AP World History Timeline

  • Postwar Terretorial Divison

    Postwar Terretorial Divison
    In Europe and Asia postwar occupation and terretorial divisions refelcted both hard postwar realities and the new schism between the Soviet Union and The Untied states. The Soviets took over the eastern sections of Germany, and the US, Britain, and France occupied the westen portions.The capital of Berline, deep within the soviet area, remained under control of all four powers. by the late 1940's the haphhazard postwar terr. arrangement had divided Germany.
  • Yalta

    Yalta
    This was a war conference between the US, Great Britain, and Russia before Stalin took over Berlin.
  • Postwar settlments

    Postwar settlments
    The Soviets bristeles at the delay of the Britain and the US in opening the second front, and dfferences of opinion over post war settlements arose during the wartime conferences held at Yalta and Potsdam July-august 1945.
  • Containment and Cold War

    Containment and Cold War
    During the Cold War, the two Superpowers never went to war directly with each other in this period, but became involved in conflicts such as the Korean War. Many used containment, which was a U.S policy using numerous strategies to prevent the spread of communism abroad. It is associated with President Harry Truman's policys, such as, NATO. Also, it provided a conceptual framework for a series of successful initiatives undertaken from 1947 to 1950 to blunt Soviet expansion.
  • Nuclear Arms Race

    Because the United States was determined to retain military superiority wand the Soviet Union was equally determined to reach parity with the United States, both sides began to amass enormous arsenals of thermonuclear weapons and develop a multitude of systems for deploying those weapons. It was not until the 19
  • Winston Churchill and the Iron Curtain

    Winston Churchill and the Iron Curtain
    Winston Churchill served as the prime minister of Great Britain and led Britain’s fight against Nazi Germany in WW2. He advocated managing Cold War tensions with a view toward a favorable mutual resolution. Churchill gave his now famous "Iron Curtain" speech at Fulton, Missouri, U.S., on March 5, 1946, when he said of the communist states, “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent.” http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/294419
  • Proxy War

    Proxy wars were common in the Cold War, because the two nuclear-armed superpowers (the Soviet Union and the United States) did not wish to fight each other directly, since that would have run the risk of escalation to a nuclear war .Proxies were used in conflicts such as Afghanistan, Angola, Korea, Vietnam, the Middle East, and Latin America.The first proxy war in the Cold War was the Greek Civil War, which started almost as soon as World War II ended.
  • Truman Doctrine

    Truman Doctrine
    It was in response to the crisis in Greece and Turkey (Middle East), where communism threatened the idea of democracy, which drew the battle lines of the Cold War.
    The U.S. would now provide political, military, and economic help to democratic nations who are threatened by authoritarian countries. It became "the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pD_yaNR7kHM
  • Muhammad Ali Jinnah

    Muhammad Ali Jinnah
    He was the formed and was the leader of the Muslim League, asking for a separate country and worked toward unity. He felt no qualms about fanning such fears, even as Congress Party Leaders like Nehru and Gandhi urged all Indians to act and feel as one nation,
    undivided by what came to be known as communalism--emphasizing religious over national identity. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AeeWWF85-_k
  • Gandhi and His Influence

    Gandhi and His Influence
    He condemned the division of his homeland as "vivisection." Gandhi's vision came true as the terms of partition were announced and hundreds of thousands of Muslim and Hindu refugees migrated either to Muslim Pakistan or Hindu India.He led many non-violence marches and went on hunger strikes and was a big influence to leaders in the U.S.He continually urged all Indians and Pakistanis to adhere to the practice of nonviolence.
  • The creation of North and South Korea and the war following

    After World War II, the superpowers, US and the USSR were unable to agree on policies for Korea so it was decided that two nations, North and South Korea would be created and split by the 38th Parallel. However, in 1950, a Pyongyang (North Korea) regime sent 100,000 troops into SOuth Korea. The US interviened and after three years of unsuccessful fighting, there was a cease fire in 1953 and therefore left the land still disputing since there was no final agreements on the situation.
  • Marshall Plan

    Marshall Plan
    a plan created by the U.S to give aid to Europe due to their destroyed infrastructure after WWII and intended to rebuild its economy. Sixteen nations, including Germany, became part of the program and shaped the assistance they required, state by state, with administrative and technical assistance. The Marshall Plan had a huge affect on Europe’s economy. It assisted greatly and helped rebuild its economy. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lUd2W6aMng4
  • Zionism

    Zionism
    This was an issue regarding a Jewish nationalist movement that has the support of creating a Jewish national state in Palestine. The movement was officially succesful on this date by estabilshing Israel. It's crucial to understand Zionism cannot function with the idea of "peaceful coexistance" because the whole purpose of Zionism is to create seperate Jewish nations while the purpose of coexisting is to have unity and peace within a single region containg multiple religions.
  • NATO

