Cold war

The Cold War

By acm4161
  • The Balfour Declaration

    The Balfour Declaration
    The British government supported a homeland for the Jews in Palestine based on the declaration. The Zionists were dedicated to combating violent anti-Semitism in central and eastern Europe by establishing a national Jewish State. Zionists' dreams of returning to Palestine received a boost from the declaration. Arab Palestinians rejected both the British rule and Jewish settlement. When Arab states around Palestine gained their freedom from the imperial rule, they developed Pan-Arab nationalism.
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    Britain in India

    Great Britain granted reforms in response to the campaign of Gandhi and the Congress party. Winston Churchill suspended the idea of India governing itself, and commanded that it participate in the War effort. Churchill despised Ghandi, and did not want to see the liquidation of the British government in India, but his conservative government was replaced with a labour government that aimed to dismantle his empire.
  • The Yalta Coference

    The Yalta Coference
    The Yalta Conference in the Crimea took place after World War II and was between the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union to re'establish war-torn European nations.
  • Mutual Assured Destruction

    Mutual Assured Destruction
    MAD was a military strategy that involved two WMDs fighting against each other. At first, both sides lacked the means to effectively use nuclear devices against each other, but with the development of aircraft, both were gaining a greater ability to deliver nuclear weapons into the opposing country. The official policy of the U.S. was one of "massive retaliation", which called for massive attack against the USSR if they were to invade Europe whether it was a converntional or nuclear attack.
  • U.S. vs. U.S.S.R.

    U.S. vs. U.S.S.R.
    The United States and the Soviet Union rose up global superpowers after World War II, due to the United States’ economic surge as well as industrial boom and the Soviet Union’s large army and territorial possessions. The postwar situation in many countries was a process of or “decolonization”, taking place after 1945, which was taken advantage of by superpower countries. Both powers used proxy wars, the use of a third party, to achieve their goals.
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    Black Nationalism

    Black nationalism took place in the Caribbean, United States, and some states in Africa. Jamaican artist Bob Marley rallied blacks to the caused. He urged people to stand up for freedom. Marcus Garvey also helped, and supported U.S. blacks seek reputation in Africa. Poems, such as Bernard Dadie's "Dry Your Tear's Africa", were written during this time. Many African countries, including Ghana, led by Nkrumah, Angola, and Zimbabwe, also became independent during this time.
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    The Iron Curtain

    The Iron Curtain symbolized the ideological conflict and physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of WWII in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991. It blocked the dependent and central European allies off from open contact with the west and non-communist areas. On the East side of the Iron Curtain were the countries that were connected to or influenced by the former USSR. On either side, states developed their own international economic and military alliances.
  • The Creation of the United Nations

    The Creation of the United Nations
    The United Nations was formed starting when representatives from China, Great Britain, Soviet Union, and the US came together working to create this supernational organization that would strive to establish world peace, maintain security, and promote good relationships between nations and a sort of peaceful coexistence.
  • The Potsdam Conference

    The Potsdam Conference
    The Potsdam Conference was between the leaders of the US, the UK, and the USSR. It was held in Germany and discussed the re-establishment of order, reducing negative war effects, and peace treaties.
  • Vietnam vs France Conflict

    Vietnam vs France Conflict
    The French were humiliated by their easy removal from Vietnam, so they retaliated by recapturing Saigon and southern Vietnam (National Liberation Front). They were forced to use extreme violence to retake the north because of the hostile Viet Minh, the nationalist communists. Ultimately, the French were defeated through the use of guerrilla warfare and help from China.
  • The Day of Direct Action

    The Day of Direct Action
    Muslim separation issues grew as Indian independence grew; they feared their minority status in India, which was ruled by Hindus. Congress party leaders like Nehru and Gandhi urged Indians to act as one nation, and be undivided by what became known as “communalism”. The Muslim League, led by Muhammed Ali Jinnah, called for a Day of Direct Action in 1946, and 6,000 people died in the Great Calcutta Killing as a result.
  • The Kashmir Conflict

    The Kashmir Conflict
  • Partition of India and Pakistan

    Partition of India and Pakistan
    India and Pakistan gained independence in 1947. The separation of Muslims and Hindus into states violated the ideals of Gandhi and Nehru; Gandhi named the division of his homeland as “vivisection”. In 1948, an estimated ten million refugees died while migrating between the divided Muslim Pakistan and Hindu India states, and between half a million and one million died in the violence that accompanied the migration.
  • The Marshall Plan

    The Marshall Plan
    After WWII, western Europe was in a state of poor infrastructure and developed a plan using cooperation and a type of reformed capitalism to improve. This was known as the Marshall Plan, which was proposed in 1947 and funded in 1948 and was supported by the U.S. government because of the Truman Doctrine, which committed themselves to foreign countries, and because of their goal to stop the spread of communism.
  • The Creation of Israel

