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Highlights in Public Administration of the 1900s

Timeline created by jfowlkes
Event Date: Event Title: Event Description:
C02 small square Frederic Taylor Scientific Management The "Father of Scientific Management" recognized the need for labor-management cooperation, for controlling costs, and analyzing work methods.
Timeline small square Boston Police Strike
Timeline small square Budget and Accounting Act Was passed by Congress, creating the Bureau of the Budget (now Office of Management and Budget) and the General Accounting Office.
Timeline small square Max Weber The German sociologist articulated the classical definition of the bureaucratic form of organization. (Was not translated and published in the United States until after World War II.)
Timeline small square Classification Act Began the rationalization of position classification in the federal service.
Timeline small square Elton Mayo Began the famous management study at the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company near Chicago which examined the relationship between work environment and productivity. These studies were the genesis of the human relations school of management thought.
Timeline small square Mary Parker Follet Developed a management philosophy based on individual motivation and group problem solving - a forerunner of the participatory management idea.
Timeline small square Brownlow Committee Otherwise known as the President's 1937 Committee on Administrative Management and composed of Louis Brownlow, Charles Merriam, and Luther Gulick, made sweeping recommendations for the reorganization of the executive branch of the U.S. Government.
Timeline small square Luther Gulick and Lyndall Urwick Provided the definitive statement of the "principles" approach to management: planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, and budgeting (in short, POSDCORB).
Timeline small square Chester I. Barnard Viewed organizations as cooperative systems in which the "functions of the executive" (title of his classic work) were to maintain a balance between the needs of the organization and the needs of the individual and to establish effective communication.
Timeline small square American Society for Public Administration (ASPA) A national professional organization "to advance the science, processes, and art of public administration" was organized.
Timeline small square Robert K. Merton Proclaimed that bureaucracy, which Weber (1922) had defined so systematically, had a number of dysfunctions (that is, characteristics that lead to inefficiency).
Timeline small square Abraham H. Maslow Developed a theory of human motivation in which men and women moved up or down a needs hierarchy, as each level was satisfied or threatened.
Timeline small square Paul Appeleby Asserted that processes in government organizations are political - at least more than those in business organizations. Philip Selznick, Norton Long, and other writers of the late 1940's were to add theoretical and empirical support to Appeleby's most un-Wilsonian (1887) thesis.
Timeline small square Herbert A. Simon In his classic Administrative Behavior, Simon, like Merton (1940), attacked the " principles" approach to management as often being inconsistent and inapplicable. Like Barnard (1938) and influenced by him, Simon advocated a systems approach to administration and the study of decision making.
Timeline small square Norbert Wiener, Claude Shannon and P.M.S. Blackett Emphasized systems analysis, operations research, and information theory in management.
Timeline small square Herbert Kaufman, Fred W. Riggs and Walter R. Sharp First course on comparative administration introduced at Yale University. This movement, which represented a broadening of public administration to other cultures, began to wane in later years as American foreign aid programs were scaled back.
Timeline small square Chris Argyris and Douglas McGregor Placed emphasis on social psychology and research in human relations in achieving a better fit between the personality of a mature adult and the requirements of a modern organization. Argyris developed an open-system theory of organization, while McGregor poplarized a humanistic managerial philosophy.
Timeline small square Charles A. Lindblom In his influential essay, "The Science of Muddling Through," Lindblom attacked the rational models of decision making in government. In reality, the model did not work; decision makers, therefore, depend heavily on small, incremental decisions.
Timeline small square Aaron Wildavsky In an article, "The Political Implications of Budgetary Reform," Wildavsky developed the concept of budgetary incrementalism and its political nature that led to his landmark work, The Politics of the Budgetary Process. (1964).
Timeline small square President Kennedy Issued Executive Order 10988 which permitted unionization and collective bargaining in the federal service.
Timeline small square Civil Rights Act of 1964 Title VII prohibited discrimination on the basis of race, creed, color, sex, or national origin in private-sector employment (would be applied to the public sector in 1972).
Timeline small square Robert R. Blake and Jane S. Mouton Proposed that every leader could be categorized in terms of two variables: concern for task and concern for people. Blake and Mouton's Managerial Grid was perhaps the best known of dozens of adaptations of this idea, which could be traced back to the Ohio State University leadership studies of the 1940's.
Timeline small square Charles J. Hitch and Roland N. McKean In the same year that President Johnson ordered Planning-Programming-Budgeting Systems (PPBS) adopted governmentwide, the "bible" of government systems analysis appeared: The Economics of Defense in the Nuclear Age.
Timeline small square Equality of Educational Opportunity The Coleman Report applied the methods of the social sciences to the analysis and evaluation of government programs.
Timeline small square Anthony Downs Applied economic principles to develop propositions to aid in predicting behavior of bureaus and bureaucrats. A forerunner of the "public choice" approach to decision making.
Timeline small square Yehezkel Dror Pioneered in the development of policy sciences (that is, the analysis of the anticipated effects of a public policy and the design of better policymaking institutions in government).
Timeline small square Dwight Waldo Under the patronage of Waldo, some young scholars gathered to critique American public administration for ignoring values and social equity and accepting too readily the status quo. This movement was known as the "New Public Administration".
Timeline small square Equal Employment Opportunity Act Amended and applied Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to the public sector and authorized the use of "affirmative action" to remedy the results of past dsicrimination.
Timeline small square Griggs v. Duke Power In this landmark opinion based on Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the United States Supreme Court ruled that any factor used in an employment decision must be a bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ) related to the actual performance of the work.
Timeline small square Peter F. Drucker Addressed the problems of using management-by-objectives - a process of mutual goalsetting between employee and supervisor for purposes of planning and evaluation - in the public sector.
Timeline small square Civil Service Reform Act Significantly reorganized the Federal Civil Service.
Timeline small square Proposition 13 Significantly reorganized the Federal Civil Service.
Timeline small square Regents v. Bakke In its first major decision on affirmative action, the United States Supreme Court ruled that race could be a factor but not the factor in university admissions policies. This principle was later extended to employment and gender.
Timeline small square Americans with Disabilities Act. Extended anti-discrimination protection to persons with disabilities.
Timeline small square Civil Rights Act of 1991 Attempted, inter alia, to clarify and limit certain recent decisions of the Supreme Court that were interpreted as hostile to affirmative action.
Timeline small square Osborne and Gaebler Osborne and Gaebler publish Reinventing Government in an attempt to "empower government officials to bring business technologies to public service."
Timeline small square Administrative Behavior The fourth edition of Simon's classic Administrative Behavior is published on the 50th anniversary of the first.
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The New Jersey Graduated Work Incentive Experiment First large-scale social experiment ever conducted in the U.S. This experiment spanned 6 1/2 years (1967-1973) and cost eight million dollars.

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Alice Rivlin and Carol Weiss Provided a comprehensive analysis of the methodologies and difficulties of evaluating public programs in a dynamic political environment. Since that time, the importance of evaluation has grown rapidly.

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1980s A good way to characterize the study of public administration in the U.S. today is in terms of three impulses: politics, management, and public policy. University programs emphasizing politics tend to be found in departments of political science or separate schools of public administration (e.g., Syracuse). Programs emphasizing management tend to be found in schools of business (e.g., Stanford) or administration (e.g., Yale and Cornell). And programs emphasizing public policy tend
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