Monica - WWII

  • Hitler becomes chancellor

    Hitler becomes chancellor
    Eager to satisfy the people, the German president declared Hitler the chancellor of Germany. This is significant because it was Hitler's first important position in Germany.
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    Holocaust

    Jews in Europe were subject to harsh persecution which ultimately led to the murder of 6 million Jews and the destruction of 5,000 Jewish communities during World War II.
  • Hitler declares himself fuhrer

    Hitler declares himself fuhrer
    After a fire in the Parliament building, Hitler blamed the fire on the Communists. Then, he banned all parties except for the Nazi Party and granted himself more powers, on the grounds that he needed to keep Germany stable and safe. The Nazi Party gained a lot of support from the people because they offered quick fixes to economic and unemployment problems. Then, the German President died, and Hitler declared himself the fuhrer, the absolute leader, of Germany.
  • Hitler violates Treaty of Versailles

    Hitler violates Treaty of Versailles
    Germany stopped paying reparations, and in 1935, reintroduced the draft to rearm Germany, in direct violation of the Treaty of Versailles. This was significant because the Allies made no significant movement to punish Germany for violating the treaty.
  • Nuremberg Race Laws strip German Jews of rights

    Nuremberg Race Laws strip German Jews of rights
    This deprived German Jews of their rights of citizenship, to marry/have sexual relations with Aryans, and to employ Aryan women as household help. This was significant because it is evidence of Hitler's anti-semitic policies.
  • German troops occupy the Rhineland

    German troops occupy the Rhineland
    The Rhineland, located in between France and Germany, was French territory after WWI. German occupation of the Rhineland was significant because it was a grave threat to French security.
  • Spanish Civil War

    Spanish Civil War
    Hitler aided Francisco Franco's Nationalists during the Spanish Civil War. This war was used by Hitler to test out new commanders, weapons, and tactics in preparation for World War II, by sending military aid. It was significant because when Franco won, Hitler gained resources for his military, and an ally in Spain and also Italy, as Italy supported Franco's cause.
  • Germany announces Anschluss (union) with Austria

    Germany announces Anschluss (union) with Austria
    Many Germans lived in Austria, and there have been many disputes over whether or not Austria belonged to Germany, but the Treaty of Versailles prohibited the union of Austria and Germany. Hitler claimed to "take back" Austria as he annexed it. This was significant because France and Britain ignored their pledge to support Austrian independence. Nonetheless, many Austrians supported unification with Germany.
  • Munich Conference

    Munich Conference
    This conference was proposed by Mussolini, as a meeting between Germany, France, Britain, and Italy in Munich, Germany. There, the British prime minister, Chamberlain, appeased Hitler by allowing him to take Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia. In return, Germany pledged to respect Czechoslovakia's new borders. The Czechs were not invited to this conference. This is significant because it shows that the Allies appeased Hiter.
  • Hitler signs Pact of Steel with Italy

    Hitler signs Pact of Steel with Italy
    Italy and Germany agree to mutual aid. This is significant because it formally formed the Axis Powers.
  • Non-Aggression Pact

    Non-Aggression Pact
    This Non-Aggression Pact was between Germany and the Soviet Union. This was significant because it meant they were allies, and a secret clause under this pact was that if Russia allowed Germany to invade Poland, Germany would give Russia half of Poland.
  • Germany invades Poland

    Germany invades Poland
    When Germany invaded Poland, Britain and France demanded that Hitler stop his forces, but he ignored them. This is significant because this was what led Britain and France to declare war on Germany.
  • USA aids its allies

    USA aids its allies
    The Lend-Lease Act was passed, so the president could lend or lease arms and other supplies to any other country vital to the US. The Atlantic Charter, a joint decclaration, was secretly issued by Roosevelt and Churchill. It promoted free trade among people and their rights to choose their own gov. When a German U-boat attacked a US destroyer, FDR ordered commanders to shoot German submarines on sight. However, it was Japan that officially drew the US to WWII.
  • Britain, France, Australia, and New Zealand declare war on Germany

    Britain, France, Australia, and New Zealand declare war on Germany
    Because Germany's militarization went too far and went on to invade Poland, the Allies (excluding US) declared war on Germamy. It was significant as it officially started WWII.
  • British Royal Air Force attacks the German Navy

    British Royal Air Force attacks the German Navy
    This was significant as it was the first major offense by Britain to Germany.
  • United States proclaims its neutrality; German troops cross the Vistula River in Poland

    United States proclaims its neutrality; German troops cross the Vistula River in Poland
    Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaims that the US will remain neutral for World War II. This is similar to how the US responded to WWI. This day was significant because it meant that the Allies were missing America's help, and as for Germany, it was one of their main steps in invading Poland.
  • France surrenders by signing armistice

    France surrenders by signing armistice
    After about a month of fighting, France falls to Germany. The armistice, in which France surrenders, is signed in the exact same railroad car in France that Germany had to surrender in in WWI. This is significant and symbolic because Hitler was making a point, by dictating that the setting of the armistice be the same, that this is how WWI should have ended.
  • Battle of Britain

    Battle of Britain
    Every British citizen was involved in the Battle of Britain in some way, from children, elders, women, to men. It also helped that their new leader, Winston Churchill, was boosting their morale by telling the people to never give up. So, the British held their ground and forced Germany to postpone its further invasion. This battle was significant because it was the first major turning point in WWII, proving that Hitler was in fact stoppable.
  • Axis Forces Attack North Africa

    Axis Forces Attack North Africa
    Mainly Italy attacked British-controlled Egypt. Italian troops pushed 60 miles inside Egypt within a week. This was significant because it made Britain strike back.
  • Britain Strikes Back

