Zenger TrialThe Trial of John Peter Zenger
Description: Governor Cosby threw John Peter Zenger for publishing a newspaper that was “false, malicious, seditious, and scandalous” libels that undermine the governor’s authority.
People: William Cosby, John Peter Zenger
Importance: They realized that colonial juries would likely refuse to convict anyone for publishing criticisms of royal officials. Because of this, the colonial press became more open
Albany CongressAlbany Plan of Union
Description: Aimed at a formation of a strong union of the colonies under one single government and direction.
People: Ben Franklin (chief justice)
Importance: the necessity for defense against the threats and consequences posed by the infamous French and Indian War.
The Seven Years' WarSeven Years' War
Description: War broke out between France and Great Britain. In North America, hostilities between American and Canadian colonists had erupted two years previously. The war led to the fall of New France.
People: George Washington (started it, international incident)
Importance : New England obtained the West Indies.
Treaty of ParisTreaty of Paris (1763
Description/ Importance: Ended the Seven Years' War
Pontiac's RebellionPontiac's Rebellion
Description: It was an unsuccessful effort by Native American Indians to prevent Great Britain from occupying the land previously claimed by France and this hastened the implementation of the Royal Proclamation of 1763.
People: The Ottawa Chief Pontiac
Importance: The languages, culture, religion, beliefs and ceremonies of conquered people fell into decline.
Sugar ActSugar Act of 1764
Description: It was passed by the British Parliament in April 1764 to raise funds.
People: Samuel Adams
Importance: British decided to cut the rate in half and enforce stricter measures to collect tax. This concerned the colonists and the impending tax collection led to the American Revolution.
Stamp ActStamp Act of 1765Desciption: Tax enforced by the Parliament of Great Britain on the colonies of then British America for printed materials within the colonies
Declaratory ActDeclaratory Act
Description: The Declaratory Act was copied from the Irish Declaratory Act, Parliament would want America, in continuous bondage to the crown.
Importance: That was the start of the unification of the British colonies in America. They realized that there was nothing more they could do to stop the British Parliament from using force upon them.
Boston MassacreThe Boston Massace
Description: the British Army killed five civilian men in Boston.
Importance: the thirteen colonies of Britain in America united against the British Monarchy and a war for freedom ensued.
Tea ActTea Act of 1773
Description: the East Indian Company would have to cruise directly to the American colonies to export their tea instead of going first to Britain and then export it again to the same colonies.
Importance: “No taxation without representation.”
Boston Tea PartyThe Boston Tea Party
Description: The uprising was caused by a series of unfortunate events on the side of Bostonians caused by British oppressors.
People: Led by Samuel Jackson/ John Hancock
Importance: ymbolical event and inspiration to American nationalism; the spark of the American Revolution against anyone who stepped on their love for country.
Intolerable ActsIntolerable Acts
Description: Boston Port Act- closure of the Boston port until the repayment of the East India Company of destroyed tea and until order was restored
MA Gov Act- the governor or king appoint all the positions in the government.
Admin of Justice Act- transfer of accused royal officials to another colony.
Quartering Act- better housing program for the British troops in America
Quebec Act- bigger boundaries
First Continental CongressFirst Continental Congress
Description: gathering of thirteen North American delegates during the convention on September 5, 1774 at the Carpenter’s Hall in Philadelphia.
Importance: united, boycotted against British trade
Lexington and ConcordBattles of Lexington and Concord
Description: beginning of the American Revolution ainst the British Colonialists.
Importance: et off the American Revolution and independence was only a matter of time.
Second Continental CongressSecond Continental Congress
Description: session as the British stormed Boston in an attempt to arrest the patriots that publicly voiced their grievances against the crown.
Importance: declare independence from Britain
Fort TiconderogaCapture of Fort Ticoneroga
Description: Benedict Arnold from Massachusetts and Ethan Allen from Vermont joined their forces and attacked the British military base in Ticonderoga.
