Homestead ActHomestead Act offered free land in the west.
Homestead Act Required a 10 dollar filling fee.
There was a bunch of free land available in the West.
13th AmendmentThe 13th Amendment Abolished Slavery unless punished by crime.
It passed by the Senate on April 8th, 1864 and by the House on January 1865.
It was the first of the three Reconstruction Amendments adopted following the American Civil War.
14th AmendmentAll persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside.
No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States.
Nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
Transcontinental Railroad CompletedThis railroad is 1776 miles long.
The First Transcontinental Railroad replaced the Pony Express, wagon trains, and stagecoach lines that transported people and goods from the East to the West. These methods of transportation were much slower and much more dangerous than the railroad system.
The Transcontinental Railroad line was important to Abraham Lincoln, but it wasn't completed until four years after he died.
Industrialization Begins to BoomIndustrslizarion allowed for mass production of goods
Cities bagan to over crowed due to many people moving to the factories.
Transportstion and communication was made better.
15th AmendmentThe 15th Amendment to the Constitution granted African American men the right to vote by declaring that the "right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state Race
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, colour, or previous condition of servitude.
The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
Boss Tweed rise at Tammany HallBoss Tweed was the leader of Tammany Hall Democratic Political Machines
They liked immigrants and helped them out in exchange for votes.
They made immigrants vote lots of times they justed dressed them up
Telephone InventedThe Telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell
The Phone Patent was filled on February 04, 1876
A few hours later American Inventor Elisha Gray filled a same patent but Alexander Graham Bell
Reconstruction EndsRepublican government collapsed thereby ending Reconstruction.
They were thinking of Punishing the South for trying to leave the union.
Abraham Lincoln wanted to be lenient to the South and make it easy for southern states to rejoin the Union.
Jim Crow Laws Start in SouthProhibit black and white children from attending the same schools and establishing separate public schools for black children.
Separate official records of black births, marriages, and deaths from records of the lives of white people.
Prohibiting a person of "pure white blood" from marrying or engaging in "illicit carnal intercourse" with anyone with African blood.
Light Bulb InventedThe light bulb was created by Thomas Edison
J.P. Morgan took all the credit of the invention
The people rejected the light bulb and they were afraid of them
Third Wave of ImmigrationThere was around 1.2 billion immigrants around the third wave of immigration.
Due to a labor shortage in the colonies and the early republic, there were no restrictions or requirements for immigration.
The first federal law requiring ships to keep records of immigration wasn’t passed until 1819. Thus, the first wave of immigrants were all “undocumented aliens.”
Chinese Exclusion ActThe Chinese Exclusion Act was a law that prevented Chinese from entering the U.S. for 10 years.
The Chinese Exclusion Act was passed by Congress and signed by President Chester A. Arthur.
When the exclusion act expired in 1892, Congress extended it for 10 years in the form of the Geary Act.
Pendleton ActThe Pendleton Act cancelled out The Spoil System.
Jobs within the federal government were given out on merit rather than political affiliation.
It also made it illegal to fire or demote government officials for political reasons and prohibited soliciting campaign donations on Federal government property
Dawes ActEach Native American family head was given 320 acres of grazing land or 160 acres of farmland. If they were single or an orphan older than 18 then they were given 80 acres. Singles under 18 were given 40 acres of land.
Prior to the Dawes Act, 150 million acres belonged to Native Americans. Twenty years later two-thirds of this land no longer belonged to the Native Americans.
The land allotted to each Native American family could be sold after a period of twenty-five years.
Interstate Commerce ActThe Interstate commerce act was designed to regulate the railroad industry, particularly its monopolistic practices.
The Act required that railroad rates be "reasonable and just," but did not empower the government to fix specific rates.
It required that railroads publicize shipping rates and prohibited short haul or long haul fare discrimination.
Andrew Carnegie’s Gospel of WealthThe book was written to promote Philanthropy.
Andrew Carnegie argued rich men should give their wealth for public good while still alive.
He believed strongly in giving back to the community and he gave back 90% of his wealth back to the community.
Chicago's Hull HouseHull House, one of the first social settlements in North America.
Twelve large buildings were added from year to year until Hull House covered half a city block.
Hull House opened as a kindergarten but soon expanded to include a day nursery and an infancy care center.
Klondike Gold RushThe Klondike Gold Rush was the migration of an estimated 100,000 prospectors to the Klondike region of the Yukon in north-western Canada between 1896 and 1899.
When the gold was discovered people rushed and often left ghost towns behind.
Prospectors often had to bring years of supplies and up ton 1 tons worth of tools.
Sherman Anti-Trust ActSherman Anti-Trust Act was a law that prevented monopoly from forming unless they were good ones.
It also prevented people from getting what they want if they helped a candidate win.
A loophole was later found that allowed people/business owners to pay/fund the candidate and get what they want.
How the Other Half LivesThis book was written by Jacob Riis.
His father was a school-teacher. Young Riis early showed a sensitive disposition and a faith in people that would sustain him through difficult days.
He talked of how the poor people lived compared to the rich.
Influence Sea Power Upon HistoryThis book was written by Alfred Thayer Mahan
The book details the role of sea power during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
Mahan formulated his concept of sea power while reading a history book in Lima, Peru.
Homestead Steel Labor StrikeHomestead Strike, also called Homestead riot, violent labor dispute between the Carnegie Steel Company and many of its workers.
The company was owned by Andrew Carnegie but managed by Henry Clay Frick.
Frick closed the mill and locked the workers out on 1 July, after they rejected his proposed 22 percent wage cut.