    NATO
    NATOThe North Atlantic Treaty Organization was created by the United States and Canada, and 9 other Western European countries. The key goal was to “provide collective security against the Soviet Union” (Milestones: 1945-1952). The U.S thought it was crucial to have Europe be economically strong and armed if communism was to be prevented. NATO “agreed to consider an attack against one was an attack against all” (Milestones:1945-1952). NATO added Greece and Turkey (1952) and Fed. Rep. Ger. (1955).
  • Reformed Capitalism

    US ideology promoted capitalism along with property rights and free markets. This version of capitalism was not, however, the laissez-faire capitalism of the nineteenth century, but a new, reformed type of capitalism, one that protected the social and economic rights of citizens by accepting the idea of a welfare state and government intervention in the economy
  • Mao Tse-tung

    Naming himself head of state, communist revolutionary Mao Zedong officially proclaimed the existence of the People's Republic of China; The proclamation was the climax of years of battle between Mao's communist forces and the regime of Nationalist Chinese leader Chiang Kai-Shek, who had been supported with money and arms from the American government. The loss of China, the largest nation in Asia, to communism was a severe blow to the United States
  • Beggining of The Berlin Wall

    Beggining of The Berlin Wall
    After the colapse of Adolf Hitler's thrird Reich, the forced of the USA, Soviet Union, Britain and France occupied Germany and its cspital, Berlin of which both divided up for administrative purposes. In October the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) emerged out of the Soviet zone of occupation. The Soviert sector formed Easter Berlin and becamse the capital of the new East Germany.
  • Decolonization

    The global political arena after Wrold War 2 resounded with clashes stemming from both the cold war and decolonization. The conflicts stemming from these dual forces naturally had repercussions in soicieties around the world. Representatives of the super powers also came face to face with one another for the first timein the late 1950s, and those encounters suggested the extent to which Soveit and US societies also transformed as a result of cold war and decolonization
  • Period: to

    The "Real" Third World

    As the Cold War arose (1947-1991) countries that were not alligned with the NATO or the Communist Bloc became known as the third world. It included major countries such as Africa, Latin America, and Asia. This term broadly categorizes Earth's population into three groups based off social, econimic, and political divisions. The Third World is a misuses word today and is now used to described underdeveloped countries.
  • Senator McCarthy

    Senator McCarthy became infamous in the early 1950s for his unsuccessful quest to expose communists in the US government. Supporting any radical or liberal cause, or behaving in any odd way, nonetheless subjected citizens of the United States to suspicions about their loyalty.Thousands of citizens lost thier jobs and reputations after being deemed risks to their nation's security.
  • Thirty-Eighth Parallel

    At the end of World War II, the governments of the United States and the Soviet Union decided that the Soviet Union would invade the Japanese held territories of mainland Asia south to the 38th Parallel and the United States would invade north to the same point.On June 25 June, 1950, communist North Korean forces crossed the 38th parallel into democratic South Korea. The 38th parallel, as the pre-war boundary between the countries, became the focal point for negotiations of a cease fire.
  • Continuation of Decolonization

    The process of attaining independence did not always prove nonviolent as in Ghana. The battle that took place in the British colony of Kenya in East Africa suggests the complexity and difficulty of African decolonization. The situation in Kenya turned tense and violent in a clash between pwerful white settlers and nationalists, especially the Kikuyu, one of Kenya's largest ethnic groups
  • Period: to

    Mau Mau

    The Mau Mau Uprising, a revolt against colonial rule in Kenya, lasted from 1952 through 1960 and helped Kenya’s independence. Issues like loss of land to white settlers, poverty, and lack of political representation for Africans provided the reason for the revolt. During the eight year uprising many people were killed.
  • Khrushchev and Reformed Communism

    Khrushchev and Reformed Communism
    Nikita Khrushchev, Stalin's successor, developed a version of communism that inspired many reformers in Eastern Europe and Soviet Union. He offered a reformed communism, one without the terror and intimidation that had characterized the Stalin era. He called for a more economically productive type of communism that aimed for balanced growth.
  • Stalin's death and democracy versus communism struggles

    Stalin's death and democracy versus communism struggles
    Khrushchev is Stalin’s successor of the superpower USSR. He created reformed communism in hopes of freeing people from the fear that they had during Stalin’s era. Although it eventually fell through, the plan inspired eastern Europe to attempt to grow in a more balanced way. Both reformed communism and capitalism sometimes possessed unrealistic ideas. Khrushchev strove to spread communism throughout the world, but the US believed in the containment of it and would financially or military aid.
  • Stalin's death continued.

