Homestead ActHomestead Act offered free land in the west.
Homestead Act Required a 10 dollar filling fee.
There was a bunch of free land available in the West.
Transcontinental Railroad CompletedThis railroad is 1776 miles long.
The First Transcontinental Railroad replaced the Pony Express, wagon trains, and stagecoach lines that transported people and goods from the East to the West. These methods of transportation were much slower and much more dangerous than the railroad system.
The Transcontinental Railroad line was important to Abraham Lincoln, but it wasn't completed until four years after he died.
Industrialization Begins to BoomIndustrslizarion allowed for mass production of goods
Cities bagan to over crowed due to many people moving to the factories.
Transportstion and communication was made better.
Boss Tweed rise at Tammany HallBoss Tweed was the leader of Tammany Hall Democratic Political Machines
They liked immigrants and helped them out in exchange for votes.
They made immigrants vote lots of times they justed dressed them up
Telephone InventedThe Telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell
The Phone Patent was filled on February 04, 1876
A few hours later American Inventor Elisha Gray filled a same patent but Alexander Graham Bell
Reconstruction EndsRepublican government collapsed thereby ending Reconstruction.
They were thinking of Punishing the South for trying to leave the union.
Abraham Lincoln wanted to be lenient to the South and make it easy for southern states to rejoin the Union.
Light Bulb InventedThe light bulb was created by Thomas Edison
J.P. Morgan took all the credit of the invention
The people rejected the light bulb and they were afraid of them
Third Wave of ImmigrationThere was around 1.2 billion immigrants around the third wave of immigration.
Due to a labor shortage in the colonies and the early republic, there were no restrictions or requirements for immigration.
The first federal law requiring ships to keep records of immigration wasn’t passed until 1819. Thus, the first wave of immigrants were all “undocumented aliens.”
Chinese Exclusion ActThe Chinese Exclusion Act was a law that prevented Chinese from entering the U.S. for 10 years.
The Chinese Exclusion Act was passed by Congress and signed by President Chester A. Arthur.
When the exclusion act expired in 1892, Congress extended it for 10 years in the form of the Geary Act.
Pendleton ActThe Pendleton Act cancelled out The Spoil System.
Jobs within the federal government were given out on merit rather than political affiliation.
It also made it illegal to fire or demote government officials for political reasons and prohibited soliciting campaign donations on Federal government property
Dawes ActEach Native American family head was given 320 acres of grazing land or 160 acres of farmland. If they were single or an orphan older than 18 then they were given 80 acres. Singles under 18 were given 40 acres of land.
Prior to the Dawes Act, 150 million acres belonged to Native Americans. Twenty years later two-thirds of this land no longer belonged to the Native Americans.
The land allotted to each Native American family could be sold after a period of twenty-five years.
Interstate Commerce ActThe Interstate commerce act was designed to regulate the railroad industry, particularly its monopolistic practices.
The Act required that railroad rates be "reasonable and just," but did not empower the government to fix specific rates.
It required that railroads publicize shipping rates and prohibited short haul or long haul fare discrimination.
Andrew Carnegie’s Gospel of WealthThe book was written to promote Philanthropy.
Andrew Carnegie argued rich men should give their wealth for public good while still alive.
He believed strongly in giving back to the community and he gave back 90% of his wealth back to the community.
Chicago's Hull HouseHull House, one of the first social settlements in North America.
Twelve large buildings were added from year to year until Hull House covered half a city block.
Hull House opened as a kindergarten but soon expanded to include a day nursery and an infancy care center.
Klondike Gold RushThe Klondike Gold Rush was the migration of an estimated 100,000 prospectors to the Klondike region of the Yukon in north-western Canada between 1896 and 1899.
When the gold was discovered people rushed and often left ghost towns behind.
Prospectors often had to bring years of supplies and up ton 1 tons worth of tools.
Sherman Anti-Trust ActSherman Anti-Trust Act was a law that prevented monopoly from forming unless they were good ones.
It also prevented people from getting what they want if they helped a candidate win.
A loophole was later found that allowed people/business owners to pay/fund the candidate and get what they want.
How the Other Half LivesThis book was written by Jacob Riis.
His father was a school-teacher. Young Riis early showed a sensitive disposition and a faith in people that would sustain him through difficult days.
He talked of how the poor people lived compared to the rich.
Influence Sea Power Upon HistoryThis book was written by Alfred Thayer Mahan
The book details the role of sea power during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
Mahan formulated his concept of sea power while reading a history book in Lima, Peru.
Homestead Steel Labor StrikeHomestead Strike, also called Homestead riot, violent labor dispute between the Carnegie Steel Company and many of its workers.