Pullman Labor StrikeThe Pullman cut the already low wages of its workers by about 25 percent.
It did not introduce corresponding reductions in rents and other charges at Pullman. Many workers and their families faced starvation.
A delegation of workers tried to present their grievances about low wages, poor living conditions, and 16-hour workdays. To the company’s president, George M. Pullman, he refused to meet with them and ordered them fired.
Plessy v. FergusonThe Plessy v. Ferguson was a Supreme Court case that showed how the government once tough "Separate but equal" was ok.
In 1890 the Louisiana State Legislature passed the Separate Car Act, a law that required "equal, but separate" train car accommodations for Black and White people.
Homer Plessy was sitting in a white train car and he disobeys to move to a black train car.
In the end the Supreme Court ruled that it was ok as long as they we're seperate but treated equally.
Annexation of HawaiiNativist kicked Queen Liliuokalani out of Hawaii.
Dole declared Hawaii an independent republic. Spurred by the nationalism aroused by the Spanish-American War, the United States annexed Hawaii in 1898 at the urging of President William McKinley.
Hawaii was made a territory in the 1900 and Dole was the first governor.
Spanish American WarA ship blew up and it created The Spanish-American War.
The Spanish-American War lasted 3 months 2 weeks and 4 days.
The Cubans were being treated horribly by the Spanish, which led to Cuba's desire for independence.
Open Door PolicyDoor policy, statement of principles initiated by the United States in 1899 and 1900 for the protection of equal privileges among countries trading with China and in support of Chinese territorial and administrative integrity.
he principle that all countries should have equal access to any of the ports open to trade in China.
Great Britain had greater interests in China than any other power and successfully maintained the policy of the open door until the late 19th century.
Assassination of President McKinleyPresident McKinley was shaking hands with the public when Leon Czolgosz, an anarchist, shot him twice in the abdomen.
President McKinley died eight days later on September 14.
American president to have been assassinated, following Abraham Lincoln in 1865 and James A. Garfield in 1881.
Wright Brothers Plane AirplaneWilbur and Orville are famously known for creating the first aeroplane.
Neither Brother had a High School Diploma.
Neither brother married they would insist they did not have time for a wife and an aeroplane.
After the first day airborne, the 1903 Wright Flyer never flew again.
Orville was involved in the first fatal aviation accident
Panama Canal U.S. Construction BeginsThe Panama Canal connects the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. It is a 48 mile canal that is important for international maritime trade.
Construction of the canal began in 1881 by France, but there were engineering problems and too many people were dying due to disease.
Construction stopped when The U.S. took over.
The JungleThis Book was written by Upton Sinclair
It exposed factories about the conditions there where rats flies etc...
The pure food and drug act was passed as a result.
Pure Food and Drug ActUpton Sinclair Wrote the Book "The Jungle" this Act was later passed on.
It helped prevent the manufacturing, sale, or transportation of adulterated, misbranded, poisonous, or deleterious foods, drugs, medicines, and liquors, and for regulating traffic therein, and for other purposes.
Food and Drug Act increased company standards they had to be more sanitary.
Model-TThe Model T was the first car to be affordable for a majority of Americans. They were manufactured in assembly lines which made it more easier to make.
Worker concentrated doing their part only it made putting cars together way quicker and faster.
They could put 15 cars together in a day.
NAACPW.E.B. Du Bois was the founder of NAACP.
NAACP had 425,000 members.
Segregation was in schools was declared unconstitutional.
16th AmendmentThe Sixteenth Amendment allows the U.S. government to collect taxes and incomes.
William H. Taft was the President of the United States during the ratification of the 16th Amendment
Prohibited the implementation of unapportioned and direct taxation; as a result, the levy of income tax.
Federal Reserve ActOn December 23, 1913, President Woodrow Wilson (1913–1921) signed the Federal Reserve Act, and thereby created the Federal Reserve System.
Law gave paper tendency a value because the government says it worth something.
Took the gold standard system away.
17th AmendmentThe 17th amendment provides for regular voters to elect their Senators.
This fixed the problem with letting representatives choose representatives which led to corruption.
17th amendment was proposed in 1912 and was completely ratified by 1913.
National Parks SystemThe National Park System, protects round 407 sites covering more than 84 million acres of land.
In 2014, more than 290 million people visited the National Parks.
Originally established by Congress as Hot Springs Reservation in 1832 and later becoming a national park in 1921, Hot Springs National Park represents the oldest protected area in the National Park System.
18th AmendmentThe 18th Amendment Prohibited the drinking and sale of Alcohol.
The Volstead act was passed alongside it.
Man started drinking more than ever.
19th AmendmentThis amendment gave woman the right to vote.
August 18, 1920 was the day woman were granted the right to vote.
Some lady opposed suffrage not all opposed were men.
President Harding's Return to NomalcyPresident Harding promised a “return to normalcy” and argued against the U.S. joining the League of Nations.
Harding criticizes the wasteful spending that occurred during the nation’s massive military mobilization for World War I.
Billions had been spent for planes, ships and shells that were never put into action, partly because of America’s late entry into the conflict.
Harlem RenaissanceThe major cause of Harlem Renaissance was the Great Migration.
Although the event was centered in Harlem, it was a nationwide movement.
Journalist played an integral part in the development of the movement.
Teapot Dome ScandalThe Teapot Dome Scandal was a bribery incident that took place in the United States.
It lasted from 1921 to 1922, during the administration of President Warren G. Harding.
