US History: VHS Summer: Yaoxuan Fan

Timeline created by Yaoxuan Fan
In History
  • New France

    New France
    French explorer Champlain had visited and mapped the New England coast a number of times before the Pilgrims arrived in 1620
  • The Crowning of King Cotton

    The Crowning of King Cotton
    Throughout the 1700s, cotton production was expensive because of the huge amount of labor necessary to remove the seeds.
  • The Great Awakening

    The Great Awakening
    In the 1730s, a religious revival swept through the British American colonies. JONATHAN EDWARDS, the Yale minister who refused to convert to the Church of England, became concerned that New Englanders were becoming far too concerned with worldly matters.
  • The French and Indian War

    The French and Indian War
    General Johnson Saving a Wounded French Officer from the Tomahawk of a North American Indian
    Benjamin West, ca 1766
  • The Events Leading to Independence

    The Events Leading to Independence
    Although King George III was later burned in effigy in the streets of the colonies, his relaxed ruling style inspired little ire among the colonists in the 1760 s.
  • E Pluribus Unum

     E Pluribus Unum
    Artist John Trumbull's Declaration of Independence memorializes individuals who were engaged in the process of declaring independence rather than an actual event. Not all of those pictured were present at the reporting of the Declaration on June 28, nor were they all at its adoption on July 4, 1776.
  • When Does the Revolution End?

    When Does the Revolution End?
    The Declaration of Independence, authored by Thomas Jefferson and adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, begins with arguably one of the most important statements in U.S. history.
  • Popular Sovereignty

    Popular Sovereignty
    It had done so in the Old Northwest with the passing of the Northwest Ordinance in 1787. The Missouri Compromise also had banned slavery above the 36º30' LATITUDE lines. But times were different.
  • George Washington's Background and Experience

    George Washington's Background and Experience
    Miniature portrait of George Washington painted by Archibald Robertson in Philadelphia, 1791-1792
  • The Crowning of King Cotton

    The Crowning of King Cotton
    While staying at the Savannah plantation of MRS. NATHANAEL GREEN in 1792, the widow of the Revolutionary War general, Whitney created the device that changed the world.
  • A New National Capital: Washington, D.C.

    A New National Capital: Washington, D.C.
    Jefferson was the first president to be inaugurated in the new and lasting capital of Washington, D.C. in March 1801.
  • Manifest Destiny

    Manifest Destiny
    Independence had been won in the Revolution and reaffirmed in the War of 1812. The spirit of nationalism that swept the nation in the next two decades demanded more territory.
  • The Kansas-Nebraska Act

    The Kansas-Nebraska Act
    The Kansas-Nebraska act made it possible for the Kansas and Nebraska territories (shown in orange) to open to slavery. The Missouri Compromise had prevented this from happening since 1820.
  • Rebellions on and off the Plantation

    Rebellions on and off the Plantation
    The date was set for Sunday, July 24, 1822. Before the uprising began, his plan was revealed and he was captured, tried, and hanged. Forty-seven African-Americans were condemned to death for alleged involvement in the plot. An estimated 9,000 individuals were involved.
  • The Lone Star Republic

    The Lone Star Republic
    In 1823, STEPHEN AUSTIN led 300 American families onto land granted to his father by the Mexican government.
  • The Plantation & Chivalry

    The Plantation & Chivalry
    By around 1825, the dominance of Virginia was fading and the emergence of King Cotton shifted the center of Southern influence to South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi.
  • African-American Abolitionists

    African-American Abolitionists
    In 1829, Walker declared slavery a malignancy, calling for its immediate termination. He cited the four evils causing the greatest harm to African Americans as slavery, ignorance, Christianity, and colonization.
  • The Lone Star Republic

    The Lone Star Republic
    When the Mexican government outlawed slavery in 1829, it expected the Texans to follow suit. None of the conditions were met, and a great cultural war was underway.
  • Free(?) African-Americans