People: Benedict Arnold, Ethan Allen
Importance: fort was an important symbol for the Americans since its position was very strategic in the area
Battle of Bunker HillBattle of Bunker Hill
Description: pivotal battle for American Colonists in their bid for independence
Importance: provided much needed encouragement for the colonists as well as sending a clear message to the British that the war would not be won quickly or easily.
Olive Branch PeittionThe Olive Branch Petition
Description: outlined their issues and asked the British government to respond and deal with them
People: King George 3 of England- refused
Importance: last attempt to find peace
Common SenseCommon Sense (Pamphlet)
Description: written by Thomas Paine, 48-page pamphlet presented an argument for freedom from British rule
People: Thomas Paine
Importance: major part in uniting colonists before the Revolutionary War for freedom from the British, led to the Declaration of Independence later that year.
Repeal of Stamp ActStamp Act of 1765
Description: They removed a law that had been nothing but a burden to many Colonists
Importance: create a sense of unity amongst the thirteen colonies. It was with the Stamp Act Congress that the thirteen colonies realized that much could be done if they worked together.
Virginia Declaration of RightsVirginia Declaration of Rights of 1776
Description: drafting a bill of rights and Virginia’s constitution
People: George mason
Importance: declares the intrinsic human rights, including the right to stand up against inadequate government, influenced several later documents. Some of the influenced documents include the U.S. Declaration of Independence of 1776 and the document of the U.S. Bill of Rights of 1789.
Declaration of IndependenceSummary of the Declaration of Independence
Description: founding document of American history
Importance: declared independence for America
Battle of Long IslandBattle of Long Island
Description: fought between British and American troops during the American Revolution.
Importance: The defeat meant that the British captured New York City and the surrounding areas while Washington was forced to retreat to New Jersey and eventually to Pennsylvania. Many reckon that the American defeat at Long Island was attributed to splitting the army in two, between Manhattan and Long Island.
Battle of SaratogaThe Battle of Saratoga
Desciption: Battle in American Revolution
People: Major General John Burgoyne commanded the British and German force. Major General Horatio Gates and Brigadier Benedict Arnold commanded the American army.
Importance: The Americans forced the surrender of Burgoyne’s force.
Valley ForgeValley Forge
Decription: military camp site of American Continental Army
Importance: Even though the stay at Valley Forge was trying for the troops and their commanders, the Continental Army got out as a stronger combating force.
Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom"A Bill for establishing Religious Freedom, printed for the consideration of the People"
Description: earliest known printed version of Thomas Jefferson's proposed bill to establish religious freedom in the Virginia colony
People: Thomas Jefferson
Importance: establish religious freedom
Ratification of Aritcles of ConfederationArticles of Confederation
Desciprtion: signed by Congress and sent to the individual states for ratification on November 15, 1777
Importance: affirming the Articles as the outline of the official government of the United States.
Battle of YorktownBattle of Yorktown
Desciprtion; one of the last battles of the American Revolutionary War
People: Charles Cornwallis
Importance: one of the most skillful military actions in history.
Treaty of ParisTreaty of Paris (1783)
Description: formal agreement between America and Great Britain
Importance: recognized American independence, established borders for the new nation, and formally ended the Revolutionary War.
Land OrdinanceLand Ordinance 1775
Description: Law passed by Congress that allowed for sales of land in the Northwest Territory
Importance: set up standards for land sale that became precedents. Among them was the idea of selling mile-square sections of land.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787Northwest Ordiance of 1787Description: No fewer than three, or more than five, states would be formed, Admission to the Union would be available when the number of free inhabitants reached 60,000, Civil rights and liberties be guaranteed, Education be encouraged
Importance:spurred the westward movement of American settlers, overturned the colonial idea that newly settled lands would be subservient to established areas, established the format for American land policy
Slavery and involuntary servitude be prohibited.
George Washington's InaugurationFirst Inaugural Address
Desciprtion: George Washington took the oath as the first president of the United States
People: George Washington
Importance: noted the power of the nations' call for him to serve as president and the shared responsibility of the president and Congress to preserve "the sacred fire of liberty" and a republican form of government.