Congress directed President Harding to cancel the leases;the Supreme Court declared the leases fraudulent and ruled illegal Harding’s transfer of authority to Fall.
Joseph Stalin Leads USSRJoseph Stalin (1878-1953) was the dictator of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) from 1929 to 1953.
Under Stalin, the Soviet Union was transformed from a peasant society into an industrial and military superpower.
However, he ruled by terror, and millions of his own citizens died during his brutal reign.
He was also born in poverty.
Scopes "Monkey" Trial“Monkey Trial” begins with John Thomas Scopes, a young high school science teacher, accused of teaching evolution in violation of a Tennessee state law.
The law, which had been passed in March, made it a misdemeanor punishable by fine.
Hearing of this coordinated attack on Christian fundamentalism, William Jennings Bryan, the three-time Democratic presidential candidate and a fundamentalist hero, volunteered to assist the prosecution.
Mein Kampf PublishedMein Kampf is a 1925 autobiographical book by Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler.
The work describes the process by which Hitler became antisemitic and outlines his political ideology and future plans for Germany. Hitler was charged with treason. Such an offence carried the death penalty in Germany at this time.
Charles Lindbergh's Trans-Atlantic FlightAmerican pilot Charles A. Lindbergh lands at Le Bourget Field in Paris, successfully completing the first solo, nonstop transatlantic flight and the first ever nonstop flight between New York to Paris.
His single-engine monoplane, The Spirit of St. Louis, had lifted off from Roosevelt Field in New York 33 1/2 hours before.
In May 1919, the first transatlantic flight was made by a U.S. hydroplane that flew from New York to Plymouth, England, via Newfoundland, the Azores Islands, and Lisbon.
St. Valentine's Day Massacrewarfare ruled the streets of Chicago during the late 1920s, as chief gangster Al Capone sought to consolidate control by eliminating his rivals in the illegal trades of bootlegging, gambling and prostitution.
This rash of gang violence reached its bloody climax in garage on the city’s North Side on February 14, 1929.
Seven men associated with the Irish gangster George “Bugs” Moran, one of Capone’s longtime enemies, were shot to death by several men dressed as policemen.
Stock Market Crashes "Black Tuesday"The Wall Street Crash of 1929, also known as Black Tuesday (October 29), the Great Crash, or the Stock Market Crash of 1929, began on October 24, 1929 ("Black Thursday")
It was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States (acting as the most significant predicting indicator of the Great Depression)
The crash, which followed the London Stock Exchange's crash of September,signaled the beginning of the 12-year Great Depression that affected all Western dev country.
HoovervillesA "Hooverville" was a shanty town built during the Great Depression by the homeless in the United States of America.
They were named after Herbert Hoover, who was President of the United States of America during the onset of the Depression and was widely blamed for it.
There were hundreds of Hoovervilles across the country during the 1930s and hundreds of thousands of people lived in these slums.
Smoot-Hawley TariffSmoot-Hawley Tariff Act, formally United States Tariff Act of 1930, also called Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act.
U.S. legislation (June 17, 1930) that raised import duties to protect American businesses and farmers, adding considerable strain to the international economic climate of the Great Depression.
It was the last legislation under which the U.S. Congress set actual tariff rates.
100,000 Banks Have FailedIn the 1920s, Nebraska and the nation as a whole had a lot of banks. At the beginning of the 20s, Nebraska had 1.3 million people and there was one bank for every 1,000 people
very small town had a bank or two struggling to take in deposits and loan out money to farmers and businesses.
As the economic depression deepened in the early 30s, and as farmers had less and less money to spend in town, banks began to fail at alarming rates. During the 20s, there was around 70 banks failing each year.
Agriculture Adjustment Administration (AAA)Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA), in American history, major New Deal program to restore agricultural prosperity by curtailing farm production, reducing export surpluses, and raising prices.
The Agricultural Adjustment Act (May 1933) was an omnibus farm-relief bill of the major national farm organizations.
It established the Agricultural Adjustment Administration under Secretary of Agriculture Henry Wallace effect a “domestic allotment”.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), independent U.S. government corporation created under authority of the Banking Act of 1933.
It had the responsibility to insure bank deposits in eligible banks against loss in the event of a bank failure and to regulate certain banking practices.
It was established after the collapse of many American banks during the initial years of the Great Depression.
Public Works Administration (PWA)The Public Works Administration (PWA) budgeted several billion dollars to be spent on the construction of public works.
It was done on means of providing employment, stabilizing purchasing power, improving public welfare, and contributing to a revival of American industry.
Frances Perkins had first suggested a federally financed public works program, and the idea received considerable support from Harold Ickes, James Farley, and Henry Wallace.
Hitler appointed Chancellor of Germany
Dust BowlThe Dust Bowl refers to the drought-stricken Southern Plains region of the United States, which suffered severe dust storms during a dry period in the 1930s.
As high winds and choking dust swept the region from Texas to Nebraska, people and livestock were killed and crops failed across the entire region.
The Dust Bowl intensified the crushing economic impacts of the Great Depression and drove many farming families on a desperate migration in search of work and better living conditions.
Social Security Administration (SSA)The Social Security Act was signed into law by President Roosevelt on August 14, 1935.
In addition to several provisions for general welfare, the new Act created a social insurance program designed to pay retired workers age 65 or older a continuing income after retirement.
Act was put in place during the Great Depression to help get out.
Rape of Nanjing
Hitler invades Poland
German Blitzkrieg attacks
Pearl HarborMost of the battleships sunk that day were resurrected.
Veterans of the attack can be laid to rest at Pearl Harbor.
