordered to leave his men. Less than a month later, 10,000 American and 60,000 Filipino troops on Bataan surrendered.
  • Battle of Java Sea

    Battle of Java Sea
    The Battle of the Java Sea was a decisive naval battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II. Allied navies suffered a disastrous defeat at the hand of the Imperial Japanese Navy, on 27 February 1942, and in secondary actions over successive days. The American-British-Dutch-Australian Command (ABDACOM) Strike Force commander—Rear-Admiral Karel Doorman—was killed. The aftermath of the battle included several smaller actions around Java, including the smaller but also significant Battle of Sunda
  • Battle of Java Sea

    Battle of Java Sea
    Strait. These defeats led to Japanese occupation of the entire Netherlands East Indies. The battle was the largest surface ship engagement since the Battle of Jutland in 1916.The main ABDA naval force had been almost totally destroyed: 10 ships and approximately 2,173 sailors had been lost. The Battle of the Java Sea ended significant Allied naval operations in South-East Asia in 1942, and Japanese land forces invaded Java on 28 February. The Dutch surface fleet was practically eradicated from
  • Battle of Java Sea

    Battle of Java Sea
    from the Asian waters and the Netherlands would never reclaim full control of its colony. The Japanese had laid open the control of one of the most important food-producing regions, Java, and by conquering the Dutch East-Indies Japan also gained ultimate control over the sources of the fourth largest oil producer in the world in 1940.
  • Bataan Death March

    Bataan Death March
    The Bataan Death March was the forcible transfer from Saisaih Pt. and Mariveles to Camp O'Donnell by the Imperial Japanese Army of 60,000–80,000 Filipino and American prisoners of war which began on April 9, 1942, after the three-month Battle of Bataan in the Philippines during World War II. About 2,500–10,000 Filipino and 100–650 American prisoners of war died before they could reach their destination. The reported death tolls vary, especially amongst Filipino POWs, because historians cannot
  • Bataan Death March

    Bataan Death March
    determine how many prisoners blended in with the civilian population and escaped. The march went from Mariveles, Bataan, to San Fernando, Pampanga. From San Fernando, survivors were loaded to a box train and were brought to Camp O'Donnell in Capas, Tarlac. The 60 mi (97 km) march was characterized by occasional severe physical abuse and resulted in some fatalities inflicted upon prisoners and civilians alike by the Japanese Army. It was later judged by an Allied military commission to be a
  • Doolittle Raid

    Doolittle Raid
    Was an air raid by the United States on the Japanese capital Tokyo and other places on Honshu island during World War II, the first air raid to strike the Japanese Home Islands. It demonstrated that Japan itself was vulnerable to American air attack, served as retaliation for the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941, and provided an important boost to U.S. morale while damaging Japanese morale. The raid was planned and led by Lieutenant Colonel James "Jimmy" Doolittle, US AF.
  • Doolittle Raid

    Doolittle Raid
    The raid caused negligible material damage to Japan, but it succeeded in its goal of raising American morale and casting doubt in Japan on the ability of its military leaders to defend their home islands. It also contributed to Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto's decision to attack Midway Island in the Central Pacific—an attack that turned into a decisive strategic defeat of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) by the U.S. Navy in the Battle of Midway. Doolittle, who initially believed that loss of all his
  • Doolittle Raid

    Doolittle Raid
    aircraft would lead to his being court-martialled, received the Medal of Honor and was promoted two steps to Brigadier General.
  • Battle of Coral Sea

    Battle of Coral Sea
    The Battle of the Coral Sea, fought during 4–8 May 1942, was a major naval battle in the Pacific Theater of World War II between the Imperial Japanese Navy and naval and air forces from the United States and Australia. The battle was the first action in which aircraft carriers engaged each other, as well as the first in which neither side's ships sighted or fired directly upon the other.
  • Battle of Coral Sea

    Battle of Coral Sea
    US losses: 1 fleet carrier scuttled,
    1 destroyer sunk,
    1 oiler sunk,
    1 fleet carrier damaged
    69 aircraft destroyed
    656 killed
  • Battle of Coral Sea