    Free(?) African-Americans
    For example, a Virginia law, passed in the early 1830s, prohibited the teaching of all blacks to read or write.
  • The Southern Argument for Slavery

    The Southern Argument for Slavery
    The violence of Nat Turner's 1831 slave revolt frightened many southern slaveholders. Such unrest was used by many as a reason to continue slavery.
  • William Lloyd Garrison and The Liberator

     William Lloyd Garrison and The Liberator
    In 1831, Garrison published the first edition of The Liberator. His words, "I am in earnest — I will not equivocate — I will not excuse — I will not retreat a single inch — AND I WILL BE HEARD," clarified the position of the NEW ABOLITIONISTS.
  • The Lone Star Republic

    The Lone Star Republic
    On May 14, 1836, Santa Anna grudgingly recognized Texan independence.
  • John D. Rockefeller

    John D. Rockefeller
    John D. Rockefeller was the first American billionaire. He was born in 1839 in Moravia, New York. He started a business in produce sales. He then shifted to the oil industry after the discovery of oil in Titusville, Penssylvania in 1859. John Rockefeller was one of the pioneer players in the oil industry. Rockefeller gave away almost half of his wealth to churches, medical foundations, universities, and centers for the arts before his death in 1937.
  • Manifest Destiny

    Manifest Destiny
    In 1840, the entire southwestern corner of the United States was controlled by foreign powers (shown in orange), and the territorial dispute over the Oregon Territory (light green) had not been settled.
  • "American Blood on American Soil"

    "American Blood on American Soil"
    In July of 1845, Polk ordered GENERAL ZACHARY TAYLOR to cross the Nueces River with his command of 4,000 troops. Upon learning of Slidell's rejection, Polk sent word that Taylor should advance his troops to the Rio Grande River.
  • The Dred Scott Decision

    The Dred Scott Decision
    In 1846, Scott sued for his freedom on the grounds that he had lived in a free state and a free territory for a prolonged period of time.
  • The Mexican-American War

    The Mexican-American War
    General Winfield Scott's entrance into Mexico City, September 14, 1847, is depicted in this print by Carl Nebel
  • 54° 40' or Fight

    54° 40' or Fight
    Oregon City, along the banks of the Willamette River, the final stop along the Oregon Trail as it appeared in 1848.
  • Wilmot's Proviso

    Wilmot's Proviso
    Salmon P. Chase, commemorated on the $10,000 bill, founded the Free Soil Party in 1848. This party advocated an end to the spread of American slavery and elected 14 representatives and two senators to the federal government.
  • Harriet Beecher Stowe — Uncle Tom's Cabin

    Harriet Beecher Stowe — Uncle Tom's Cabin
    The FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW, passed in 1850, could hardly be enforced by any of Stowe's readers. Although banned in most of the south, it served as another log on the growing fire.
  • An Uneasy Peace

    An Uneasy Peace
    John C. Calhoun, long a champion of southern rights, devoted his final days to opposing the Senate's Compromise of 1850.
  • Abolitionist Sentiment Grows

     Abolitionist Sentiment Grows
    Abolitionist Wendell Phillips spoke on behalf of fugitive slave Thomas Sims, and against the Fugitive Slave Law in 1851. Sims was later returned to Savannah where he was publicly whipped.
  • Gold in California

    Gold in California
    This photograph of Sutter's Mill was taken in 1852, four years after the discovery that began the gold rush.
  • Border Ruffians

     Border Ruffians
    In the fall of 1854, SENATOR DAVID ATCHISON of Missouri led over 1,700 men from Missouri into Kansas to vote for their pro-slavery representative.
  • The Sack of Lawrence

    The Sack of Lawrence
    On May 21, 1856, the pro-slavery forces sprung into action. A posse of over 800 men from Kansas and Missouri rode to Lawrence to arrest members of the free state government.
  • The Dred Scott Decision

    The Dred Scott Decision
    But what did the Constitution say on this subject? This question was raised in 1857 before the Supreme Court in case of DRED SCOTT VS. SANDFORD. DRED SCOTT was a slave of an army surgeon, John Emerson.
  • Border Ruffians