The USS Arizona still leaks fuel.
Service members stationed in Hawaii took care of the memorial during the 2013 government shutdown.
Many tourists from Japan come to visit the memorial.
A baby girl’s remains still lie entombed within a sunken battleship.
There’s a huge oil plume beneath the harbor.
Tuskegee AirmenThe Tuskegee airmen once shot down three German jets in a single day.
Thurgood Marshall, the future Supreme Court justice, got his start defending Tuskegee bomber trainees.
The Airmen might have never gotten off the ground without Eleanor Roosevelt’s help.
A former Tuskegee airman almost shot the late Libyan leader Muammar el-Qaddafi in a showdown outside of Tripoli in 1970.
Three Tuskegee airmen went on to become generals.
Navajo Code TalkerNavajo Code Talker Test program was started in 1942, which consisted of the original 29.
The age of the Code Talkers were between 18 and 25.
Phillip Johnston came up with the idea of using the Navajo language as a code in WWII.
In total there was 420 Navajo Code Talkers.
Sixteen Navajo Code Talkers were killed in action.
Executive Order 9066The U.S. Executive Order 9066 was signed by President Franklin Roosevelt during World War II on Feb. 19, 1942.
It authorized the Secretary of War to designate specific areas in the country as military zones.
The E.O. 9066 eventually resulted to the relocation of several Japanese-Americans to detention camps.
Bataan Death MarchBataan Death March, march in the Philippines of some 66 miles (106 km) that 76,000 prisoners of war. (66,000 Filipinos, 10,000 Americans)
Were forced by the Japanese military to endure in April 1942, during the early stages of World War II.
Mainly starting in Mariveles, on the southern tip of the Bataan Peninsula, on April 9, 1942, the prisoners were force-marched north to San Fernando and then taken by rail in cramped and unsanitary boxcars farther north to Capas.
Invasion of Normandy (D-Day)During World War II (1939-1945), the Battle of Normandy, which lasted from June 1944 to August 1944, resulted in the Allied liberation of Western Europe from Nazi Germany’s control.
Code named Operation Overlord, the battle began on June 6, 1944, also known as D-Day, when some 156,000 American, British and Canadian forces landed on five beaches along a 50-mile stretch of the heavily fortified coast of France’s Normandy region.
The invasion was one of the largest amphibious military assaults.
GI BillThe Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944, also known as the G.I. Bill, was a law that provided a range of benefits for returning World War II veterans.
It was designed by the American Legion, who helped push it through Congress by mobilizing its chapters; the goal was to provide immediate rewards for practically all World War II veterans.
The act avoided the highly disputed postponed life insurance policy payout for World War I veterans.
Atomic bombing of Nagasaki and HiroshimaOn August 6, 1945, during World War II (1939-45), an American B-29 bomber dropped the world’s first deployed atomic bomb over the Japanese city of Hiroshima.
The explosion wiped out 90 percent of the city and immediately killed 80,000 people; tens of thousands more would later die of radiation exposure.
Three days later, a second B-29 dropped another A-bomb on Nagasaki, killing an estimated 40,000 people. Japan’s Emperor Hirohito announced his country’s unconditional surrender in World War II.
Victory over Japan/Pacific (VJ/VP) DayVictory over Japan Day also called V-J Day, Victory in the Pacific Day, or V-P Day is the day on which Imperial Japan surrendered in World War II, ending WWII.
On the afternoon of August 15, 1945, it was announced in Japan, and August 14, 1945 it was announced in the United States due to time difference.
As well as to September 2, 1945, when the signing of the surrender document occurred, officially ending World War II.
Liberation of Concentration CampsSoviet soldiers were the first to liberate concentration camp prisoners in the final stages of the war.
On July 23, 1944, they entered the Majdanek camp in Poland, and later overran several other killing centers.
On January 27, 1945, they entered Auschwitz and there found hundreds of sick and exhausted prisoners.
The Germans had been forced to leave these prisoners behind in their hasty retreat from the camp.
Victory in Europe (VE) DayOn this day in 1945, both Great Britain and the United States celebrate Victory in Europe Day.
Cities in both nations, as well as formerly occupied cities in Western Europe, put out flags and banners, rejoicing in the defeat of the Nazi war machine.The eighth of May spelled the day when German troops throughout Europe finally laid down their arms: In Prague, Germans surrendered to their Soviet antagonists, after the latter had lost more than 8,000 soldiers, and the Germans considerably more.
United Nations (UN) FormedThe name "United Nations", coined by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt was first used in the Declaration by United Nations of 1 January 1942, during the Second World War, when representatives of 26 nations pledged their Governments to continue fighting together against the Axis Powers.
In 1945, representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco at the United Nations Conference on International Organization to draw up the United Nations Charter.
Germany DividedDuring 1945, the Allies began organising their respective occupation zones in Germany.
The Americans occupied the South, the British the West and North, France the South-West, and the Soviets Central Germany.
The Eastern part was administered by Poland, except the town of Königsberg (renamed Kaliningrad) and its surrounding area, which were annexed by the USSR. Berlin was divided into four sectors and placed under the administrative control of the Allied Kommandatura.
Nuremberg TrialsThe Nuremberg trials were a series of military tribunals held by the Allied forces under international law and the laws of war after World War II.
Judges from the Allied powers—Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States—presided over the hearings of twenty-two major Nazi criminals.
Twelve prominent Nazis were sentenced to death. Most of defendants admitted to the crimes of which they were accused, but most claimed that they simply followed the orders of a higher authority.