    Battle of Coral Sea
    Japanese losses: 1 light carrier sunk,
    1 destroyer sunk,
    3 small warships sunk,
    1 fleet carrier damaged,
    1 destroyer damaged,
    2 smaller warships damaged,
    1 transport damaged,
    92 aircraft destroyed
    966 killed
  • Battle of Midway

    Battle of Midway
    The Battle of Midway lasted from 4-7 June 1942 and was fought between the United States and the Empire of Japan. This fleet engagement between U.S. and Japanese navies in the north-central Pacific Ocean resulted from Japan’s desire to sink the American aircraft carriers that had escaped destruction at Pearl Harbor. Admiral Yamamoto Isoroku, Japanese fleet commander, chose to invade a target relatively close to Pearl Harbor to draw out the American fleet, calculating that when the United States
  • Battle of Midway

    Battle of Midway
    began its counterattack, the Japanese would be prepared to crush them. Instead, an American intelligence breakthrough–the solving of the Japanese fleet codes–enabled Pacific Fleet commander Admiral Chester W. Nimitz to understand the exact Japanese plans. Nimitz placed available U.S. carriers in position to surprise the Japanese moving up for their preparatory air strikes on Midway Island itself.
  • Battle of Midway

    Battle of Midway
    American losses: 1 carrier sunk, 1 destroyer sunk, ~150 aircraft destroyed, 307 killed
    Japanese losses: 4 carriers sunk, 1 heavy cruiser sunk, 1 heavy cruiser damaged, 248 aircraft destroyed, 3,057 killed
  • Island Hopping Strategy

    Island Hopping Strategy
    General MacArthur and Admiral Chester W. Nimitz seized the initiative, launching an 'Island Hopping' campaign. Their strategy was to capture the Pacific islands one by one, advancing towards Japan and bypassing and isolating centres of resistance.
    Lasted from July 1942 to March 1944
  • Guadalcanal

    Guadalcanal
    The Guadalcanal Campaign, also known as the Battle of Guadalcanal and codenamed Operation Watchtower by Allied forces, was a military campaign fought between 7 August 1942 and 9 February 1943 on and around the island of Guadalcanal in the Pacific theatre of World War II. It was the first major offensive by Allied forces against the Empire of Japan.
  • Battle of Leyte Gulf

    Battle of Leyte Gulf
    23–26 October 1944
    Location: Leyte Gulf, Philippines
    Result: Decisive Allied victory; Japanese military naval capabilities are crippled
    Territorial changes: Allies liberate Leyte island, then the entire Philippine archipelago; crucial oil supply lines to Japan are crippled
  • Battle of Iwo Jima

    Battle of Iwo Jima
    The Battle of Iwo Jima (19 February – 26 March 1945) was a major battle in which the United States Armed Forces landed and eventually captured the island of Iwo Jima from the Japanese Imperial Army during World War II. The American invasion, designated Operation Detachment, had the goal of capturing the entire island, including the three Japanese-controlled airfields (including the South Field and the Central Field), to provide a staging area for attacks on the Japanese main islands.This five
  • Battle of Iwo Jima

    Battle of Iwo Jima
    week battle comprised some of the fiercest and bloodiest fighting of the War in the Pacific of World War II. After the heavy losses incurred in the battle, the strategic value of the island became controversial. It was useless to the U.S. Army as a staging base and useless to the U.S. Navy as a fleet base. However, Navy Seabees rebuilt the landing strips, which were used as emergency landing strips for USAAF B-29s.
  • Battle of Iwo Jima

    Battle of Iwo Jima
    week battle comprised some of the fiercest and bloodiest fighting of the War in the Pacific of World War II. After the heavy losses incurred in the battle, the strategic value of the island became controversial. It was useless to the U.S. Army as a staging base and useless to the U.S. Navy as a fleet base. However, Navy Seabees rebuilt the landing strips, which were used as emergency landing strips for USAAF B-29s.
  • Battle of Iwo Jima

    Battle of Iwo Jima
    The Imperial Japanese Army positions on the island were heavily fortified, with a dense network of bunkers, hidden artillery positions, and 18 km (11 mi) of underground tunnels. The Americans on the ground were supported by extensive naval artillery and complete air supremacy over Iwo Jima from the beginning of the battle by U.S. Navy and Marine Corps aviators. Iwo Jima was also the only battle by the U.S. Marine Corps in which the American casualties exceeded the Japanese, although Japanese
  • Battle of Iwo Jima

