Baroque-Abnormal, exaggerated, in bad taste
-Derives from the Portuguese word for misshapen pearl
-Applied as a derisive term by post-Baroque critics because of the overly ornate art of the late Baroque
-1940 - applied to music from ca. 1600–1750 without a derisive connotatio
Monteverdi's L'Orfeo (Orpheus)-Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643)
-The first opera to enter the standard repertory
-Commissioned by the Duke of Mantua for his daughter’s wedding
-Librettist: Alessandro Striggio
-Only men attended the first performance
The First Public Concerts in EnglandEngland pioneered public concerts in the 1670s.
-“This is to give notice, that at Mr. John Bannister’s House,...this present Monday, will be music performed by excellent masters, beginning precisely at 4 of the clock in the afternoon, and every afternoon for the future.”
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)-Came from a large family of musicians
-Born in Eisenach and apparently learned violin from his father
-Also an accomplished organist
-Bach married twice: He married Maria Barbara Bach in 1707, and they had 7 children.
-Following her death, he married Anna Magdalena in 1721, and they had 13 children.
-3 of his sons became well known composers: JC, CPE, and WF Bach.
Vivaldi's L'Estro Armonico-Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741)
-Published by Etienne Roger in Amsterdam, the most prestigious publisher in Europe
-The most influential publication of any music in the early 18th century.
-It launched the immense popularity of the Italian concerto throughout Europe.
Rameau's Traité de l’harmonie-Jean-Philippe Rameau (1683–1764)
-Triad and 7th chord primal importance.
-Defined root of chord and recognized inversions.
-Fundamental Bass line
-Consonance vs. Dissonance
-Used terms tonic, dominant, and subdominant, established these 3 chords as pillars of harmony.V7 – I strongest progression
-Although a piece could modulate, each had a central tonic key
-Rameau was first to bring all of these theoretical ideas together
Bach's The Well-Tempered Clavier volume 1-Contains 24 preludes and fugues in each major and minor key
-Demonstrates the possibilities for playing in all keys using an instrument tuned in near-equal temperament
PreClassical Period (1730-1770)Galant
-Term for everything modern and sophisticated
-Melodies built from repeated motives and short phrases
-Phrases were combined into larger periods.
-The harmony was simple with frequent cadences.
Empfindsam style (“sentimental style”)
-Originated in Italy, but most closely associated with C. P. E. Bach (JS Bach’s most famous son)
-Appealed to the middle class
-Characterized by surprising turns of harmony, chromaticism, and speech-like melodies
Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)The most celebrated composer of his day
-His instrumental works of the 1770's firmly established the Viennese Classical style.
-Often called the father of the string quartet and the symphony
-Hoboken – Haydn’s works were catalogued in the 20thcentury by Anthony van Hoboken, and his works are known by their “H” number.
Handel's Messiah-George Frederic Handel (1685-1759)
-Premiered in Dublin, 1742 during Lent (not Christmas)
-The libretto, taken from the Bible, does not tell a story, but presents a series of contemplations on Christian ideas.
-The texts extend from the prophecies of a messiah to the resurrection.
-The most important innovation was the prominent role of the chorus which:
-Participated in the action
-Narrated the story
-Commented on events, like the chorus in Greek drama
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)Leopold Mozart
-Child Prodigy Years
-What happens to child prodigies when they reach adulthood
-Position with Archbishop Court
Viennese Classical Period (1770-1800)Clarity
-Should be understood at the first hearing
-Balance or Symmetry
-Music is balanced in equal phrases and equal spacing in vertical chords
-Composers could represent more than one emotion in a work, but only restrained emotion.
-It was the cultural, economic capitol of Western Europe at this time.
Le Chevalier de Saint-Georges as director of Concerts des Amateurs-Joseph Bologne (1745-1799)
-Music Director of Concert des Amateurs (1773-1781)
-One of the finest orchestras in Europe
-“Le Mozart noir”
-Composed 12 violin concertos and 18 string quartets
-One of France’s best composers, conductors, and violinists.
Mozart's Don GiovanniLibretto by Lorenzo Da Ponte
-Based on legend of Don Juan
-Subtitled “The Dissolute Man Punished”
-Dramma giocoso – jocular drama
-Set in Seville, SpainSung in Italian
-The language of an opera is determined by the composer/librettist, not by the locale of the story.
Haydn's Symphony No. 94 "Surprise"One of the twelve symphonies that were performed in London on September 1790