The company was owned by Andrew Carnegie but managed by Henry Clay Frick.
Frick closed the mill and locked the workers out on 1 July, after they rejected his proposed 22 percent wage cut.
Pullman Labor StrikeThe Pullman cut the already low wages of its workers by about 25 percent.
It did not introduce corresponding reductions in rents and other charges at Pullman. Many workers and their families faced starvation.
A delegation of workers tried to present their grievances about low wages, poor living conditions, and 16-hour workdays. To the company’s president, George M. Pullman, he refused to meet with them and ordered them fired.
Annexation of HawaiiNativist kicked Queen Liliuokalani out of Hawaii.
Dole declared Hawaii an independent republic. Spurred by the nationalism aroused by the Spanish-American War, the United States annexed Hawaii in 1898 at the urging of President William McKinley.
Hawaii was made a territory in the 1900 and Dole was the first governor.
Spanish American WarA ship blew up and it created The Spanish-American War.
The Spanish-American War lasted 3 months 2 weeks and 4 days.
The Cubans were being treated horribly by the Spanish, which led to Cuba's desire for independence.
Open Door PolicyDoor policy, statement of principles initiated by the United States in 1899 and 1900 for the protection of equal privileges among countries trading with China and in support of Chinese territorial and administrative integrity.
he principle that all countries should have equal access to any of the ports open to trade in China.
Great Britain had greater interests in China than any other power and successfully maintained the policy of the open door until the late 19th century.
Assassination of President McKinleyPresident McKinley was shaking hands with the public when Leon Czolgosz, an anarchist, shot him twice in the abdomen.
President McKinley died eight days later on September 14.
American president to have been assassinated, following Abraham Lincoln in 1865 and James A. Garfield in 1881.
Panama Canal U.S. Construction BeginsThe Panama Canal connects the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. It is a 48 mile canal that is important for international maritime trade.
Construction of the canal began in 1881 by France, but there were engineering problems and too many people were dying due to disease.
Construction stopped when The U.S. took over.
The JungleThis Book was written by Upton Sinclair
It exposed factories about the conditions there where rats flies etc...
The pure food and drug act was passed as a result.
Pure Food and Drug ActUpton Sinclair Wrote the Book "The Jungle" this Act was later passed on.
It helped prevent the manufacturing, sale, or transportation of adulterated, misbranded, poisonous, or deleterious foods, drugs, medicines, and liquors, and for regulating traffic therein, and for other purposes.
Food and Drug Act increased company standards they had to be more sanitary.
Model-TThe Model T was the first car to be affordable for a majority of Americans. They were manufactured in assembly lines which made it more easier to make.
Worker concentrated doing their part only it made putting cars together way quicker and faster.
They could put 15 cars together in a day.
NAACPW.E.B. Du Bois was the founder of NAACP.
NAACP had 425,000 members.
Segregation was in schools was declared unconstitutional.
16th AmendmentThe Sixteenth Amendment allows the U.S. government to collect taxes and incomes.
William H. Taft was the President of the United States during the ratification of the 16th Amendment
Prohibited the implementation of unapportioned and direct taxation; as a result, the levy of income tax.
Federal Reserve ActOn December 23, 1913, President Woodrow Wilson (1913–1921) signed the Federal Reserve Act, and thereby created the Federal Reserve System.
Law gave paper tendency a value because the government says it worth something.
Took the gold standard system away.
17th AmendmentThe 17th amendment provides for regular voters to elect their Senators.
This fixed the problem with letting representatives choose representatives which led to corruption.
17th amendment was proposed in 1912 and was completely ratified by 1913.
National Parks SystemThe National Park System, protects round 407 sites covering more than 84 million acres of land.
In 2014, more than 290 million people visited the National Parks.
Originally established by Congress as Hot Springs Reservation in 1832 and later becoming a national park in 1921, Hot Springs National Park represents the oldest protected area in the National Park System.
18th AmendmentThe 18th Amendment Prohibited the drinking and sale of Alcohol.
The Volstead act was passed alongside it.
Man started drinking more than ever.
19th AmendmentThis amendment gave woman the right to vote.
August 18, 1920 was the day woman were granted the right to vote.
Some lady opposed suffrage not all opposed were men.
President Harding's Return to NomalcyPresident Harding promised a “return to normalcy” and argued against the U.S. joining the League of Nations.
Harding criticizes the wasteful spending that occurred during the nation’s massive military mobilization for World War I.
Billions had been spent for planes, ships and shells that were never put into action, partly because of America’s late entry into the conflict.
