• 1260

# Ramón Lull - máquinas para realidades no matemáticas

The radical innovation Llull introduced in the realm of logic is, in fact, the construction and the use of a machine made of paper to combine elements of thinking, i.e. elements of language. With the help of connected geometrical figures, following a precisely defined framework of rules, Llull tried to produce all the possible declarations of which the human mind could think. Tomado de http://history-computer.com/Dreamers/Llull.html
• 1439

• 1515

• 1530

# Relojes

The first timepieces to be worn, made in the 16th century beginning in the German cities of Nuremberg and Augsburg, were transitional in size between clocks and watches https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_watches#1500_Clock-watch
• 1560

# Rabbi Low - Golem

un ser animado fabricado a partir de materia inanimada (normalmente barro, arcilla o un material similar). Normalmente es un coloso de piedra https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golem
• # Pascal - Calculadora mecánica digital

The calculator had metal wheel dials that were turned to the appropriate numbers using a stylus; the answers appeared in boxes in the top of the calculator. Blaise’s calculated was a polished brass box, about 350mm by 125 mm by 75mm. It was compact enough to carry. On the top was a row of eight movable dials, with numerals from 0 to 9, which is use to add a column of up to eight figures. https://www.educalc.net/196488.page
• # Thomas Hobbes - The Leviatan

● INTRODUCTION
● CHP I: OF SENSE
● CHP II: OF IMAGINATION
● CHP IV: OF SPEECH
● CHP V: OF REASON AND SCIENCE
● CHP VI: OF THE INTERIOR BEGINNINGS OF
VOLUNTARY MOTIONS, COMMONLY CALLED THE
PASSIONS; AND THE SPEECHES BY WHICH THEY ARE
EXPRESSED
• # Leibniz - step reckoner

Mejoró la calculadora de Pascal para realizar multiplicación y división
• # Thomas Bayes - Teorema bayesiano

Estudió el problema de la determinación de la probabilidad de las causas a través de los efectos observados
• # Jacquard - Primer telar programable, con tarjetas perforadas

Jacquard came up with a loom that used rigid pasteboard cards with punched holes of different patterns. At each shuttle throw, a card used to get positioned in the way of rods. In the card, a pattern of holes found the rods that could pass by, which in this way acted as the loom’s program. This control system facilitated different levels of pattern complexity and weaving flexibility. Tomado de : https://selbysoftfurnishings.com/blog/history-automated-loom
• # Charles Babbage - The Babbage Engine

Charles Babbage (1791-1871), computer pioneer, designed the first automatic computing engines. He invented computers but failed to build them. The first complete Babbage Engine was completed in London in 2002, 153 years after it was designed. Tomado de : http://www.computerhistory.org/babbage/
• # George Boole - Algebra de Boole

George Boole wrote the book “The Mathematical Analysis of Logic” in 1847. George Boole also wrote the book “An Investigation of the Laws of Thought” in 1854. In his writings, George thoughtfully wrote about what later came to be known as Boolean Logic or Boolean algebra. Tomado de : http://www.edurite.com/blog/george-boole-birth-anniversary-boolean-logicboolean-algebra/7494/#
• # Primer computador - Z3

The Z3 was used for aerodynamic calculations but was destroyed in a bombing raid on Berlin in late 1943. Zuse later supervised a reconstruction of the Z3 in the 1960s, which is currently on display at the Deutsches Museum in Munich. Tomado de : http://www.computerhistory.org/timeline/computers/#169ebbe2ad45559efbc6eb35720d57b7
• Period: to

## Primer estadio de la IA

The BINAC was an advanced bit-serial binary computer with two independent CPUs, each with its own 512-word acoustic mercury delay line memory. tomado de: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BINAC
• # Procesamiento de señales. Norbert Wiener

Fue uno de los primeros en estudiar el comportamiento de ciertos dispositivos, como termostatos, sus primeras investigaciones erán sobre Feedback
• # Alan Turing - Computing machinery and intelligence

Test de Turing
The man will attempt to help the judge, offering whatever evidence he can (the computer terminals are used so that physical clues cannot be used) to prove his man-hood. The woman's job is to trick the judge, so she will attempt to deceive him, and counteract her opponent's claims, in hopes that the judge will erroneously identify her as the male http://www.psych.utoronto.ca/users/reingold/courses/ai/turing.html
• # IBM-Georgetown experiment

