The Cold War

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In History
  • The Russian Revolution

    The Russian Revolution
    The Russian Revolution lasted from 1917 to 1923. It was a political and social revolution that took place in the Russian Empire. A civil war broke out between "Soviets" soldiers and urban workers, and the Provisional Government, which resulted in the creation of the Soviet Union and communist party. This Communist Revolution sent shock waves throughout the world and was the being of conflict between the U.S.and their democratic ideals and USSR with their communist ideals.
  • Potsdam Conference

    Potsdam Conference
    This was a meeting that lasted until August 2. It was a meeting between US president Harry Truman, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Dictator of the Soviet Union Joseph Stalin to discuss the future of the political systems in post war Europe. Both Truman and Churchill wanted to reform Europe with democratic governments whereas Stalin wanted to dominate Europe and spread communism.
  • Atomic bombs

    Atomic bombs
    There were two atomic bombs dropped by the U.S. on Japan in Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6th and 9th in 1945. These were initially used to end the war with Japan but it also was used as leverage against leaders like Stalin. For it showed the U.S.'s capability and power to annihilate those who go against what the U.S. stand for. This pushed Stalin to continue ans sped up the process of Russia's atomic bombs setting up the Cold war.
  • Long Telegram

    Long Telegram
    This was an article or "long telegram" written by George Kennan who was a U.S. ambassador in Moscow, Russia. He was writing to the U.S. of the Soviet Union's view of the rest of the world. Furthermore, he suggested how the Soviet Union could be dealt with by the use of strong resistance in the form of Containment.
  • Iron Curtain

    Iron Curtain
    This was a non-physical and physical wall in some cases that separated the democratic western Europe from the Eastern suppressed and Soviet Union controlled Europe. This was initially created by the Soviet Union and it spanned from the Baltic to the Adriatic. It was a name that Winston Churchill gave the Soviet Union
  • Molotov Plan

    Molotov Plan
    This was a system similar to the Marshall plan but in favor of the Soviet Union. It was proposed by Vyachelsav Molotov and it's purpose was to give aid to Eastern European countries to reform and align politically and economically with the Soviet Union.
  • Hollywood 10

    Hollywood 10
    The Hollywood 10 was a blacklist of ten screenwriters and directors that were tried by the HUAC for suspicion of "un-american" activity and displays in there productions. During their trials they exercised their 5th amendment and refused to answer question ultimately leading the court to believe they were guilty. They were sentenced to jail and prohibited from working for major Hollywood studios.
  • Truman Doctrine

    Truman Doctrine
    It was and address given by President Harry Truman to the joint session of Congress. Truman requested for Greece and Turkey and other countries in need of support. This was designed to give aid to struggling countries trying to stay of the grasp of outside forces like the Soviet Union.
  • Marshall Plan

    Marshall Plan
    This plan was created by the U.S. Secretary of State George Marshall. The Marshall plan proposed a program that entailed massive economic assistance to countries who were vulnerable to falling into the grasp of communism. The U.S. loaned a total of $12 billion to varying Western European countries in hopes to help them rebuild into strong democratic countries. They also gave countries basic necessities.
  • Berlin Blockade

    Berlin Blockade
    This was an attempt by the Soviet Union to cut off the railroad, road, and canal access of the Western Allies from that lead to their (Western Allies) sectors in Berlin. This forced the allies to have to fly over their sectors to deliver necessities to the citizens there, also known as the Berlin Airlift. This blockade last until May 12, 1949 and was the first major clash between the U.S. and the Soviet Union after WWII.
  • Berlin Airlift

    Berlin Airlift
    An effort by the U.S. and Great Britain that consisted of flying over Berlin and dropping supplies to the city. This was the result of the Soviet Union creating the Berlin Blockade. It was a 15 month long effort that ended up supplying 2 million tons of cargo to Berlin with flights landing almost every 3 minutes. On May 12th 1949 the Soviet Union relinquish their blockade allowing the airlifts to end.
  • NATO

    NATO
    This is the North Atlantic Treaty Organization which at first consisted of 12 founding national states but eventually grew to 29. This was created due to the Berlin Blockade and Airlift. This alliance declared that if one member was attacked it meant all members were under attack and should respond by supporting the initial member with whatever they need.
  • Alger Hiss Case

    Alger Hiss Case
    This was an accusation of former state department employee Alger Hiss of being and communist spy for the Soviet Union. In 1948 Hiss was first accused of being a communist while serving for the federal government. The house committee was going to dismiss the case for there was too little evidence but a young congressman from California, Richard Nixon disagreed. However, there was a second trial in 1950 where Hiss was convicted of perjury and was sentenced to five years.
  • First Soviet Union Bomb Test

    First Soviet Union Bomb Test
    During the 30s there was discussion in the Soviet Union regarding the development of atomic weapons which eventually proposed in the 40s. After the U.S. had dropped two bombs on Japan, the Soviet Union sped up their process. Finally on August 29th 1949 they had successfully made an atomic bomb and tested it.
  • Chinese Communist Revolution

    Chinese Communist Revolution
    In China the Communist idealistic leader Mao Zedong lead a decade long civil war against the Chinese nationalist government. As a result of this war nearly 500 million Chinese fell under a communist rule. Mao continued his communist movement by helping governments in Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaya, and Korea.
  • Rosenberg Trial

    Rosenberg Trial
    Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were a married couple arrested for they were suspected of share U.S. bomb secrets with the Soviet Union. The Rosenbergs claimed they were being prosecuted as Jews and denied this accusation of espionage. The Rosenbergs were convicted in a trial in 1951 and sentenced to the electric chair in 1953.
  • Korean War