Harlem RenaissanceThe major cause of Harlem Renaissance was the Great Migration.
Although the event was centered in Harlem, it was a nationwide movement.
Journalist played an integral part in the development of the movement.
Teapot Dome ScandalThe Teapot Dome Scandal was a bribery incident that took place in the United States.
It lasted from 1921 to 1922, during the administration of President Warren G. Harding.
Congress directed President Harding to cancel the leases;the Supreme Court declared the leases fraudulent and ruled illegal Harding’s transfer of authority to Fall.
Joseph Stalin Leads USSRJoseph Stalin (1878-1953) was the dictator of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) from 1929 to 1953.
Under Stalin, the Soviet Union was transformed from a peasant society into an industrial and military superpower.
However, he ruled by terror, and millions of his own citizens died during his brutal reign.
He was also born in poverty.
Scopes "Monkey" Trial“Monkey Trial” begins with John Thomas Scopes, a young high school science teacher, accused of teaching evolution in violation of a Tennessee state law.
The law, which had been passed in March, made it a misdemeanor punishable by fine.
Hearing of this coordinated attack on Christian fundamentalism, William Jennings Bryan, the three-time Democratic presidential candidate and a fundamentalist hero, volunteered to assist the prosecution.
Mein Kampf PublishedMein Kampf is a 1925 autobiographical book by Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler.
The work describes the process by which Hitler became antisemitic and outlines his political ideology and future plans for Germany. Hitler was charged with treason. Such an offence carried the death penalty in Germany at this time.
Charles Lindbergh's Trans-Atlantic FlightAmerican pilot Charles A. Lindbergh lands at Le Bourget Field in Paris, successfully completing the first solo, nonstop transatlantic flight and the first ever nonstop flight between New York to Paris.
His single-engine monoplane, The Spirit of St. Louis, had lifted off from Roosevelt Field in New York 33 1/2 hours before.
In May 1919, the first transatlantic flight was made by a U.S. hydroplane that flew from New York to Plymouth, England, via Newfoundland, the Azores Islands, and Lisbon.
St. Valentine's Day Massacrewarfare ruled the streets of Chicago during the late 1920s, as chief gangster Al Capone sought to consolidate control by eliminating his rivals in the illegal trades of bootlegging, gambling and prostitution.
This rash of gang violence reached its bloody climax in garage on the city’s North Side on February 14, 1929.
Seven men associated with the Irish gangster George “Bugs” Moran, one of Capone’s longtime enemies, were shot to death by several men dressed as policemen.
Stock Market Crashes "Black Tuesday"The Wall Street Crash of 1929, also known as Black Tuesday (October 29), the Great Crash, or the Stock Market Crash of 1929, began on October 24, 1929 ("Black Thursday")
It was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States (acting as the most significant predicting indicator of the Great Depression)
The crash, which followed the London Stock Exchange's crash of September,signaled the beginning of the 12-year Great Depression that affected all Western dev country.
HoovervillesA "Hooverville" was a shanty town built during the Great Depression by the homeless in the United States of America.
They were named after Herbert Hoover, who was President of the United States of America during the onset of the Depression and was widely blamed for it.
There were hundreds of Hoovervilles across the country during the 1930s and hundreds of thousands of people lived in these slums.
Smoot-Hawley TariffSmoot-Hawley Tariff Act, formally United States Tariff Act of 1930, also called Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act.
U.S. legislation (June 17, 1930) that raised import duties to protect American businesses and farmers, adding considerable strain to the international economic climate of the Great Depression.
It was the last legislation under which the U.S. Congress set actual tariff rates.
100,000 Banks Have FailedIn the 1920s, Nebraska and the nation as a whole had a lot of banks. At the beginning of the 20s, Nebraska had 1.3 million people and there was one bank for every 1,000 people
very small town had a bank or two struggling to take in deposits and loan out money to farmers and businesses.
As the economic depression deepened in the early 30s, and as farmers had less and less money to spend in town, banks began to fail at alarming rates. During the 20s, there was around 70 banks failing each year.
Agriculture Adjustment Administration (AAA)Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA), in American history, major New Deal program to restore agricultural prosperity by curtailing farm production, reducing export surpluses, and raising prices.
The Agricultural Adjustment Act (May 1933) was an omnibus farm-relief bill of the major national farm organizations.
It established the Agricultural Adjustment Administration under Secretary of Agriculture Henry Wallace effect a “domestic allotment”.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), independent U.S. government corporation created under authority of the Banking Act of 1933.
It had the responsibility to insure bank deposits in eligible banks against loss in the event of a bank failure and to regulate certain banking practices.