    The Creation of Israel
    When the Arabs insisted on complete independence, the Jews went on a course of violent resistance to the British in 1945 to show the Jewish demands for self-rule and open immigration. The British gave up in 1947 saying that they wanted to withdraw from Palestine and turn over their duties to the newly created United Nations. In May 1948 the Jews in Palestine proclaimed the creation of the independent state of Israel. This provoked what turned out to be the beginning of many Arab-Israeli wars.
  • NATO & the Warsaw Treaty Organization

    NATO & the Warsaw Treaty Organization
    NATO was created by the US in 1949 to create a military alliance consisting of Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Iceland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, and the US itself in order to resist the Soviets. In response to the establishment of NATO, the USSR formed the Warsaw Treaty Organization, which was also a military alliance. This alliance was similar to NATO but consisted of 7 communist European nations.
  • The People's Republic of China Created

    The People's Republic of China Created
    Mao Zedong proclaimed People's Republic of China in 1949.
  • Senator McCarthy Issue

    Senator McCarthy Issue
    Senator Joseph McCarthy tried to reveal communist in the United States government. He did this by noticing people who supported radical it and liberal cause, or behaving in an odd way. Although McCarthy was unsuccessful, thousands of people who were currently were a part of the Communist Party lost their jobs.
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    The Korean War

    The Cold War is what truly dominated the reconstruction which took place after the war. Along with its successful reconstruction actions it also created conflict especially in Korea between 1950 and 1953. The Korean War was a bloody conflict between North and South Korea, which were divided along the 38th parallel. This division was because of the Allied agreement at the end of WWII and was a major cause of the conflict.
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    The Mau Mau Uprising

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    Eisenhower in Office

    Dwight D. Eisenhower was the 34th U.S. president. He authorized CIA-sponsored coups abroad, committed federal funds to fighting Communists in Vietnam, and resolved the Suez crisis. Eisenhower perceived communism as a monolithic force struggling for world supremacy. He was a soldier who was highly respected in the war, and held a truce with Korea.
  • Stalin's Death

    Stalin's Death
    After Stalin's death, Krushchev emphasized the possibility of "peaceful coexistence" and the achievement of communism. A refined ideology also emanated from the Soviet Union. Khrushchev also developed a version of communism that inspired generations of reformers in the USSR and eastern Europe known as reformed communism After Khrushchev tried to spread reformed communism throughout the world the U.S. had to respond by using containment, a foreign policy that aimed at stopping communism.
  • The Geneva Conference

    The Geneva Conference
    The Geneva Conference was a peace conference that dealt with the aftermath of the France/Vietnam conflict. It decided that Vietnam would be split into North Vietnam (communist, controlled by Ho Chi Minh) and South Vietnam (non communist). The U.S. had supported the French, which led to their support of S. Vietnam. Eisenhower did this by forming a government that would stop the spread of communism; this diffusion was called the domino theory, through which he justified American intervention.
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education
    In the southern states and some of the northern states of the United States, there was segregation, which is the seperation of people because of race. The US Supreme Court stated that segregation was illegally in Brown v. the Board of Education.
  • The Bandung Conference

    The Bandung Conference
    The Bandung Conference was a meeting of independent Asian and African countries, to promote cooperation and oppose imperialism.
  • The Kitchen Debate

    The Kitchen Debate
    Nikita Krushchev and Richard Nixon, had an argument on the importance of woman as a way of understanding the differences between their societies. Nixon emphasized the tools that made mothers and housewives' lives easier. Citizens of the United States believe woman did not need to work, As they did in the Soviet Union, because in the United States the men worked.
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    JFK in Office

    In order to credibly claim he had taken action against the "missile gap," JFK ordered an increase in spending on nuclear missiles that set off a nuclear arms race that resulted in America losing its nuclear superiority by the end of the decade. Kennedy's reputation as a strong Cold Warrior soon ran aground in Cuba, lead by Castro, where he was humiliated in the Bay of Pigs Invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis He did not believe in Pax Americana because peace based on weapons is undesirable.
  • The Berlin Wall

    The Berlin Wall
    Nikita Kruschev approved the building of the Berlin wall to stop people from escaping to capitalist West Germany. It included fortified concrete walls and guard towers, and was officially reffered to as the Anti-Fascist Protection Rampart. Over 5,000 people attempted to escape over the wall, with about 600 dying. The building of the Berlin Wall, and all the Berlin Wall symbolised, seemed to sum up what the Cold War represented to many - basically, a clash between good and evil.
  • Algerian Independence from France

    Algerian Independence from France
    Algeria won their independence from France after a long war. The French government’s determination to hold on to imperialism fueled the nationalism growing in Africa. The FLN used guerrilla warfare and took the war into urban areas; France sent over 500,000 troops. By the end, independence was achieved, but at a cost of hundreds of thousands of lives. This war inspired other third world and nonaligned countries to gain colonization liberation using violence.
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    Philippines Communist Conflict

    During the Cold War, Communist rebel groupd stood up to the Filipino government. They originated from peasant militias active during World War II, but eventually adopted communism. At first, they sided with the Soviet Unio, but later switched their alliance to China.