Truman DoctrineThe American policy of "Containment" soon expanded into a policy known as the Truman Doctrine.
This doctrine, first used in Greece and Turkey in the late 1940s, vowed to provide aid (money & military supplies) to support "free people who are resisting outside pressures"
By 1950, the U.S. had given $400 million in aid to Greece and Turkey.
Mao Zedong Established Communist Rule in ChinaMao Zedong was the guiding force in revitalizing the party in the early 1930s.
Under his leadership, solidified during the Long March, the party revised the Soviet proletariat-based model to fit the peasant-oriented economy of China and, after another four years of civil war from 1945, the People's Republic was proclaimed in Tiananmen Square.
Its structure and hierarchy was nearly destroyed during the Cultural Revolution but re-established after Mao's death by Deng Xiaoping.
22nd AmendmentNo person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice.
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States.
Within seven years from the date of its submission to the States by the Congress.
Marshall PlanThe Marshall Plan was a US-financed relief package, providing funds to European nations to assist their reconstruction after the devastation of WW2.
In order to stop communism from spreading in war torn Europe, Secretary of State Marshall proposed investing in the European economy.
Congress approved 12.6 billion dollars in aid to Europe.
Berlin AirliftThe Soviet Union put a blockade hoping for West Berlin to become communist.
Eventually the U.S. found a way around by flying supplies over to West Berlin.
Eventually the Soviet union lifted the blockade because they saw it was unsuccessful and West Berlin remained capitalist.
Arab-Israeli War BeginsThe 1948 Arab–Israeli War, or the First Arab–Israeli War, was fought between the State of Israel and a military coalition of Arab states over the control of Palestine, forming the second stage of the 1948 Palestine war.
There had been tension and conflict between the Arabs and the Jews, and between each of them and the British forces, ever since the 1917 Balfour Declaration and the 1920 creation of the British Mandate of Palestine.
NATO FormedThe North Atlantic Treaty Organization was formed shortly after the end of the Second World War to counter the threat of Soviet invasion of Western Europe.
The treaty setting up the alliance was signed in 1949 by 10 Western European nations as well as Canada and the United States.
NATO's mandate is to provide a common defence for the European and Atlantic areas, and to address common issues faced by the member countries.
Kim Il-sung invades South KoreaIn December 1945, the Soviets installed Kim as chairman of the North Korean branch of the Korean Communist Party.
Prior to Kim's invasion of the South in 1950, which triggered the Korean War, Joseph Stalin equipped the KPA with modern, Soviet-built heavy tanks, trucks, artillery, and small arms.
Cease-fire was signed on 27 July 1953. He was the second longest-serving non-royal head of state/government in the 20th century, in office for more than 45 years.
UN forces push North Korea to Yalu River- the border with ChinaThe Chinese Army entered the Korean War in earnest with a violent attack against the American and United Nations forces in North Korea.
The 300,000-man Chinese offensive caught the U.N. forces off guard, largely because of U.S. Gen. Douglas MacArthur's belief that China would not openly enter the war, and vastly expanded the conflict.
The Korean War began when communist North Korean forces invaded democratic South Korea on June 25, 1950.
Chinese forces cross Yalu and enter Korean WarThe North Korean People’s Army of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea swept across the 38th parallel.
They came close to uniting the Korean peninsula under the Communist regime of Kim Il-sung.
American military and civilian leaders were caught by surprise, and only the intercession of poorly trained and equipped US garrison troops from Japan managed to halt the North Korean advance at a high price in American dead and wounded.
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg ExecutionJulius and Ethel Rosenberg, a married couple convicted of conspiracy to commit espionage in 1951, are put to death in the electric chair.
The execution marked the dramatic finale of the most controversial espionage case of the Cold War.
Julius was arrested in July 1950, and Ethel in August of that same year, on the charge of conspiracy to commit espionage.
Specifically, they were accused of heading a spy ring that passed top-secret information concerning the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union.
Armistice SignedAfter three years of a bloody and frustrating war, the United States, the People’s Republic of China, North Korea, and South Korea agree to an armistice, bringing the Korean War to an end.
The Korean War began on June 25, 1950, when communist North Korea invaded South Korea.
Almost immediately, the United States secured a resolution from the United Nations calling for the military defense of South Korea against the North Korean aggression.
Hernandez v. TexasHernandez as a landmark case, "the first and only Mexican-American civil-rights case heard and decided by the United States Supreme Court during the post-World War II period.
In a unanimous ruling, the court held that Mexican Americans and all other nationality groups in the United States had equal protection under the 14th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.
This was the first case in which Mexican-American lawyers had appeared before the US Supreme Court.
Brown v. Board of Educationwas a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared that having separate school for white and black was illegal.
The decision effectively overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson decision of 1896, and applied to public education.
On May 17, 1954, the Warren Court's unanimous (9–0) decision stated that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal." As a result, ruled a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Ho Chi Minh Established Communist Rule in VietnamHo Chi Minh first emerged as an outspoken voice for Vietnamese independence while living as a young man in France during World War I.
Inspired by the Bolshevik Revolution, he joined the Communist Party and traveled to the Soviet Union.
He helped found the Indochinese Communist Party in 1930 and the League for the Independence of Vietnam, or Viet Minh, in 1941.
Warsaw Pact FormedThe Warsaw Pact was a military and political alliance between the USSR and seven communist satellite nations behind the Iron Curtain.
The date the Warsaw Pact was signed was on May 14, 1955 during the Cold War.