It was established after the collapse of many American banks during the initial years of the Great Depression.
Public Works Administration (PWA)The Public Works Administration (PWA) budgeted several billion dollars to be spent on the construction of public works.
It was done on means of providing employment, stabilizing purchasing power, improving public welfare, and contributing to a revival of American industry.
Frances Perkins had first suggested a federally financed public works program, and the idea received considerable support from Harold Ickes, James Farley, and Henry Wallace.
Hitler appointed Chancellor of Germany
Dust BowlThe Dust Bowl refers to the drought-stricken Southern Plains region of the United States, which suffered severe dust storms during a dry period in the 1930s.
As high winds and choking dust swept the region from Texas to Nebraska, people and livestock were killed and crops failed across the entire region.
The Dust Bowl intensified the crushing economic impacts of the Great Depression and drove many farming families on a desperate migration in search of work and better living conditions.
Social Security Administration (SSA)The Social Security Act was signed into law by President Roosevelt on August 14, 1935.
In addition to several provisions for general welfare, the new Act created a social insurance program designed to pay retired workers age 65 or older a continuing income after retirement.
Act was put in place during the Great Depression to help get out.
Rape of Nanjing
Hitler invades Poland
German Blitzkrieg attacks
Pearl HarborMost of the battleships sunk that day were resurrected.
Veterans of the attack can be laid to rest at Pearl Harbor.
The USS Arizona still leaks fuel.
Service members stationed in Hawaii took care of the memorial during the 2013 government shutdown.
Many tourists from Japan come to visit the memorial.
A baby girl’s remains still lie entombed within a sunken battleship.
There’s a huge oil plume beneath the harbor.
Tuskegee AirmenThe Tuskegee airmen once shot down three German jets in a single day.
Thurgood Marshall, the future Supreme Court justice, got his start defending Tuskegee bomber trainees.
The Airmen might have never gotten off the ground without Eleanor Roosevelt’s help.
A former Tuskegee airman almost shot the late Libyan leader Muammar el-Qaddafi in a showdown outside of Tripoli in 1970.
Three Tuskegee airmen went on to become generals.
Navajo Code TalkerNavajo Code Talker Test program was started in 1942, which consisted of the original 29.
The age of the Code Talkers were between 18 and 25.
Phillip Johnston came up with the idea of using the Navajo language as a code in WWII.
In total there was 420 Navajo Code Talkers.
Sixteen Navajo Code Talkers were killed in action.
Executive Order 9066The U.S. Executive Order 9066 was signed by President Franklin Roosevelt during World War II on Feb. 19, 1942.
It authorized the Secretary of War to designate specific areas in the country as military zones.
The E.O. 9066 eventually resulted to the relocation of several Japanese-Americans to detention camps.
Bataan Death MarchBataan Death March, march in the Philippines of some 66 miles (106 km) that 76,000 prisoners of war. (66,000 Filipinos, 10,000 Americans)
Were forced by the Japanese military to endure in April 1942, during the early stages of World War II.
Mainly starting in Mariveles, on the southern tip of the Bataan Peninsula, on April 9, 1942, the prisoners were force-marched north to San Fernando and then taken by rail in cramped and unsanitary boxcars farther north to Capas.
Invasion of Normandy (D-Day)During World War II (1939-1945), the Battle of Normandy, which lasted from June 1944 to August 1944, resulted in the Allied liberation of Western Europe from Nazi Germany’s control.
Code named Operation Overlord, the battle began on June 6, 1944, also known as D-Day, when some 156,000 American, British and Canadian forces landed on five beaches along a 50-mile stretch of the heavily fortified coast of France’s Normandy region.
The invasion was one of the largest amphibious military assaults.
Atomic bombing of Nagasaki and HiroshimaOn August 6, 1945, during World War II (1939-45), an American B-29 bomber dropped the world’s first deployed atomic bomb over the Japanese city of Hiroshima.
The explosion wiped out 90 percent of the city and immediately killed 80,000 people; tens of thousands more would later die of radiation exposure.
Three days later, a second B-29 dropped another A-bomb on Nagasaki, killing an estimated 40,000 people. Japan’s Emperor Hirohito announced his country’s unconditional surrender in World War II.
Victory over Japan/Pacific (VJ/VP) DayVictory over Japan Day also called V-J Day, Victory in the Pacific Day, or V-P Day is the day on which Imperial Japan surrendered in World War II, ending WWII.
On the afternoon of August 15, 1945, it was announced in Japan, and August 14, 1945 it was announced in the United States due to time difference.
As well as to September 2, 1945, when the signing of the surrender document occurred, officially ending World War II.
