Medieval and Renaissance Era (476-1600)

By brisgoo
  • 800

    Polyphony and Notation

    Began to emerge in the 800s.
  • 900

    Organum (c. 900)

    Was first described in the 800's, notated c.1000. Was a plainchant "melody" with an added melody.
  • Period: 991 to 1033

    Guido d’Arezzo (c. 991 CE - after 1033 CE)

    Guido d'Arezzo is credited with “inventing” the staff.
  • 1000

    Invention of the Musical Staff (c. 1000)

    Invented by Guido d'Arezzo
  • Period: 1098 to 1179

    Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1179)

    Hildegard von Bingen was a poet, composer, teacher, and author and was the founder and abbess of the convent at Rupertsberg, Germany. She was famous for her prophetic and religious poetry. She was the first female composer in contemporary musicology to receive extensive scholarly research. Her style was more elaborate than the older Gregoria style.
  • Period: 1150 to 1201

    Leonin (fl. 1150 CE - c.1201 CE)

    Leonin was the first composer of polyphonic music. He was credited with compiling the magnus liber organi (c.1170).
  • 1152

    Alleluia, O Virga Mediatrix (c. 1152)

    From the morality play Ordo Virtutum ("Play of Virtues").
  • Period: 1155 to 1207

    Raimbaut de Vaqueiras (c. 1155 - 1207)

    Vaqueiras was from Southern France and served at the court in Montferrat (Northwestern Italy). He was killed in battle serving his patron in 1207 and wrote at least 35 poems.
  • Period: 1291 to 1361

    Philippe de Vitry (1291 - 1361)

    Vitry was a French priest and first composer of the Ars Nova.
  • Period: 1300 to 1350

    The Ars Nova (1300 - 1350)

    Composers and theorists began to speak about this "new art."
  • Period: 1300 to 1377

    Guillaume de Machaut (c. 1300 - 1377)

    Machaut was a French Priest and was the most famous composer and poet of the time. He had more than 20 extant motets and several extant chansons.
  • Period: 1325 to 1397

    Francesco Candini (ca. 1325 - 1397)

    Candini was a music theorist, composer, poet, and organist. He was famous because he was blind. He is by far the most famous Italian composer of the 14th century.
  • 1340

    Bubonic Plague (1340s)

    "The Black Death" killed over 75 million people.
  • Period: 1390 to 1453

    John Dunstable (ca. 1390 - 1453)

    Dunstable was English, but influenced musical style in Europe. Composers who heard his music were impressed by the “English quality.”
  • Period: 1397 to 1474

    Guillaume Dufay (ca. 1397-1474)

    Dufay was the first Renaissance composer.
  • Period: 1420 to 1497

    Johannes Ockeghem (ca. 1420-1497)

    Ockeghem was very respected and prolific; also a low bass.
  • 1430

    Renaissance Era (1430)

  • Period: 1450 to 1521

    Josquin des Prez (c. 1450-1521)

    Prez was the most revered Renaissance composer, esp. by Martin Luther.
  • Period: 1450 to 1517

    Heinrich Isaac (ca. 1450-1517)

    Isaac was a prolific German composer.
  • Period: 1490 to 1562

    Adrian Willaert (ca. 1490-1562)

    Willaert was the father of text expression.
  • 1500

    Invention of the Haprsicord (c. 1500)

    Invented by Bartolomeo Cristofori.
  • Period: 1505 to

    Thomas Tallis (ca. 1505-85)

    Tallis is an important English composer.
  • Period: 1507 to 1568

    Jacques Arcadelt (ca. 1507-1568)

    Arcadelt was one of the earliest Italian madrigal composers who worked in Italian and French courts. He composed over 250 madrigals, 125 French chansons, and sacred music.
  • 1510

    Pange lingua Mass (c.1510)

    Composed by Josquin des Prez.
  • Period: 1521 to

    Philipp de Monte (1521-1603)

    Monte was the most prolific composer of the Renaissance.
  • Period: 1525 to

    Palestrina (1525 - 1594)

    Palestrina was the most famous Renaissance composer.
  • Period: 1532 to

    Orlando di Lasso (1532-1594)

    Lasso ranks in importance with Josquin and Palestrina.
  • Period: 1543 to

    William Byrd (1543-1623)

    Byrd was an important Catholic English composer working in Protestant England.
  • Period: 1548 to

    Tomás Luis de Victoria (1548-1611)

    Victoria carries on Palestrina’s style while working in Spain.
  • Period: 1557 to

    Giovanni Gabrieli (ca. 1557-1612)

    Gabrieli was the leading composer of instrumental ensemble music and polychoral works in the late Renaissance.
  • 1567

    Pope Marcellus Mass (published 1567)

    Pope Marcellus Mass was supposedly written to satisfy the Council of Trent and has 6 a cappella voices.
  • Period: 1567 to

    Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643)

    Monteverdi moved music from the Renaissance style to the Baroque
    and wrote 9 books of madrigals.
  • Period: 1570 to

    John Farmer (ca. 1570-1603)

    Farmer was an English composer and organist who lived in London and Dublin, also known for clever word painting.
  • Period: to

    Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583-1643)

    Finest Organist of the Early Baroque and worked at St. Peter’s Cathedral, Rome. He greatly influenced J.S. Bach
  • Canzona septimi toni (1597)

    2 choirs of instruments – each in 4 parts:8 musical lines interacting with each other in polyphony, sometimes creating homorhythm.
  • Fair Phyllis (published 1599)

    Composed by John Farmer and has 4 solo voices.