AP World History

  • Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand

    Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand
    Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his pregnant wife, Sophie, were assassinated in Sarajevo (then Hungary, part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire) on June 28, 1914, leading to the start of WWI. Gavrilo Princip, a member of a politicized group of Bosnian Serbs, The Black Hand, shot the Archduke with the intention of breaking Austria-Hungary's control over southern provinces so they could be merged with a portion of Yugoslavia and become a self-governing entity.
  • German resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare

    German resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare
    Germany could not possibly deal with British naval strength on an even basis, and the only possible way Germany could impose a blockade on Britain was through the U-boat.
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    Gallipoli Campaign

    Gallipoli CampaignThe attempts first by British and French warships and then troops to force the Dardanelles in 1915 constitute one of the most fascinating, and still controversial, of all the campaigns of WW I. It was the first major amphibious operation in modern warfare, using such novelties as aircraft (and an aircraft carrier), aerial reconnaissance and photography, steel landing craft, radio communications, artificial harbours, and submarines.
  • Japan makes 21 Demands on China

    Japan makes 21 Demands on China
    The 'Twenty-One Demands' - comprising five groupings - required that China immediately cease its leasing of territory to foreign powers and to ascent to Japanese control over Manchuria and Shandong (Shantung) among other demands.
  • Bolshevik Revolution

    Bolshevik Revolution
    Revolution in which the Bolsheviks, an extremist faction within the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (later renamed the Russian Communist Party), seized control of the government.
  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

    Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
    A peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918 at Brest-Litovsk between Russia and the Central Powers marking Russia's exit from World War I. it affirmed the independence of Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, Ukraine, and Lithuania. In Poland, which was not mentioned in the treaty, its signing caused riots, protests and an end to any support for the Central Powers.
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    Civil War in Russia

    Russian Civil WarConflict between the newly formed Bolshevik government and its Red Army against the anti-Bolshevik forces in Russia. The unfavourable Treaty of Brest-Litovsk concluded with Germany caused socialists opposed to Vladimir Lenin to break with the Bolsheviks and join the right-wing Whites and their volunteer army under Anton Denikin.Confused by the struggles between communists, Russian Whites, and Ukrainian nationalists, the Allies withdrew their support by 1919.
  • Mussolini launches fascist movement

    Mussolini launches fascist movement
    Advocating government by dictatorship, he formed a political group in 1919 that marked the beginning of fascism. Supported in his fascist schemes by Adolf Hitler but wary of German power, Mussolini agreed to the Rome-Berlin Axis and declared war on the Allies in 1940. Italian military defeats in Greece and North Africa led to growing disillusionment with Mussolini.
  • Paris Peace Conference

    Paris Peace Conference
    Meeting of the Allied victors following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers following the armistices of 1918. It took place in Paris in 1919 and involved diplomats from more than 32 countries and nationalities. They met, discussed various options and developed a series of treaties for the post-war world. These treaties reshaped the map of Europe with new borders and countries, and imposed war guilt and stiff financial penalties on Germany.
  • First Meeting of the League of Nations

    First Meeting of the League of Nations
    Forty-two nations were represented at this first meeting. Notably absent were German, Russia, and the United States. Germany, identified as the aggressor in World War I, was barred from admission at first, and admitted in 1926. Russia, now the Soviet Union, was not invited to join the League due to the radical policies of the new communist government. The Soviet Union finally became a member of the League in 1935.
  • Lenin's Economic Policy

    Lenin's Economic Policy
    Supposed to create a stronger soviet union.It was designed to do this by rebuilding the economy. After the Bolshevik takeover and two years of civil war and Lenin's "war communism," the Soviet economy was producing less than it had in the last years of the Tsarist regime. The NEP temporarily introduced some elements of capitalism in certain areas of the economy such as peasant agriculture and small businesses.
  • Ataturk proclaims Republic of Turkey

    Ataturk proclaims Republic of Turkey
    Greece and Armenia, territorial beneficiaries of the Ottoman defeat, opposed the Turkish nationalists, but Mustafa Kemal overcame all opposition, and the Republic of Turkey was established in 1923. He was given the name Atatrk in 1934. He pursued a policy of Westernization and secularization, in which Western styles of dress and appellation were made mandatory, seclusion of women was abolished, and the legal and educational system was overhauled.
  • First Soviet Five-Year Plan

    First Soviet Five-Year Plan
    a list of economic goals, created by Joseph Stalin that was designed to strengthen the country's economy between 1928 and 1932. The main concerns of the First Five-Year Plan focused on making the nation militarily, industrially, and finacially self-sufficient. Launched by the Soviet government in 1928 and administered by the Gosplan, the First Five-Year Plan employed tactics such as keeping detailed records on every item manufactured in the nation and shipping it to where it needed to go.
  • US stock market crash