The treaty was signed two weeks after West Germany was admitted into NATO on May 5, 1955 with restrictive provisions for West Germany to form an army.
Polio VaccinePolio vaccines are vaccines used to prevent poliomyelitis (polio). There are two types: one that uses inactivated poliovirus and is given by injection (IPV), and one that uses weakened poliovirus and is given by mouth (OPV).
The World Health Organization recommends all children be fully vaccinated against polio.
The two vaccines have eliminated polio from most of the world,and reduced the number of cases reported each year from an estimated 350,000 in 1988 to 37 in 2016.
Rosa Parks ArrestedOn 1 December 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white passenger on a city bus in Montgomery, Alabama.
This single act of nonviolent resistance sparked the Montgomery bus boycott, an eleven-month struggle to desegregate the city’s buses.
Under the leadership of Martin Luther King, Jr., the boycott resulted in a U.S. Supreme Court ruling that public bus segregation is unconstitutional and catapulted both King and Parks into the national spotlight.
Montgomery Bus BoycottRosa Parks was the spark to the Montgomery bus boycott. She was arrested for not giving up her seat on the bus.
People who took part in the boycott or supported it were often attacked by people who did not support the boycott.
The bus segregation case was brought to court and was to be retried. The boycott still continued, on November 13, 1956, the case was brought to the supreme court where it was then ruled that the bus segregation was unconstitutional ending the boycott on December 20, 1956.
Interstate Highway ActThe Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956, popularly known as the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act (Public Law 84-627), was enacted on June 29, 1956, when President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed the bill into law. With an original authorization of US$25 billion for the construction of 41,000 miles (66,000 km) of the Interstate Highway System.
Supposedly over a 10-year period, it was the largest public works project in American history through that time.
Elvis Presley First Hit SongElvis Aaron Presley (January 8, 1935 – August 16, 1977) was an American singer, musician, and actor.
Regarded as one of the most significant cultural icons of the 20th century, he is often referred to as the "King of Rock and Roll" or simply "the King".
Presley was born in Tupelo, Mississippi, and relocated to Memphis, Tennessee, with his family when he was 13 years old.
Sputnik lSputnik l as the first artificial Earth satellite. The Soviet Union launched it into an elliptical low Earth orbit on 4 October 1957.
Its radio signal was easily detectable even by radio amateurs,and the 65° inclination and duration of its orbit made its flight path cover virtually the entire inhabited Earth.
This surprise success precipitated the American Sputnik crisis and triggered the Space Race, a part of the Cold War.
Leave it to Beaver First Airs on TVLeave It to Beaver is an American television sitcom about an inquisitive and often naïve boy, Theodore "The Beaver" Cleaver, and his adventures at home, in school, and around his suburban neighborhood.
The show also starred Barbara Billingsley and Hugh Beaumont as Beaver's parents, June and Ward Cleaver, and Tony Dow as Beaver's brother Wally.
The show has attained an iconic status in the United States, with the Cleavers exemplifying the idealized suburban family of the mid-20th century.
Civil Right ActThe Civil Rights Act of 1957 began a new era in civil rights legislation and enforcement after more than three-quarters of a century of congressional inaction.
The act initiated a greater federal role in protecting the rights of African Americans and other minorities.
The Civil Rights Act of 1957 did not create new rights, but it increased protection of voting rights and laid the foundation for federal enforcement of civil rights law.
Civil Right Act of 1957The Civil Rights Act of 1866 of the Reconstruction era detailed the rights of all U.S. citizens was passed by Congress as a response to the Black Codes enacted by many of the Southern states.
The Civil Rights Act of 1875 was intended to protect all citizens in their civil and legal rights but was practically ignored in the Southern states.
In 1883, the Supreme Court declared the Civil Rights Act of 1875 unconstitutional and it was never enacted.
Little Rock NineOn Sept. 25, 1957, nine black students had to be escorted by federal troops through an angry mob of white people as they walked toward the doors of an all-white high school in Little Rock, Arkansas, for their first full day of classes.
By the time the Little Rock Nine became icons on that September Wednesday in 1957, it had been three years since the Supreme Court declared “separate but equal” in America’s public schools unconstitutional.
Kennedy versus Nixon TV DebateIn 1960, John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon squared off in the first televised presidential debates in American history.
The Kennedy-Nixon debates not only had a major impact on the election’s outcome, but ushered in a new era in which crafting a public image and taking advantage of media exposure became essential ingredients of a successful political campaign.
They also heralded the central role television has continued to play in the democratic process.
Chicano Mural Movement BeginsThe Chicano mural movement began in the 1960s in Mexican-American barrios throughout the Southwest.
Artists began using the walls of city buildings, housing projects, schools, and churches to depict Mexican-American culture.
They enhance education, to voting and political rights as well as emerging awareness of collective history, and they also stated the goal of achieving Mexican American empowerment.
Bay of Pigs InvasionThe Bay of Pigs Invasion was a failed military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the Central Intelligence Agency on 17 April 1961.
A counter-revolutionary military group (made up of mostly Cuban exiles who traveled to the United States after Castro's takeover, but also of some US military personnel), trained and funded by the CIA. Brigade 2506 fronted the armed wing of the Democratic Revolutionary Front and intended to overthrow the increasingly communist government of Fidel Castro.
Peace Corps FormedThe Peace Corps is a volunteer program run by the United States government.
The stated mission of the Peace Corps includes providing technical assistance, helping people outside the United States to understand American culture, and helping Americans to understand the cultures of other countries.
