Syntax/Morphology: Uses irregular third person verbs
Charlie often talks about the environment around him; on his birthday trip to the zoo, Charlie says, “That kangaroo has a baby”
Charlie fusses and cries when he is hungry, tired, wet, etc.
Looks towards sounds
Charlie looks toward the sound of his mother's voice.
Holds and Manipulates objects
Charlie holds and inspects new toys.
Uses vowel-like sounds
Charlie responds using vowel-like sounds when his mother talks to him.
Maintains attention with social partners
Charlie looks at people's faces when they are talking to him.
Charlie begins responding to family members and caregivers using marginal babbling. He also varies the intensity and pitch of his voice.
Responds to name
Charlie turns his head in when his name is called.
Charlie starts using reduplicated babbling
Charlie enjoys playing peek-a-boo with family members.
Charlie interacts with toys that his mother shows him.
Charlie begins to use variegated babbling.
Looks for Objects
Charlie enjoys searching for objects that his father hides under a blanket.
Charlie begins using jargon to "communicate" with family and caregivers.
Charlie points at things that he wants (his bottle, a toy, his mother, etc.)
Charlie points at things to draw attention to them (e.g. a dog walking outside).
1st word (Semantics)
Charlie says his first word ("mama") when his mother came into his room to wake him up from his nap.
Uses referential gestures (Pragmatics)
Uses line of regard, gestures, voice direction, and body posture to infer intentions underlying other people’s actions
50% of all utterances consist of single nouns
Many of the words Charlie produces are labels for objects and people around him.
13 mo - 36mo
Uses gestures to respond to questions
Charlie points to objects in response to questions like "Where is your bottle?" and "Can you find the ball?".
Mostly unintelligible speech, except few words (Phonology)
Charlie babbles, but only a few words can be understood. This includes his first true word, Mama, and Dada, and doggie.
Pronounces about 25% of all words intelligibly (Phonology)
Most of Charlie's "words" are gibberish that cannot be understood. Some of the words that he produces most often can be understood though. This includes ball, water, and bite.
Uses verbal turn taking (Pragmatics)
Charlie understand that only one person is supposed to speak at a time
Uses negation (Syntax)
Charlie has learned the word "no," and it seems like this is his favorite word to use, because he uses it frequently.
Charlie Uses 3-20 Words (semantics)
Charlie is able to say things that are most important to him (his favorite toys, drinks, and some food)
Uses gesture-word combinations (Pragmatics)
Charlie is able to say toy and point to it in order to ask for his toys. He is able to do the same with any of the things he wants
Begins to use grammatical morphemes (Morphology)
Charlie is starting to use variation with his words. This includes using the use of the present progressive -ing.
Produces about 50 words including some verbs and adjectives (Semantics)
Charlie is able to use some colors to describe toys when asked
Processes spoken words incrementally (Phonology)
Charlie's lexicon increases all the time. Now, he is able to identify things around him, including a few colors.
Uses some contractions. Has an MLU of about 2.85-3.16. (Morphology, Syntax)
Charlie's speech is becoming more and more developed. He combines words to create contractions in the correct context. His sentences are more complex as well.
Charlie turns 2
Comprehends more than he can produce(semantics)
Comprehends approx. 500 words only produces 200 words
Begins using imaginative, heuristic, and informative language (Pragmatics)
Charlie is able to ask questions, can inform his parents about his favorite objects
Asks questions with rising intonation. (Phonology)
Charlie realizes that people's voices raise when they ask questions, and he is starting to imitate this in his questions as well.
Begins using two-word combinations (Syntax)
Charlie's speech is developing rapidly. He is starting to combine words and use prepositions, plural and possessive morphemes, and some irregular verbs. He says things like, "Mommy's cup," and "on table."