The Georgetown–IBM experiment was an influential demonstration of machine translation, which was performed during January 7, 1954. Developed jointly by the Georgetown University and IBM, the experiment involved completely automatic translation of more than sixty Russian sentences into English https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georgetown%E2%80%93IBM_experiment
• # John McCarthy - Dartmouth Summer Research Project

In 1956 John McCarthy regarded as the father of AI, organized a conference to draw the talent and expertise of others interested in machine intelligence for a month of brainstorming. He invited them to Vermont for "The Dartmouth summer research project on artificial intelligence Tomado de Internet.
• # Frank Rosenblatt - Redes neuronales

the perceptron is an algorithm for supervised learning of binary classifiers. The algorithm allows for online learning, in that it processes elements in the training set one at a time. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perceptron
• # Oliver Selfridge - Reconocimiento de patrones

Pandemónium
Pandemonium architecture was one of the first computational models in pattern recognition. Although not perfect, the pandemonium architecture influenced the development of modern connectionist, artificial intelligence, and word recognition models https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pandemonium_architecture
• # Arthur Samuel - Machine Learning

The Samuel Checkers-playing Program appears to be the world's first self-learning program, and as such a very early demonstration of the fundamental concept of artificial intelligence (AI).[5] He was also a senior member in TeX community who devoted much time giving personal attention to the needs of users and wrote an early TeX manual in 1983 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Samuel
• # Newell and Simon - Heuristic search

Logic Theorist is a computer program written in 1955 and 1956 by Allen Newell, Herbert A. Simon and Cliff Shaw. It was the first program deliberately engineered to mimic the problem solving skills of a human being and is called "the first artificial intelligence program".[a] It would eventually prove 38 of the first 52 theorems in Whitehead and Russell's Principia Mathematica, and find new and more elegant proofs for some https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logic_Theorist
• # Weizenbaum - ELIZA - Natural language processing

Eliza simulated conversation by using a 'pattern matching' and substitution methodology that gave users an illusion of understanding on the part of the program, but had no built in framework for contextualizing events https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ELIZA

Moravec's paradox is the discovery by artificial intelligence and robotics researchers that, contrary to traditional assumptions, high-level reasoning requires very little computation, but low-level sensorimotor skills require enormous computational resources https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moravec%27s_paradox
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• # IBM - Deepblue

Deep Blue was a chess-playing computer developed by IBM. It is known for being the first computer chess-playing system to win both a chess game and a chess match against a reigning world champion under regular time controls. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deep_Blue_(chess_computer)
• # MIT AI Lab

Oxygen architecture. Redes adaptativas, nuevos sistemas de navegación, conectado a todo lo cotidiano de las personas
• # Cinthya Breazeal - MIT - Social intelligent machines

The vision of our research is to enable robots to function in dynamic human environments by allowing them to flexibly adapt their skill set via learning interactions with end-users. We call this Socially Guided Machine Learning (SG-ML), exploring the ways in which Machine Learning agents can exploit principles of human social learning. https://www.cc.gatech.edu/social-machines/projects.html
• # Carneggie Mellon U - Nomad Robot

Nomad was operated entirely under remote control from the U.S., including telepresence and autonomous guidance with simulated 4- to 15-minute time delays such as those that would be encountered on missions to Mars. 20 of the 215 km it travelled were done under autonomous control.[3] The distance was travelled in 45 days https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nomad_rover
• # Stanford - Stanley. Autonomous vehicle

Stanley is an autonomous car created by Stanford University's Stanford Racing Team in cooperation with the Volkswagen Electronics Research Laboratory (ERL) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stanley_(vehicle)
• # Asistentes personales - Siri y Cortana

Siri is an intelligent personal assistant, part of Apple Inc.'s iOS, watchOS, macOS, and tvOS operating systems. The assistant uses voice queries and a natural language user interface to answer questions, make recommendations, and perform actions by delegating requests to a set of Internet services. The software adapts to users' individual language usages, searches, and preferences, with continuing use. Returned results are individualized. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siri
• # IBM - Watson - sistemas cognitivos

is a question answering computer system capable of answering questions posed in natural language,[2] developed in IBM's DeepQA project by a research team led by principal investigator David Ferrucci.[3] Watson was named after IBM's first CEO, industrialist Thomas J. Watson
• # Vicarious - AI

Vicarious is developing artificial general intelligence for robots. By combining insights from generative probabilistic models and systems neuroscience, our architecture trains faster, adapts more readily, and generalizes more broadly than AI approaches commonly used today. https://www.vicarious.com/