Each program participant, a Peace Corps Volunteer, is an American citizen, typically with a college degree, who works abroad for a period of two years after three months of training.
Mapp v. OhioLandmark case in criminal procedure, in which the United States Supreme Court decided that evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment " may not be used in state law criminal prosecutions in state courts.
As well as in federal criminal law prosecutions in federal courts as had previously been the law.
The Supreme Court accomplished this by use of a principle known as selective incorporation Fourteenth Amendment due process clause which is applicable to actions of the states.
Affirmative Action“Affirmative action” is a set of procedures designed to eliminate unlawful discrimination between job applicants, remedy the results of such prior discrimination, and prevent such discrimination in the future.
Since the birth of affirmative action in the 1960s, many cases of revolving around affirmative action have been brought to the Supreme Court.
Host a game night to spark a discussion about inequality. Sign up for Oppression Monopoly. In 2012, woman made up 46.9% of the workforce.
Cuban Missle CrisisDuring the Cuban Missile Crisis, leaders of the U.S. and the Soviet Union engaged in a tense, 13-day political and military standoff.
In October 1962 over the installation of nuclear-armed Soviet missiles on Cuba, just 90 miles from U.S. shores.
President John Kennedy (1917-63) notified Americans about the presence of the missiles, explained his decision to enact a naval blockade around Cuba and made it clear the U.S. was prepared to use military force if necessary to neutralize threat.
Sam Walton Opens First WalmartThe history of Walmart, an American discount department store chain, began in 1950 when Sam Walton purchased a store from Luther E. Harrison.
The Walmart chain proper was founded in 1962 with a single store in Rogers, expanding outside Arkansas by 1968 and throughout the rest of the Southern United States by the 1980s, ultimately operating a store in every state of the United States.
The company introduced its warehouse club chain Sam's Club in 1983 and its first Supercenter stores in 1988.
Kennedy Assassinated in Dallas, TexasJohn F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, was assassinated on Friday, November 22, 1963, at 12:30 p.m.
In Dallas, Texas while riding in a presidential motorcade in Dealey Plaza. Kennedy was riding with his wife Jacqueline, Texas Governor John Connally, and Connally's wife, Nellie, and was fatally shot by former U.S. Marine Lee Harvey Oswald.
A ten-month investigation by the Warren Commission from Nov 1963 to Sept 1964 concluded that Oswald acted alone in shooting Kennedy.
Gideon v. WainwrightA landmark case in United States Supreme Court history. In it, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that states are required under the Sixth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
To provide counsel in criminal cases to represent defendants who are unable to afford to pay their own attorneys.
The case extended the right to counsel, which had been found under the Fifth and Sixth Amendments to impose requirements on the federal government.
George Wallace Blocks University of Alabama EntranceGeorge Wallace, in a symbolic attempt to keep his inaugural promise of "segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever" and stop the desegregation of schools, stood at the door of the auditorium to try to block the entry of two African American students.
In response, President J.F.K. issued Executive Order, Guard General Henry Graham then commanded Wallace to step aside, saying, "Sir, it is my sad duty to ask you to step aside under the orders of the President of the United States."
The Feminine MystiqueThe Feminine Mystique is a book written by Betty Friedan which is widely credited with sparking the beginning of second-wave feminism in the United States.
In 1957, Friedan was asked to conduct a survey of her classmates for their 15th-anniversary reunion; the results, in which she found that many of them were unhappy with their lives as housewives.
The Feminine Mystique, conducting interviews with other suburban housewives, as well as researching psychology, media, and advertising.
March on WashingtonNegro American Labor Council proposed along with other black leaders staging a 100,000 person march on Washington to protest segregation in the armed forces and discrimination in defence industries.
President J.F.K. met with civil rights leaders at the White House and expressed deep reservations about a mass rally in the nation's capital. He told them he needed their help in getting his civil rights legislation passed, saying "we want success in the Congress, not a big show on the Capitol."
The Great SocietyThe Great Society was a set of domestic programs in the United States launched by Democratic President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964–65.
The main goal was the elimination of poverty and racial injustice. President Johnson first used the term "Great Society" during a speech at Ohio University, then unveiled the program in greater detail at an appearance at University of Michigan.
New major spending programs that addressed education, medical care, urban problems, rural poverty, and transportation.
Escobedo v. IllinoisEscobedo v. Illinois, was a United States Supreme Court case holding that criminal suspects have a right to counsel during police interrogations under the Sixth Amendment.
The case was decided a year after the court held in Gideon v. Wainwright, (1963) that indigent criminal defendants had a right to be provided counsel at trial.
Danny Escobedo's brother-in-law, Manuel Valtierra, was shot and killed on the night of January 19, 1960. Escobedo was arrested without a warrant and interrogated.
Gulf of Tonkin ResolutionThe Gulf of Tonkin Resolution or the Southeast Asia Resolution, enacted August 10, 1964, was a joint resolution that the United States Congress passed on August 7, 1964, in response to the Gulf of Tonkin incident.
It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress.
Specifically, the resolution authorized the President to do whatever necessary in order to assist.
24th AmendmentThe right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.
The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
Israeli-Palestine Conflict BeginsWhen Israel declared independence on May 14, 1948, it extended the hand of friendship to its Arab neighbours clearly evidenced by its founding documents and statements.
That offer, too, was spurned. Instead, five Arab armies declared war on the fledgeling Jewish state, seeking its total destruction.
Despite vastly outnumbering the Jews and possessing superior military arsenals, they failed in their quest.
Voting Rights Act of 1965The Voting Rights Act of 1965, signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson, aimed to overcome legal barriers at the state and local levels.