    US stock market crash
    The most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States. The crash signaled the beginning of the 10-year Great Depression that affected all Western industrialized countries and did not end in the United States until 1947.
  • Civil disobedience movement in India

    Civil disobedience movement in India
    Formed under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, the Civil Disobedience Movement set a milestone in the history of India's freedom struggle. The Civil Disobedience Movement was formed in the year 1930 and is one of the most important phases in the Indian National Movement. The main ideology behind the Civil Disobedience Movement was to defy the laws made by the British.
  • Japanese invasion of Manchuria

    Japanese invasion of Manchuria
    The Japanese invaded Manchuria in 1931 and set up Manchuko. They invaded based on their need for raw materials that the area held. They murdered hundreds of Chinese people, and the rest of the world was incensed. The US told them they had to get out of China or they would place an oil embargo on Japan. Japan was determined to expand their empire and gain lands which had the oil and raw materials their nation did not have.
  • Hitler is ruler in Germany

    Hitler is ruler in Germany
    The first two years in office were almost wholly dedicated to balancing power. With several important Nazis in key positions and Hitler's military ally Werner von Blomberg in the Defense Ministry, he quickly gained practical control. Hitler rapidly eliminated his political rivals and brought all levels of government and major political institutions under his control. The death of President Hindenburg in August 1934 cleared the way for Hitler to remove the title of president.
  • Sandino is murdered in Nicaragua

    Sandino is murdered in Nicaragua
    On February 21, 1934, Sandino was ambushed by the National Guard and betrayed along with his father, brother Socrates two of his favorite generals, Estranda and Umanzor, and the poet Sofonías Salvatierra under Somoza's orders, when he returned from new rounds of the talks with Sacasa. The full details of Sandino's murder and what became of his remains are among Nicaragua's most enduring mysteries.
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    Long March by Chinese Communists

    Long MarchA military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Communist Party of China, the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the Kuomintang army. There was not one Long March, but a series of marches, as various Communist armies in the south escaped to the north and west. The most well known is the march from Jiangxi province which began in October 1934.
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    Stalin's "Great Purge" in USSR

    stalin's great purge in ussrIt was a series of campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin. It displayed Stalin's power-hungry paranoia.
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    Invasion of China by Japan

    Invasion of China by JapanA military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. From 1937 to 1941, China fought Japan with some economic help from Germany, the Soviet Union and the United States. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the war merged into World War II.
  • German Anschluss with Austria

    German Anschluss with Austria
    Refers to the invasion and annexation of Austria by Germany in March 1938.
  • Cardenas nationalizes oil industry in Mexico

    Cardenas nationalizes oil industry in Mexico
    It took place when President and General Lázaro Cárdenas declared that all mineral and oil reserves found within Mexico belong to the nation. It is one of the Fiestas Patrias of Mexico, celebrating the date when the President, General Lázaro Cárdenas, declared that all oil reserves found in Mexican soil belonged to the nation, following the principle stated in the Article 27 of the Constitution of 1917. This measure caused an international boycott of Mexican products in the following years.
  • Invasion of Poland by Germany

    Invasion of Poland by Germany
    An invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II in Europe. The invasion began on 1 September 1939, one week after the signing of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, and ended on 6 October 1939 with Germany and the Soviet Union dividing and annexing the whole of Poland.
  • German invasion of USSR

    German invasion of USSR
    Beginning on 22 June 1941, over 3.9 million troops of the Axis powers invaded the USSR along a 2,900 km front, the largest invasion in the history of warfare. In addition to troops, Barbarossa involved 600,000 motor vehicles and 750,000 horses.The ambitious operation, driven by Adolf Hitler's persistent desire to conquer the Russian territories, marked the beginning of the pivotal phase in deciding the victors of the war.
  • Soviet Victory at Stalingrad

    Soviet Victory at Stalingrad
    The remnants of the Axis forces in Stalingrad surrendered on 2 February; 91,000 tired, ill, wounded, starving, and demoralized prisoners were taken.Out of the nearly 110,000 German prisoners captured in Stalingrad, only about 6,000 ever returned. Already weakened by disease, starvation and lack of medical care during the encirclement, they were sent on death marches to prisoner camps and later to labour camps all over the Soviet Union.
  • D-Day, Allied iinvasion at Normandy

    D-Day, Allied iinvasion at Normandy
    The Invasion of Normandy was the invasion and establishment of Allied forces in Normandy, France, during Operation Overlord in 1944 during World War II. It was the largest invasion force in history, as well as the largest amphibious operation ever to take place.
  • Capture of Berlin by Soviet forces

    Capture of Berlin by Soviet forces
    Starting on April 16 1945, the Red Army breached the German front. Two Soviet fronts (army groups) attacked Berlin from the east and south, while a third overran German forces positioned north of Berlin. The Battle in Berlin lasted from 20 April 1945 until the morning of May 2.
  • Establishment of United Nations