Overgeneralizes about ⅓ of all new words attends to sentence (semantics)
Charlie thinks all vehicles with 4 wheels are trucks and most animals are dogs
Introduces and changes discussion topics (Pragmatics)
Charlie always wants to talk about his favorite toy truck and is able to change every topic to include his truck
Demonstrates phonological processes (e.g. final consonant omission)
When Charlie speaks, he sometimes omits the final consonant of words. An example of this is saying "ca" for cat.
Uses present progressing morpheme -ing with mastery (Morphology)
Charlie is producing more and more complex words. Now he says words such as playing, barking, or crying.
Comprehends Approx 900 words produces approx 500 words (semantics)
Charlie is beginning to ask simple questions like, "What that?"
Clarifies and requests clarification during conversation (Pragmatics)
Charlie begins asking, "What?" more frequently and can answer questions
Pronounces about 80% of all words intelligibly (Phonology)
At this point, most of the words Charlie says can be understood. He has stopped using most of the common phonological processes that he had been using earlier.
Charlie turns 3
Pragmatics: Begins to engage in longer dialogues
Charlie begins to use multiple four to five word sentences during conversations and narratives
Syntax: Uses 4-5 words in sentences; uses compound sentences with 'and'
While taking a walk through the park, Charlie saw a dog and says “It’s a dog and he running”
Semantics: Understands some relational terms
Charlie describes and sorts his stuffed animals into groups such as "big" and "little"
Syntax: Uses compound sentences with "and"
Charlie uses sentences like "I like dinosaurs and he likes spaceships"
Pragmatics: Charlie begins to make conversational repairs
Charlie's friend was offended after Charlie called him silly until Charlie recognized the misunderstanding and told his friend he likes being silly.
Syntax: Uses adverbs of time
Charlie uses words such as "tonight" and "yesterday" when talking about events
Semantics: Understands some kinship terms
Charlie learns that his cousin is in fact his cousin and not just his friend and learns that his grandma is his mom’s mom
Morphology: Uses past tense consistently
Charlie consistently adds -ed to the end of his verbs including "played" and "danced"
Morphology: Uses contractions consistently
Charlie uses contractions such as “can’t”, “don’t”, and “didn’t” consistently
Semantics: Uses syntactic information to narrow the possible meanings of new words
Charlie infers that "shiny" is an adjective used to describe objects when he hears his mother describe her jewelry and the silverware in the kitchen as shiny.
Semantics: Overextends new words on the basis of object function
Charlie visited his cousins house and he saw his cousin playing his trumpet, now Charlie calls all brass instruments a trumpet
Charlie turns 4!
Pragmatics: Constructs True Narratives
Charlie was so excited to tell his teacher about what he did for his birthday party
Phonology: Decreases use of phonological processes
Charlie’s mom noticed he is no longer saying “airpane” or “pider” and is now saying “airplane” and “spider” consistently
Morphology: Uses contractible auxiliaries and uncontractible auxiliaries
Charlie says things like "I'm going swimming" or "the doggy is hungry"
Semantics: Uses reflexive pronouns such as himself, herself, itself
Charlie begins to say things like "she hurt herself" or " the bunny is all by itself"
Semantics: Uses "What do, what does, what did" questions
Charlie is extremely inquisitive and asks questions like “what did she say? What does this button do? What do you do here?”
Syntax/Morphology: Uses irregular plural forms consistently
Charlie now correctly uses “people,” “sheep,” and “teeth” instead of trying to add an ‘s’ on the end to make them plural
Phonology: Has some persisting phonological processes
Charlie still engages in some liquid gliding when using /r/ and /l/ e.g. saying "wun" instead of "run"
Semantics: Uses deictic terms this, that, here, there
When Charlie heard his grandparents were on their way to his house he shouted "I think they're almost here!"
Phonology: Knows letters that make up own name
Charlie now recognizes letters from his own name and can identify them in other words
Pragmatics: Uses an indirect request
Charlie points to a window and says "The wind is blowing my drawings around" to imply he wants the window closed