    Korean War
    This was a war between Communist North Korea and Democratic South Korea. It started when North Korea invaded it's southern counterpart across the 38th parallel that divided the country. The North was supported by China and Russia while the South was backed by the U.S.. For the U.S. this was virtually a war with Communism and they struggled to set up and armistice with the North. The Korean War lasted until July 1953 and Korea is still divided today.
  • Army-McCarthy Hearings

    Army-McCarthy Hearings
    These hearings lasted from April 22, 1954 to June 17, 1954. They were centered around a US Senator named Joseph McCarthy and the US army. These hearings started when McCarthy decides that the government should investigate charges and counter-charges concerning the US army and communist cover-ups. By using the Red Scare to gain political power, he claimed he had a list of 205 names of communists working in the State Department. However, during the hearings McCarthy lost support from the public.
  • Warsaw Pact

    Warsaw Pact
    A treaty of mutual friendship between the Soviet Union and Poland and 7 other Eastern European communist countries. It was a counter to NATO. This lasted until July 1st 1991.
  • Hungarian Revolution

    Hungarian Revolution
    This was at first a student lead revolt that turned into a nationwide revolution against the Soviet policies of the Hungarian People's Republic. This revolt went on into November and was the first major defiance against the Soviet Union since Nazi Germany had been pushed out. The rebelling side won at first and the Imre Nagy established a multiparty system and appealed to the United Nations. However, not too long after this the Soviet Union invaded Hungary and put a stop to this revolution.
  • U2 Incident

    U2 Incident
    This began when a U.S. spy aircraft piloted by Francis Gary Powers was shot down by Soviet Union forces. This forced U.S. president Eisenhower to admit to espionage and that the CIA had been spying on the Soviet Union for the past few years. The pilot was sentenced to 10 years by the Soviets, however after 2 years he was released in exchange for a Soviet agent. This event heightened the tension between the U.S and Soviet Union during the Cold War
  • The Bay of Pigs Invasion

    The Bay of Pigs Invasion
    This was an invasion launched by the CIA instructed by JFK as a way to overthrow the nationalistic leader Fidel Castro. This invasion consisted of 1,400 American-trained Cuban outcasts who had fled after Castro seized power. However, this invasion was a fail for JFK last minute did not send re-enforcement and the American-Cuban troops were outnumbered and forced to surrender to Castro's army.
  • Berlin Wall

    Berlin Wall
    This was a physical barrier between Communist East Germany and Democratic West Germany that was put up by the east side. The purpose of this wall to put a stop of emigrants entering or leaving the eastern sector and supposedly undermining the socialist state. In 1989 the wall was taken down and the citizens of Berlin were able to move freely once again.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    Cuban Missile Crisis
    This was an American scare due the discovery of Soviet Union military weapons being transported to Cuba and the construction of missile launch bases in Cuba. This was a threat from the Soviet Union that they were in America's backyard. President Kennedy responded by putting a shipping quarantine on Cuba and that if there was any nuclear missile launched towards any nation in the western hemisphere it was to be regarded as an attack of the Soviet Union on the US who would respond with a defense.
  • Assassination of JFK

    Assassination of JFK
    John F. Kennedy was on a campaign visit on a motorcade in Dallas Texas. After turning a corner there was a gunshot and Kennedy was shot in the neck and rushed to a hospital. However, not a half hour later he was dead. The shooter was Lee Harvey Oswald and he was arrested and two days later he was shot.
  • Invasion of Czechoslovakia

    Invasion of Czechoslovakia
    In Czechoslovakia there was a reform effort that was lead by Alexander Dubcek. His plans however were put to a stop by the Soviet Union who sent Warsaw Pact troops to regain control of the state. The Brezhnev Doctrine was created and allowed the Soviet Union to violate the sovereignty of any country that had turned away from communism.
  • Nixon Visits China

    Nixon Visits China
    Nixon took a diplomatic trip to China to symbolize Detente or cooperation between the rivals in the Cold War. This was Nixon's first step towards normalizing relationships with communist countries. This led to the Soviet Union also re-establishing relations with the west to open international trade and for General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev to sit down with Nixon to sign agreements to limit nuclear weapons.
  • Reagan Elected

    Reagan Elected
    Ronald Reagan, former actor and governor of California was elected president. Reagan's goal was to destroy communism through military build up. He spurred the creation of the National Security Directive 75 which outlined the military's strategy to reinvigorate the nation's military defense and encouraged political change within the Soviets fear. He also provided aid to strengthen the US's NATO allies and created the Reagan Doctrine in which the US had the right to aid any who opposed communism.
  • SDI Announced

    SDI Announced
    This was Reagan's proposal of a space based missile defense also known as Star Wars program. It was like something from a science fiction book. In theory there were satellites that patrolled over the US and shot lasers at and Soviet missiles that were headed towards the west. The Soviets saw it as a threat and struggled to match the US in their incoming missile protection technology. Cost was $180 billion on development.
  • Geneva Conference with Gorbachev

    Geneva Conference with Gorbachev
    US President Reagan and General Secretary of USSR Mikhail Gorbachev met to negotiate Cold-War era arms race and the possibility of reducing the number of nuclear weapons each country has. This allowed Reagan and Gorbachev to create a friendship and down the line reduce the number of nuclear weapons.
  • "Tear Down this Wall" Speech

    "Tear Down this Wall" Speech
    After the signing of an agreement limiting intermediate range missiles in Europe, Reagan traveled to Berlin to find common ground on human rights. President Reagan made a speech that he delivered to West Berlin. In this speech Reagan called out and addressed General Secretary Gorbachev telling him to tear down the Berlin Wall. Not too long after this speech the wall started to be taken down.
  • Fall of the Berlin Wall

    Fall of the Berlin Wall
    After President Reagan's speech democratic revolutions flooded throughout the eastern block that was under Soviet Union and communist rule. At first citizens were allowed to cross the wall but soon the wall was broken through.