    Khrushchev strove to spread communism throughout the world, but the US believed in the containment of it and would financially aid or put military in those countries who had the possibility of becoming communist. Other ways the US tried to prevent the spread was an economic, military, and political block with other European states. Winston Churchill called this the ‘Iron curtain.”
  • Capitalism

    Capitalism
    U.S ideology promoted capitalism along with property rights and free markets. It was a new, reformed type of capitalism and protected the social and economic rights of citizens by accepting the idea of a welfare state and government intervention in the economy.
  • Domino Theory

    Domino Theory
    This cocnept emphasized how nations have to protect one another; when one nation falls to communism everyone falls to communism. This was stated by Dwight D. Eisenhower, who had contemplated using nuclear weapons in Korea. Subsequent US administrators therefore extended the policy of containment to areas beyond the nation’s vital interest. This was applied to local or imagined communist threats in Central and South America, Africa, and Asia. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QP9QDRDLw6c
  • Brown vs. Board of Education

    Brown vs. Board of Education
    In virtually every sphere of life, southern U.S. states institutionalized segregation, a system of laws and customs designed to separate blacks and whites. African-Americans had to contend not only with segregation but also with the loss of voting rights, widespread discrimination , and extra-legal violence. The U.S Supreme Court in 1954 ruled segregation in the schools illegal in Brown vs the Board of Education, but it was the direct action on the part of African-Americans.
  • Geneva Conference

    Geneva Conference
    This is where they determined that Vietnam would be temporarily divided at the seventeenth parallel. North Vietnam would be controlled by Ho Chi Minh and the communist forces. South Vietnam would belong to non communistsThe U.S. lent its support first to the French war effort, then to South Vietnam. South Vietnam’s leaders, along with U.S. support, sought to build a government that would prevent the spread of communism in South Vietnam.
  • Colonial Liberation

    Colonial Liberation
    The U.S.’s promise to liberate the Philippines was delayed by the war.This pledge was finally fulfilled July 4, 1946. However, the U.S. still maintained some control over the island as well as importantpolitical affairs. The Soviet Union encouraged new nations to reject ties with the U.S. The Soviet Union equated the Pax Americana with imperialism.These nations developed dependent on the conditions of the superpowers economically and globalized the culture that the superpowers had.
  • Bandung Conference

    Bandung Conference
    Bandung Conference wasa meeting of Asian and African states (29 countries representing more than half the world’s population sent delegates to represent themselves).It included many issues but the main debate was over whether Soviet policies in Eastern Europe and Central Asia should be censored along with Western Colonialism. It established idea of independence from the Soviets or the United States because they didn’t want to be influenced by either of the sides; they desired for nonalignment
  • Bandung Conference

    Bandung Conference
    This was a meeting of Asian and African states. It included many issues but the main debate was over whether Soviet policies in Eastern Europe and Central Asia should be censored along with Western Colonialism. They desired for nonalignment with the U.S. and the Soviets because they didn’t favor either side. The Chinese Prime Minister strongly favored Chinese Communism and Indian Prime Minister (Nehru) adopted the Five Principles which were unanimously approved by those of the conference.
  • Warsaw Treaty Organization

    Warsaw Treaty Organization
    This was a political and military alliance established on May 14, 1955 between the Soviet Union and several Eastern European countries. Its main purpose and objective was to create a coordinated defense among the member nations in case of enemy attack. It was signed in Warsaw, Poland in 1955.
  • Rosa Parks refusing to give up seat

    Rosa Parks refusing to give up seat
    Rosa Parks LegacyU.S. politicians and lawmakers recognized the adverse propaganda value of this institutionalized racism during the cold war. The civil rights movement brought down segregation and impediments on voting, while being the first and foremost a challenge to segregation. In 1955, when Rosa Parks, an African-Americans in Montgomery, Alabama refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man it served as a milestone for a series of advancements in civil rights for African Americans
  • Period: to

    Nkrumah

    THE UNITED STATES OF AFRICAPoem written about Nkrumah leadership:
    Kwame Nkrumah is and will be ever living
    Since Africa, to him grateful
    Is also living and will live forever
    Fighters of all races and colors
    Demanding Independence and progress for Peoples,
    Equality and solidarity among nations of the world
    Keep living and we shall continue endeavoring
    To follow the path shown by Kwame Nkrumah.
    President Ahmed Seku Ture
    From his poem dedicated to Osagyefo
  • National Liberation