    Britain Strikes Back
    Britain took 130,000 Italian prisoners after sweeping 500 miles across North Africa. It was the turning point of the war because Britain was now mainly on offense.
  • Hitler invades Soviet Union

    Hitler invades Soviet Union
    After gaining control of the Balkans, Hitler went on with Operation Barbarosa, his plan to invade the Soviet Union. Even with the largest army in the world, the Soviet Union lacked technology and training. The Germans fought against the Soviets until they lost 500,000 lives.
  • Japan attacks Pearl Harbor

    Japan attacks Pearl Harbor
    After the US took much action against Japan, Japan bombs Pearl Harbor, the first attack on US soil. This was significant as it led to the US officially joining WWII.
  • Fall of Southeast Asian colonies

    Fall of Southeast Asian colonies
    Japan seized Hong Kong, Wake Island, Guam, Philippines, Thailand, Dutch East Indies, and Singapore. This was significant because Japan was expanding to the Pacific.
  • Doolittle’s raid on Japan

    Doolittle’s raid on Japan
    On April 1942, 16 B-25 bombers under US Lieutenant Colonel James H. Doolittle bombed Tokyo and several other cities. It boosted US morale and shook confidence of some in Japan because although the raids did little damage, they made a psychological point that Japan was not invincible.
  • Battle of the Coral Sea

    Battle of the Coral Sea
    Airplanes taking off from huge aircraft carries attacked ships. Both sides used this new kind of warfare, and the Allies lost more troops/ships than did the Japanese. However, it was something of a victory because they had stopped Japan’s southward advance.
  • Battle of Midway

    Battle of Midway
    This battle was a 1942 sea and air battle: American forces defeated Japanese in central Pacific. It was significant because it turned the tide of war in the Pacific.
  • Battle of Guadalcanl

    Battle of Guadalcanl
    It was six months of fighting on land and sea in Guadalcanal (coined “Island of Death” or “Hell”) in which US won on February 1943, and Japan lost more than 24,000 from a force of 36,000. After fighting for 6 months, General MacArthur took control of Guadalcanal from Japan.
  • Battle of Stalingrad

    Battle of Stalingrad
    The German army went on nightly bombing raids that set much of Stalingrad ablaze and reduced the rest to rubble. Stalingrad was a major industrial center in Russia, and Stalin nor Hitler wanted to give up. So, on February 2nd, 1943, 90,000 Germans were left of the 330,000, and the Soviets lost over one million soldiers. This contributed to the Allies’ victory because Germany was now on the defensive, while Soviets pushed them steadily west.
  • Battle of El Alamein

    Battle of El Alamein
    Axis soldiers fell back as Allies took the Egyptian village in North Africa called El Alamein, west of Alexandria. It contributed to the Allies’ victory because Rommel’s army (Afrika Korps) had been beaten, removing Germany and pushing Italy back.
  • Operation Torch

    Operation Torch
    On November 8th, an Allied force of more than 100,000 troops, mostly Americans, landed in Morocco and Algeria, and US general Eisenhower led it. This contributed to the Allies’ victory because they (Montgomery and Eisenhower) could now crush Rommel’s Afrika Korps, having surrounded him.
  • Invasion of Italy

    Invasion of Italy
    Allied forces attacked and captured Sicily, Italy, and captured it from Italian and German troops about a month later. This toppled Mussolini from power, and he was arrested. On September 3rd, Italy surrendered. However, the Germans had control of northern Italy and put Mussolini back in charge until they retreated northward. The Allies entered Rome on June 4th, 1944. Italian resistance fighters in 1945 found Mussolini disguised and shot him.
  • D-Day Invasion

    D-Day Invasion
    British, American, French, and Canadian troops fought their way onto a beach in Normandy, France, from England. Eisenhower commanded thousands of vehicles and more than 3 million troops to attack (largest land and sea attack). The Allies also set up a dummy army to keep the Germans guessing where they would attack. This was a major contribution to the Allies’ victory because it enabled the Allies to march back into Paris.
  • Battle of Leyte Gulf

    Battle of Leyte Gulf
    On October 23rd, the Japanese took a gamble of destroying the US fleet by risking almost the entire Japanese fleet. However, the Japanese navy lost disastrously within 4 days, and only the Japanese kamikazes (Japanese suicide pilots) and army were left of Japan’s forces. This contributed to the Allies’ victory because it gave way for Japan’s surrender.
  • Battle of the Bulge

    Battle of the Bulge
    German troops attempted to push the Allies back by breaking through weak US defenses along a 75-mile front in the Ardennes. Although the Allies were surprised, they pushed the Germans back, and the Germans retreated. This contributed to the Allies’ victory because this was the last German attempt to push the Allies back, and it failed.
  • V-E Day

    V-E Day
    Victory in Europe Day: Germany officially surrenered in Berlin, and the war in Europe was over.
  • Bombing of Nagasaki

    Bombing of Nagasaki
    On August 9th, a second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki, in which more than 70,000 people died immediately. Radiation from these explosions killed many more people. This contributed to the Allies’ victory because it led to Japan's surrender.
  • Battle of Okinawa

    Battle of Okinawa
    On June 1st, US troops moved into Okinawa, and on June 21st, it ended with the loss of Japan and the deaths of 100,000 of its troops and 12,000 troops for America. This contributed to the Allies’ victory as it brought them closer to attacking mainland Japan.
  • Bombing of Hiroshima

    Bombing of Hiroshima
    Japan refused to surrender after warning from US. So, on August 6th, Hiroshima was attacked with an atomic bomb. This was significant because such deadly technology was used and 70,000 to 80,000 people died in the attack.
  • Japan surrenders

    Japan surrenders
    On September 2nd in the US battleship Missouri in Tokyo Bay, Japan surrenders, after being bombed twice. The war in the Pacific ends.