    Establishment of United Nations
    This occurred after WW2. It was originally the League of Nations, suggested by President Woodrow Wilson and constructed after WW1. But the L of N was weak and didn't even have the U.S. as a member. So after WW2 they re-made it, with the U.S. this time, to be stronger and more effective.
  • Atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
    The atomic bombing of the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 represents arguably the most important and most sinister development in warfare in the 20th century.Hiroshima became the target of the first weapon at 08.15 on 6 August 1945.The Japanese government attempted to play down the impact and significance of this ominous development, which was followed a few days later by a second atomic bombing.The Nagasaki bomb was of about 20 kilotons.
  • Partition of India

    Partition of India
    The partition of British India on the basis of religious demographics. This led to the creation of the sovereign states of the Dominion of Pakistan (later the Islamic Republic of Pakistan) and the Union of India which took place in 1947, on August 14th and 15th, respectively.
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    Apartheid in South Africa

    Apartheida system of racial segregation enforced through legislation by the National Party governments of South Africa between 1948 and 1994, under which the rights of the majority non-white inhabitants of South Africa were curtailed and white supremacy and Afrikaner minority rule was maintained. Apartheid was developed after World War II by the Afrikaner-dominated National Party and Broederbond organizations and was practiced also in South West Africa, which was administered by South Africa under a Leag
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    Arab-Israeli Wars

    Arab-Israeli WarConflicts in 1948-49, 1956, 1967, 1973-74, and 1982 between Israel and the Arab states. Tensions between Israel and the Arabs have been complicated and heightened by the political, strategic, and economic interests in the area of the great powers.
  • Creation of Israel

    Creation of Israel
    The United Nations voted to create Israel. The land was taken from Palestine and Israel was formed. Israel is officially a Jewish country and it was created right after WWII as a safe place for Jewish people to live. After World War II ended, a civil war broke out in Palestine, which seamlessly merged in to the Israeli War of Independence. The War of Independence started after Israel declared independence in May 1948, when the state Israel was born.
  • Establishment of NATO

    Establishment of NATO
    NATO stands for The North Atlantic Treaty Organization and was formed in 1949 under the U.S leadership, to group most of the western European powers and Canada in a defensive alliance against possible Soviet aggression.
  • Establishment of People's Republic of China

    Establishment of People's Republic of China
    The People's Republic of China was founded on a land that was ravaged by a century of foreign invasion and civil wars. A new political and economic order modeled on the Soviet was quickly installed, and China experienced relative stability unseen since the Opium War. In the early 1950s, the PRC undertook a massive economic and social reconstruction which was generally welcomed by a population desperately longing for stability.
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    Korean War

    Korean WarA war between the Republic of Korea and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. The Korean War was primarily the result of the political division of Korea by an agreement of the victorious Allies at the conclusion of the Pacific War.The Korean peninsula was ruled by the Empire of Japan from 1910 until the end of World War II. Following the surrender of the Empire of Japan in September 1945, American administrators divided the peninsula along the 38th parallel.
  • French defeat at Dien Bien Phu

    French defeat at Dien Bien Phu
    The battle occurred between March and May 1954 and culminated in a comprehensive French defeat that influenced negotiations over the future of Indochina at Geneva.
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    Algerian War of Liberation

    Algerian War of LiberationA conflict between France and Algerian independence movements from 1954 to 1962, which led to Algeria gaining its independence from France. An important decolonization war, it was a complex conflict characterized by guerrilla warfare, maquis fighting, terrorism against civilians, the use of torture on both sides, and counter-terrorism operations by the French Army.The conflict was also a civil war.
  • Establishment of Warsaw Pact

    Establishment of Warsaw Pact
    A military alliance of communist nations in eastern Europe. Organized in 1955 in answer to NATO, the Warsaw Pact included Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union.
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    US Troops in Vietnam

    US Troops in VietnamThe U.S. government viewed involvement in the war as a way to prevent a communist takeover of South Vietnam as part of their wider strategy of containment. The North Vietnamese government and Viet Cong viewed the conflict as a colonial war, fought initially against France, backed by the U.S., and later against South Vietnam, which it regarded as a U.S. puppet state.U.S. involvement escalated in the early 1960s, with troop levels tripling in 1961 and tripling again in 1962.
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    Uprising in Hungary

    Uprising in Hungarya spontaneous nationwide revolt against the government of the People's Republic of Hungary and its Soviet-imposed policies. By January 1957, the new Soviet-installed government had suppressed all public opposition. These Soviet actions alienated many Western Marxists, yet strengthened Soviet control over Central Europe.
  • Suez crisis

    Suez crisis
    a diplomatic and military confrontation in late 1956 between Egypt on one side, and Britain, France and Israel on the other, with the United States, the Soviet Union and the United Nations playing major roles in forcing Britain, France and Israel to withdraw.As a result of the outside pressure Britain and France failed in their political and strategic aims of controlling the canal and removing Nasser from power. Israel fulfilled some of its objectives.
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    Great Leap Forward in China