    Border Ruffians
    The violence at Fort Scott, Kansas, led the governor to call for a peace convention on June 15, 1858. The meeting broke out into a riot.
  • The Lincoln-Douglas Debates

    The Lincoln-Douglas Debates
    The 7th and final debate between Senatorial candidates Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas was held on October 15, 1858, in Alton, Illinois. Today bronze statues of Douglas and Lincoln stand to commemorate the event at Lincoln Douglas Square in Alton.
  • The Pottawatomie Creek Massacre

     The Pottawatomie Creek Massacre
    This would not be the last America would hear of John Brown. He would again make national headlines at Harper's Ferry in 1859.
  • From Uneasy Peace to Bitter Conflict

    From Uneasy Peace to Bitter Conflict
    he was Abraham Lincoln. A series of debates between the two foreshadowed the issues of the ELECTION 1860.
  • Fort Sumter

    Fort Sumter
    On December 20, 1860, South Carolina seceded from the Union. Five days later, 68 federal troops stationed in Charleston, South Carolina, withdrew to FORT SUMTER, an island in CHARLESTON HARBOR.
  • The Southern Homefront

    The Southern Homefront
    In the Hospital, 1861, is a tribute to Southern nurses. Civil War nurses were sometimes called "angels of the battlefield," working long hours to heal and comfort wounded and dying soldiers.
  • The Southern Homefront

    The Southern Homefront
    By the end of 1861, the overall rate of inflation was running 12% per month. For example, salt was the only means to preserve meat at this time. Its price increased from 65¢ for a 200 pound bag in May 1861 to $60 per sack only 18 months later.
  • Slave Life and Slave Codes

     Slave Life and Slave Codes
    This Slave Code booklet for Washington D.C., was published in 1862, only one month before Lincoln abolished slavery in the nation's capitol. More lenient than most states' slave codes, the District's code allowed slaves to hire themselves out and live apart from their masters.
  • "Bloody Kansas"

    "Bloody Kansas"
    A border ruffian dropped this flag in Olathe, Kansas in 1862 after a raid on the town.、
  • First Blood and Its Aftermath

    First Blood and Its Aftermath
    Unlike modern-day photojournalists who often find themselves in the thick of battle, photographers hoping to get a shot of the battlefield at Bull Run waited until Southern forces left Manassas in March 1862.
  • The Emancipation Proclamation

    The Emancipation Proclamation
    When Lincoln indicated he wanted to issue a proclamation of freedom to his cabinet in mid-1862, they convinced him he had to wait until the Union achieved a significant military success.
  • The Northern Homefront

    The Northern Homefront
    In the middle of 1862, Lincoln called for 300,000 volunteer soldiers. Each state was given a quota, and if it could not meet the quota, it had no recourse but to DRAFT men into the state militia.
  • Bloody Antietam

    Bloody Antietam
    On November 7, 1862, Lincoln sacked General McClellan and replaced him with General Burnside.
  • Strengths and Weaknesses: North vs. South

     Strengths and Weaknesses: North vs. South
    Slavery did not become a moral cause of the Union effort until Lincoln announced the EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION in 1863.
  • Sacred Beliefs

    Sacred Beliefs
    The Emancipation Proclamation was issued by Abraham Lincoln in 1863. It freed slaves in the states that had seceded and were not yet under Northern control.
  • The Emancipation Proclamation

     The Emancipation Proclamation
    David Blythe imagined a scene like this when he painted President Lincoln Writing the Proclamation of Freedom, January 1, 1863. Note the symbolism in this print, including the flag, the Bible under Lincoln's hand, the Constitution in his lap, the railsplitter at his feet, and the scales of justice in the corner.
  • Wartime Diplomacy

    Wartime Diplomacy
    By 1863, the Union blockade reduced British cotton imports to 3% of their pre-war levels. Throughout Europe there was a "COTTON FAMINE."
  • The Northern Homefront