    The cold war prolonged western European and US influence and power in developing countries to strengthen their appeal in the superiority of one against the other. This outcome was especially true in areas where movements for national liberation or soical reform seemed to threaten the perceived balance of power, prompting the US government to prop up authoritarian elites. Superpwer intrusions in the developing world also hindered establishment of democratic political systems
  • Deterrence

    Deterrence referred to a unilateral deterrence gave way to "mutual deterrence," a situation of strategic stalemate. The superpowers would refrain from attacking each other because of the certainty of mutual assured destruction, better known as MAD.
  • Period: to

    "Essential Equivalence"

    The phrase coined by RIchard Nixon during the 1960's to describe the qpporach to parity displayed by the Soviets within thier strategic forces. The United States and the Soviets had begun to amass enormous aresenlas of thermonuclear weapons to develop a multitude of systems for deplying those weapons. And by the end of the decade they had reached "essential equivalence."
  • Castro declared his support for the USSR’s foreign policy

    Castro declared his support for the USSR’s foreign policy
    Castro had already overthrown the autocratic Fulgencio Batista y Zaldivar, whose regime had gone to great lengths to maintain the country’s traditionally subservient relationship with the United States. He also reneged on promises of elections, expropriated foreign properties-most of which were U.S owned- and killed or exiled political opponents. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m2w2ZVT7GCA
  • Kennedy authorizes invasion of Cuba

    Kennedy authorizes invasion of Cuba
    Primarily, Kennedy authorized an invasion of Cuba and his supporters ; however, after this pressure from Congress to deal with the Soviet menace, President Kennedy delivered a public ultimatum, calling on the Soviet leadership to withdraw all missiles from Cuba and stop the arrival of additional nuclear armaments. Through incorporating all these concepts as well as the imposition of air and naval blockade on an island nation , the overall concept of Kennedy's presidency is highlighted
  • Black African Nationalism

    African nationalists celebrated their balckness and Africanness in contrast to their European colonial rulers. Drawing from the pan-African movements that emerged in the United States and the Caribbean, African intellectuals, especially in French-controlled west Africa, established a movement to promote Negritude. Reviving Africa's great traditions and cultures, poets and writers expressed a widely shared pride in Africa.
  • "Tea Down This Wall"

    "Tea Down This Wall"
    the communists reinfoced there fortification along the border between East and West Germany, following the fortifies wall dividing the city of Berlin.Ronald Reagan was an inspirement to this process in the 1960's. In subsequent years, several thousands of East Germans escaped to West Germany, often by indigneous means, but several hundred paid with there lives just to live of the other side.
  • The Accomplishments of The Berlin Wall

    The accomplishments of the Berlin wall: itd purpose of steaming the flow of refugees, though at the cost of shaming a regime that obviously hacked legitimacy among its own people.
  • Zionism

    Zionism was a Jewish nationalist movement that has the support of creating a Jewish national state in Palestine. This movement originated in eastern and central Europe and had a continuation of the traditional ways of the Jews living in Palestine, more specifically where one of the hills was called Zion. Zionism cannot function with the idea of “peaceful coexistence” because the whole purpose of Zionism is to create a secular Jewish nation while the purpose of coexisting is to have unity.
  • Period: to

    MAD

    Richard Nixon proved right. By 1970 both superpowers had acquired the capacity for a mutually assured destruction or MAD. It was the balance of terror that restrained each side and stablilized the relationship.
  • Bibliorgraphy for Project

    Summer's: "Milestones: 1945-1952." Office of the Historian. U.S. Department of State, n.d. Web. 9 Apr. 2013. Sidra's: Bentley, Jerry H., and Herbert F. Ziegler. Traditions & encounters: a global perspective on the past. 2nd ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2003. Print.
    http://history.state.gov/departmenthistory/short-history/containmentandcoldwar Sidra's: "John F. Kennedy | The White House." The White House. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2013. <http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johnfkennedy
    Sidra:
  • Cold War Political Cartoon

    Cold War Political Cartoon
    The two flags represent the two main countries: US and the USSR as they threaten but never pull the trigger on one another.
  • More Bibliography

    Catherine::1981, USA had 8, 000 ICBM’s, USSR 7, and 000. "The Nuclear Arms Race." History Learning Site. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Apr. 2013. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/nuclear_arms_race.htm Jenna:U.S., the, Great Britain, China, and the three main powers then. "Potsdam Conference." Naval History and Heritage Command. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Apr. 2013. http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/wwii-dpl/hd-state/potsdam.htm.
  • Bibliography Continued

    Madyline: " Muhammad Ali Jinnah Biography - Facts, Birthday, Life Story - Biography.com ." Famous Biographies & TV Shows - Biography.c. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Apr. 2013. http://www.biography.com/people/muhammad-ali-jinnah-9354710.