    Battle of Iwo Jima
    combat deaths numbered three times the number of American deaths. Of the 22,000 Japanese soldiers on Iwo Jima at the beginning of the battle, only 216 were taken prisoner, some of whom were captured because they had been knocked unconscious or otherwise disabled.The majority of the remainder were killed in action, although it has been estimated that as many as 3,000 continued to resist within the various cave systems for many days afterwards, eventually succumbing to their injuries or
  • Battle of Iwo Jima

    Battle of Iwo Jima
    surrendering weeks later.[1][10] Despite the bloody fighting and severe casualties on both sides, the Japanese defeat was assured from the start. Overwhelming American superiority in arms and numbers as well as complete control of air power — coupled with the impossibility of Japanese retreat or reinforcement, along with sparse food and supplies — permitted no plausible circumstance in which the Americans could have lost the battle.
  • Battle of Iwo Jima

    Battle of Iwo Jima
    The battle was immortalized by Joe Rosenthal's photograph of the raising of the U.S. flag on top of the 166 m (545 ft) Mount Suribachi by five U.S. Marines and one U.S. Navy battlefield Hospital Corpsman. The photograph records the second flag-raising on the mountain, both of which took place on the fifth day of the 35-day battle. Rosenthal's photograph promptly became an indelible icon — of that battle, of the Pacific War, and of the Marine Corps itself — and has been widely reproduced.
  • Battle of Okinawa

    Battle of Okinawa
    Date: 1 April – 22 June 1945
    Japan v. Allies, Allied victory
    The Battle of Okinawa codenamed Operation Iceberg, was fought on the Ryukyu Islands of Okinawa and included the largest amphibious assault in the Pacific War during World War II. The 82-day-long battle lasted from early April until mid-June 1945. After a long campaign of island hopping, the Allies were approaching Japan, and planned to use Okinawa, a large island only 340 mi (550 km) away from mainland Japan, as a base for air
  • Battle of Okinawa

    Battle of Okinawa
    operations on the planned invasion of Japanese mainland (coded Operation Downfall). Four divisions of the U.S. 10th Army (the 7th, 27th, 77th, and 96th) and two Marine Divisions (the 1st and 6th) fought on the island. Their invasion was supported by naval, amphibious, and tactical air forces.
  • Battle of Okinawa

    Battle of Okinawa
    The battle was one of the bloodiest in the Pacific. Based on Okinawan government sources, mainland Japan lost 77,166 soldiers, who were either killed or committed suicide, and the Allies suffered 14,009 deaths (with an estimated total of more than 65,000 casualties of all kinds). Simultaneously, 42,000–150,000 local civilians were killed or committed suicide, a significant proportion of the local population. The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki together with the Soviet invasion of
  • Battle of Okinawa

    Battle of Okinawa
    Manchuria caused Japan to surrender less than two months after the end of the fighting on Okinawa.
  • Atomic Bomb on HIroshima

    Atomic Bomb on HIroshima
    90,000–166,000 killed in Hiroshima
    A uranium gun-type atomic bomb (Little Boy) was dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, followed by a plutonium implosion-type bomb (Fat Man) on the city of Nagasaki on August 9. Little Boy exploded 2,000 feet above Hiroshima in a blast equal to 12-15,000 tons of TNT, destroying five square miles of the city. Within the first two to four months of the bombings, the acute effects of the atomic bombings killed 90,000–166,000 people in Hiroshima and 39,000–80,000
  • Atomic Bomb on Nagasaki

    Atomic Bomb on Nagasaki
    39,000–80,000 in Nagasaki; roughly half of the deaths in each city occurred on the first day. During the following months, large numbers died from the effect of burns, radiation sickness, and other injuries, compounded by illness and malnutrition. In both cities, most of the dead were civilians, although Hiroshima had a sizable military garrison.
  • VJ Day!

    VJ Day!
    On August 15, 1945, news of the surrender was announced to the world. This sparked spontaneous celebrations over the final ending of World War II. On September 2, 1945, a formal surrender ceremony was held in Tokyo Bay aboard the USS Missouri. At the time, President Truman declared September 2 to be VJ Day.