Liberation of Concentration CampsSoviet soldiers were the first to liberate concentration camp prisoners in the final stages of the war.
On July 23, 1944, they entered the Majdanek camp in Poland, and later overran several other killing centers.
On January 27, 1945, they entered Auschwitz and there found hundreds of sick and exhausted prisoners.
The Germans had been forced to leave these prisoners behind in their hasty retreat from the camp.
Victory in Europe (VE) DayOn this day in 1945, both Great Britain and the United States celebrate Victory in Europe Day.
Cities in both nations, as well as formerly occupied cities in Western Europe, put out flags and banners, rejoicing in the defeat of the Nazi war machine.The eighth of May spelled the day when German troops throughout Europe finally laid down their arms: In Prague, Germans surrendered to their Soviet antagonists, after the latter had lost more than 8,000 soldiers, and the Germans considerably more.
United Nations (UN) FormedThe name "United Nations", coined by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt was first used in the Declaration by United Nations of 1 January 1942, during the Second World War, when representatives of 26 nations pledged their Governments to continue fighting together against the Axis Powers.
In 1945, representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco at the United Nations Conference on International Organization to draw up the United Nations Charter.
Nuremberg TrialsThe Nuremberg trials were a series of military tribunals held by the Allied forces under international law and the laws of war after World War II.
Judges from the Allied powers—Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States—presided over the hearings of twenty-two major Nazi criminals.
Twelve prominent Nazis were sentenced to death. Most of defendants admitted to the crimes of which they were accused, but most claimed that they simply followed the orders of a higher authority.
Warsaw Pact Formed
Gilded AgeThe Gilded Age was an era of rapid economic growth, especially in the North and West.
Railroads were the major growth industry, with the factory system, mining, and finance increasing in importance.
The political landscape was notable in that despite some corruption, turnout was very high and national elections saw two evenly matched parties.
Progressive EraThe Progressive Era was a period of widespread social activism and political reform across the United States, from the 1890s to the 1920s.
The main objectives of the Progressive movement were eliminating problems caused by industrialization, urbanization, immigration, and corruption in government.
Passed various act including the No child labor, Interstate Commerce Act, Pendleton Act, etc...
ImperialismTime Period that the country wanted to expand its power and and influence through diplomacy or military force.
800 years ago, Ireland became the first colony of what later became known as the British empire.
Imperialism forces millions of children around the world to live nightmarish lives.
Theodore RooseveltPolitical Parties:Republican and Progressive (Bull Moose) Party
Domestic Policy: Square Deal (3C's), Trust Busting, Consumer, Conservation (nature)
William Howard TaftPolitical Parties: Republican
Domestic Policy: 3C's ☹ 16/17 amendment.
Woodrow WilsonPolitical Party: Democratic
Domestic Policy: Clayton Anti-Trust Act, National Parks Service, Federal Reserve Act, 18th/19th amendments
Roaring TwentiesThe 1920s were an age of dramatic social and political change.
For the first time, more Americans lived in cities than on farms.
The nation’s total wealth more than doubled between 1920 and 1929, and this economic growth swept many Americans into an affluent but unfamiliar “consumer society.”
The Great DepressionThe Great Depression was caused by the Stock Market Crash.
The United States became so poor and Banks Failed.
President Hoover was blamed largely for making the situation worse.
President Franklin D Roosevelt was the President who got the United States out of the depression.
Franklin D. RooseveltFranklin D. Roosevelt was in his second term as governor of New York when he was elected as the nation’s 32nd president in 1932. With the country mired in the depths of the Great Depression, Roosevelt immediately acted to restore public confidence, proclaiming a bank holiday and speaking directly to the public in a series of radio broadcasts or “fireside chats.”
His ambitious slate of New Deal programs and reforms redefined the role of the federal government in the lives of Americans.
New Deal ProgramsThe Great Depression in the United States began on October 29, 1929, a day known forever after as “Black Tuesday,” when the American stock market.
which had been roaring steadily upward for almost a decade–crashed, plunging the country into its most severe economic downturn yet.
Speculators lost their shirts; banks failed; the nation’s money supply diminished; and companies went bankrupt and began to fire their workers in droves.
The HolocaustThe Holocaust began in January 1933 when Hitler came to power and technically ended on May 8, 1945 (VE Day).
Over 1.1 million children died during the Holocaust (Children Mainly Targeted).
The most intensive Holocaust killing took place in September 1941 at the Babi Yar Ravine just outside of Kiev, Ukraine, where more than 33,000 Jews were killed in just two days.
World War ll
Harry S. Truman
The Cold War