    Great Leap ForwardFailed industrialization campaign undertaken by the Chinese communists between 1958 and early 1960. Mao Zedong hoped to develop labour-intensive methods of industrialization that would emphasize manpower rather than the gradual purchase of heavy machinery, thereby putting to use China's dense population and obviating the need to accumulate capital.The program was implemented so hastily and zealously that many errors occurred.
  • Castro comes to power in Cuba

    Castro comes to power in Cuba
    Castro with 123 men and women attacked the Moncada Army Barracks. He was arrested was sentenced to fifteen years in prison. He was released after two years. Castro left for Mexico where he began to plan another attempt to overthrow the Cuban government.
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    Sino-Soviet Rift

    Sino-Soviet RiftThe worsening of political and ideological relations between the People's Republic of China and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics during the Cold War.The divide fractured the international Communist movement at the time.
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    Construction of Berlin Wall

    Berlin WallThe construction of the Berlin Wall began during the Cold War. Overnight on 13 August 1961, the East and Western halves of Berlin were separated by barbed wire fences up to 1.83 metres high. Over the next few days, troops began to replace the barbed wire with permanent concrete blocks, reaching up to 3.6m high. The government suthorities deemed it necessary to stop the influx of people moving from the eastern sector of Berlin into the free West.
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    Division of Berlin and Germany

    Division of Berlin and GermanyBarrier surrounding West Berlin that closed off East Germans access to West Berlin from 1961 to 1989 and served as a symbol of the Cold War's division of East and West Germany. The barrier was built in response to the flight of about 2.5 million East Germans to West Germany in the years 1949-61. First erected on the night of Aug. 12-13, 1961, it developed into a system of concrete walls topped with barbed wire and guarded with watchtowers, gun emplacements, and mines.
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    Revolution in Iran

    Iranian RevolutionEvents involving the overthrow of Iran's monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and its replacement with an Islamic republic under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the leader of the revolution.
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    Iran-Iraq War

    Iran-Iraq War An armed conflict between the armed forces of Iraq and Iran, lasting from September 1980 to August 1988, making it the longest conventional war of the 20th century.The war began when Iraq invaded Iran, launching a simultaneous invasion by air and land into Iranian territory on 22 September 1980 following a long history of border disputes, and fears of Shia Islam insurgency among Iraq's long-suppressed Shia majority influenced by the Iranian Revolution.
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    Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan

    Soviet withdrawal from AfghanistanThe withdrawal of Soviet combatant forces from the Afghanistan began on May 15, 1988 and successfully executed on February 15, 1989 under the leadership of Colonel-General Boris Gromov. The United States and the USSR also signed a declaration on international guarantees, stating they would both refrain from any form of interference and intervention.
  • Reunification of Germany

    Reunification of Germany
    The process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic joined the Federal Republic of Germany , and when Berlin reunited into a single city. It was granted full sovereignty to a unified German state, whose two parts had previously still been bound by a number of limitations stemming from their post-WWII status as occupied regions. The united Germany remained a member of the European Community and of NATO.
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    Persian Gulf War

    Persian Gulf WarA war fought in 1991 in which a coalition of countries led by the United States destroyed much of the military capability of Iraq and drove the Iraqi army out of Kuwait.
  • Collapse of USSR

    Collapse of USSR
    The Soviet Union's war in Afghanistan badly overstretched their military and demoralized their military. The Soviet Union's economy was very inefficient. In trying to keep up with the West in the Cold War arms race, the Soviets spent themselves into the ground. They ran billions of rubles in annual deficits over several decades. Mikhail Gorbachev and his advisers had to implement broad economic reforms, towards capitalism, to try to prevent total economic breakdown.
  • Transfer of Hong Kong to China

    Transfer of Hong Kong to China
    The event marked the end of British rule, and the transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong to China.
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    Uprisings in Ukraine, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan

    Uprisings in Ukraine, Georgia, KyrgyzstanRose Revolution-overthrow of Eduard Shevardnadze and replacing him with Mikhail Saakashvili
    Orange Revolution-Leader of the Opposition Viktor Yushchenko was declared President, defeating Viktor Yanukovych.
    Tulip Revolution- more violent than its predecessors and followed the disputed Kyrgyz parliamentary election, 2005. At the same time, it was more fragmented than previous "colour" revolutions. The protesters in different areas adopted the colours pink and yellow for their protests.
  • Creation of PLO

    Creation of PLO
    The PLO was formed to independently fight for the Palestinian people. The Palestinians did not have a homeland therefore the PLO was formed to get back the land Israel had taken from them. It was also formed because of their mistrust of the other Arab nations protecting them.