    The Northern Homefront
    In July 1863, when draft offices were established in New York to bring new Irish workers into the military, mobs formed to resist. At least 74 people were killed over three days. The same troops that had just triumphantly defeated Lee at Gettysburg were deployed to maintain order in New York City.
  • The Southern Homefront

    The Southern Homefront
    By November 1863, JAMES SEDDON, the Confederate Secretary of War said he could not account for 1/3 of the army.
  • The Southern Homefront

    The Southern Homefront
    The women of Richmond rioted on April 2, 1863, until Jefferson Davis threw them all of his pocket change and threatened to order the militia to fire upon the crowd.
  • The Election of 1864

    The Election of 1864
    It is hard for modern Americans to believe that Abraham Lincoln, one of history's most beloved Presidents, was nearly defeated in his reelection attempt in 1864.
  • The Election of 1864

    The Election of 1864
    The states which Lincoln won in the election of 1864 are shown in red. McClellan won Kentucky, New Jersey, and Delaware. Notice that citizens of the Confederacy did not vote in the election.
  • The Election of 1864

    The Election of 1864
    Everything changed on September 6, 1864, when General Sherman seized Atlanta. The war effort had turned decidedly in the North's favor and even McClellan now sought military victory.
  • The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln

    The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
    On April 11, 1865, two days after LEE'S SURRENDER at Appomattox, Lincoln delivered a speech outlining his plans for peace and reconstruction. In the audience was JOHN WILKES BOOTH, a successful actor, born and raised in Maryland.
  • The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln

    The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
    Two weeks later, on April 26, Union cavalry trapped Booth in a Virginia tobacco barn. The soldiers had orders not to shoot and decided to burn him out of the barn. A fire was started. Before Booth could even react, SERGEANT BOSTON CORBETT took aim and fatally shot Booth.
  • The War Behind the Lines

    The War Behind the Lines
    The conspirators in the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln were hanged on July 7, 1865. Mary Surratt, far left, was the first woman to be hanged by the United States government.
  • Reconstruction

    The CONGRESSIONAL ELECTIONS OF 1866 brought RADICAL REPUBLICANS to power. They wanted to punish the South, and to prevent the ruling class from continuing in power.
  • Presidential Reconstruction

    Presidential Reconstruction
    Riots rocked New Orleans on July 30, 1866, when a convention met to stop Louisiana's Black Codes from taking effect. Official reports listed 37 dead and 146 wounded, but witnesses claimed that the tolls were much higher.
  • Reconstruction

    They passed the MILITARY RECONSTRUCTION ACTS OF 1867, which divided the South into five military districts and outlined how the new governments would be designed.
  • Radical Reconstruction

     Radical Reconstruction
    Congress then turned its attention to amending the Constitution. In 1867 they approved the far-reaching Fourteenth Amendment, which prohibited "states from abridging equality before the law."
  • A President Impeached

    A President Impeached
    In May of 1868, 35 Senators voted to convict, one vote short of the required 2/3 majority. Seven Republican Senators had jumped party lines and found Johnson not guilty. Johnson dodged a bullet and was able to serve out his term. It would be 130 years before another President — BILL CLINTON — would be impeached.
  • Radical Reconstruction

    Radical Reconstruction
    In Baltimore on May 19, 1870, 20,000 participants celebrate the ratification of the 15th Amendment.
  • Rebuilding the Old Order

    Rebuilding the Old Order
    HIRAM REVELS of Mississippi became the first African-American Senator in 1870. In December 1872 P.B.S. PINCHBACK of Louisiana became the first African-American Governor. All in all, about 600 blacks served as legislators on the local level. But as the saying goes, the more things change, the more they remain the same.
  • Reconstruction

    The WITHDRAWAL OF UNION TROOPS IN 1877 brought renewed attempts to strip African-Americans of their newly acquired rights.
  • Period:

    US History: VHS Summer: Yaoxuan Fan

    A brief time span of American history sorted out by Yaoxuan Fan