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Montgomery Bus Boycott

Timeline created by devangriffin in History
Event Date: Event Title: Event Description:
Timeline small square Jo Ann Robinson, of the WPC, writes letter to the Mayor Jo Ann Robinson, president of the Women’s Political Council, writes to the mayor of Montgomery to warn of the possibility of a bus boycott.
Timeline small square King becomes Pastor in Montgomery Martin Luther King Jr. becomes pastor of Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama.
Timeline small square Colvin, aged 15, is arrested. Claudette Colvin, 15, is arrested after allegedly violating bus segregation laws.
Timeline small square Smith, aged 18, is arrested. Mary Louise Smith, 18, is arrested after allegedly violating bus segregation laws.
Timeline small square Rosa Parks is arrested and charged with disorderly conduct. Rosa Parks is arrested after allegedly violating bus segregation laws. Parks is charged with disorderly conduct.
Timeline small square Leaflets calling for bus boycott are created and distributed Jo Ann Gibson Robinson (President of the Women's Political Council), two students, and the chairman of the Business Department at Alabama State, mimeographed and distributed approximately 52,500 leaflets calling for a boycott of the buses to begin on December 5, the following Monday.
Timeline small square Black Montgomery activists set stage for boycott Black Montgomery activists, including attorney Fred Gray and labor leader E.D. Nixon, begin setting the stage for the boycott.
Timeline small square A One-Day Bus Boycott & Rosa Parks is convicted and fined Rosa Parks is convicted and fined in Montgomery city court. A one-day boycott of city buses results in about 90 percent participation, The Montgomery Improvement Association is formed by black leaders, who elect the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. president. Several thousand black citizens attend the first MIA mass meeting at Holt Street Baptist Church, where they overwhelmingly support continuing the bus boycott.
Timeline small square Negotiations begin First negotiations between MIA leaders and Montgomery city and bus company officials deadlock over MIA proposal for a bus seating policy that is more fair to blacks, but still segregated.
Timeline small square Car Pool System begins The MIA begings to operate a car pool system. In time, the system will grow to more than 200 private automobiles and station wagons, many of which are operated by black churches.
Timeline small square Mayor forms biracial committee to negotiate with MIA The mayor forms a biracial committee to negotiate a compromise. The vice president of the bus company meets with MIA leaders and city and local bus officials.
Timeline small square One and only meeting of the Mayor's biracial committee The biracial committee meets but cannot agree on a compromise; there is no other record of the committee meeting after this one time.
Timeline small square MIA leaders meet with city commissioners MIA leaders meet with city commissioners, to no avail.
Timeline small square Mayor announces no further negotiations Mayor W. A. Gayle announces a tougher policy on the bus boycott, including no further negotiations with the MIA.
Timeline small square King is arrested for speeding King is arrested for speeding and jailed by Montgomery police.
Timeline small square King decides to continue the fight against segregation After getting a series of threatening phone calls, King reports sitting at his kitchen table late into the night considering whether to abandon the leadership of the boycott. But his resolve is strengthened by a divine voice telling him to continue the fight.
Timeline small square MIA votes to file federal lawsuit - King's home is bombed The MIA votes to support the filing of the federal lawsuit to challenge city and state bus segregation laws. That same night King’s house is bombed with his wife and their infant daughter inside - no one is insured. King reiterates to the angry crowd that nonviolence is the only solution.
Timeline small square Browder v. Gayle federal lawsuit is filed - challenges constitutionality of segregation Fred D. Gray and Charles D. Langford file the Browder v. Gayle lawsuit on behalf of four female plaintiffs to challenge the constitutionality of city and state bus segregation laws. Rosa Parks is not involved in the case.
Timeline small square Grand jury investigation of whether boycott violates state law A Montgomery circuit judge orders a grand jury investigation into whether the bus boycott violates a state boycott conspiracy law.
Timeline small square Boycott leaders indicted by grand jury with violating state law A Montgomery County grand jury indicts about 90 bus boycott leaders, charging them with violating a state statute against boycotts without just cause.
Timeline small square King found guilty of violating state boycott law King is found guilting of violating the state boycott conspiracy law. HIs sentence, a $500 fine or a year in jail, is delayed pending appeal. A year later that he loses his appeal and pays the fine. Other indicted MIA leaders are never tried.
Timeline small square National Deliverance Day of Prayer to support bus boycott A National Deliverance Day of Prayer to support the bus boycott takes place. Many cities, in and outside the South, take part.
Timeline small square Montgomery bus company orders desegregation The U.S. Supreme Court dismisses an appeal of a July 1955 federal appeals court ruling outlawing bus segregation in South Carolina. The decision is seen by many as declaring all intrastate bus segregation unconstitutional. The bus company decides to implement a policy of desegregation.
Timeline small square Mayor orders that Montgomery segregation will continue Bus companies in many Southern cities stop segregated bus seating in response to the Supreme Court decision. However, the Montgomery mayor declares that city bus segregation will continue and the local police threaten to arrest bus drivers who disobey segregation laws.
Timeline small square Federal court hearing on Browder v. Gayle lawsuit Montgomery federal court holds a hearing on the Browder v. Gayle lawsuit challenging bus segregation law. Claudette Colvin, Mary Louise Smith and the two other plaintiffs testify.
Timeline small square Two of three judges rule bus segregation laws unconstitutional Federal judges rule the city and state bus segregation laws are unconstitutional.
Timeline small square Injunction against segregation on buses - enforcement suspended pending appeal to U.S. Supreme Court Federal judges issue an injunction against segregation on Montgomery buses, but suspend its enforcement pending an appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court.
Timeline small square U.S. Supreme Court upholds Browder v. Gayle decision Without dissent, the U.S. Supreme Court upholds the Montgomery federal court’s Browder v. Gayle decision striking down Alabama’s bus segregation laws as unconstitutional.
Timeline small square MIA votes unanimously to end boycott upon U.S. Supreme Court decision implemention MIA, and those citizens at the meeting, unanimously votes to end the bus boycott when the U.S. Supreme Court decision is implemented.
Timeline small square U.S. Supreme Court rejects City Commission's appeal U.S. Supreme Court rejects the Montgomery City Commission’s appeal of the Browder v. Gayle decision.
Timeline small square U.S. Supreme Court ruling goes into effect U.S. Supreme Court’s Browder ruling goes into effect. Those attending mass meetings of the MIA uphold vote to end the bus boycott.
Timeline small square After 381 days, the boycott ends - full segregated bus service begins Black citizens desegregate Montgomery buses after the 13-month boycott. The bus company resumes full service.
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