That prevented African Americans from exercising their right to vote as guaranteed under the 15th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
The Voting Rights Act is considered one of the most far-reaching pieces of civil rights legislation in U.S. history.
Malcolm X AssassinatedMalcolm X, an African American nationalist and religious leader, is assassinated by rival Black Muslims while addressing his Organization of Afro-American Unity at the Audubon Ballroom in Washington Heights.
Born Malcolm Little in Omaha, Nebraska, in 1925, Malcolm was the son of James Earl Little, a Baptist preacher who advocated the black nationalist ideals of Marcus Garvey.
Threats from the Ku Klux Klan forced the family to move to Lansing, Michigan, where his father continued to preach.
United Farm Workers California Delano Grape StrikeThe Delano grape strike was a labour strike by the Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee and the United Farm Workers against grape growers in California.
The strike began on September 8, 1965, and lasted more than five years.
Due largely to a consumer boycott of non-union grapes, the strike ended with a significant victory for the United Farm Workers as well as its first contract with the growers.
Miranda v. ArizonaMiranda v. Arizona, was a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court.
The Court held that both inculpatory and exculpatory statements made in response to interrogation by a defendant in police custody will be admissible at trial only if the prosecution can show that the defendant was informed of the right to consult with an attorney. Before and during questioning and of the right against self-incrimination before police questioning.
Thurgood Marshall Appointed to Supreme CourtThurgood Marshall was an American lawyer, serving as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from October 1967 until October 1991.
Marshall was the Court's 96th justice and its first African-American justice.
Prior to his judicial service, he successfully argued several cases before the Supreme Court.
Six Day WarThe Six-Day War also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between June 5 and 10, 1967 by Israel and the neighbouring states of Egypt, Jordan, and Syria.
Israel was subsequently forced to withdraw but won a guarantee that the Straits of Tiran would remain open.
While the United Nations Emergency Force was deployed along the border, there was no demilitarisation agreement.
Tet OffensiveThe Tet Offensive was a coordinated series of North Vietnamese attacks on more than 100 cities and outposts in South Vietnam.
The offensive was an attempt to foment rebellion among the South Vietnamese population and encourage the United States to scale back its involvement in the Vietnam War.
Though U.S. and South Vietnamese forces managed to hold off the attacks, news coverage of the massive offensive shocked the American public and eroded support for the war effort.
My Lai MassacreThe My Lai massacre was one of the most horrific incidents of violence committed against unarmed civilians during the Vietnam War.
A company of American soldiers brutally killed most of the people—women, children and old men—in the village of My Lai on March 16, 1968.
More than 500 people were slaughtered in the My Lai massacre, including young girls and women who were raped and mutilated before being killed. U.S. Army officers covered up the carnage for a year.
Martin Luther King Jr. AssassinatedMartin Luther King Jr. was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee, on April 4, 1968, an event that sent shock waves reverberating around the world.
A Baptist minister and founder of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, King had led the civil rights movement since the mid-1950s.
Using a combination of impassioned speeches and nonviolent protests to fight segregation and achieve significant civil-rights advances for African Americans.
Tinker v. Des MoinesDecision by the United States Supreme Court that defined the constitutional rights of students in U.S. public schools.
The Tinker test is still used by courts today to determine whether a school's disciplinary actions violate students' First Amendment rights.
The court's 7–2 decision held that the First Amendment applied to public schools, and that administrators would have to demonstrate constitutionally valid reasons for any specific regulation of speech in the classroom.
VietnamizationVietnamization was a strategy that aimed to reduce American involvement in the Vietnam War by transferring all military responsibilities to South Vietnam.
The increasingly unpopular war had created deep rifts in American society.
President Nixon believed his Vietnamization strategy, which involved building up South Vietnam’s armed forces and withdrawing U.S. troops, would prepare the South Vietnamese to act in their own defense against a North Vietnamese takeover.
Woodstock Music FestivalOn this day in 1969, the grooviest event in music history–the Woodstock Music Festival–draws to a close after three days of peace, love and rock ‘n’ roll in upstate New York.
Conceived as “Three Days of Peace and Music,” Woodstock was a product of a partnership between John Roberts, Joel Rosenman, Artie Kornfield and Michael Lang.
Their idea was to make enough money from the event to build a recording studio near the arty New York town of Woodstock.
Draft LotteryThe Selective Service System of the United States conducted two lotteries to determine the order of call to military service in the Vietnam War for men born from 1944 to 1950.
These lotteries occurred during a period of conscription from just before World War II to 1973.
It was the first time a lottery system had been used to select men for military service since 1942.
Manson Family MurdersThe Manson Family was a commune established in California in the late 1960s, led by Charles Manson.
They gained national notoriety after the murder of actress Sharon Tate and four others on August 9, 1969 by Tex Watson and three other members of the Family, acting under the instructions of Charles Manson.
Group members were also responsible for a number of other murders and assaults.
Apollo 11Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that landed the first two humans on the Moon. Mission commander Neil Armstrong and pilot Buzz Aldrin, both American, landed the lunar module Eagle on July 20, 1969.
Armstrong became the first to step onto the lunar surface six hours after landing on July 21 at 02:56:15 UTC; Aldrin joined him about 20 minutes later.
They spent about two and a quarter hours together outside the spacecraft and collected 47.5 pounds of lunar material to bring back to Earth.
Invasion of CambodiaThe Cambodian–Vietnamese War was an armed conflict between the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and Democratic Kampuchea.
The war began with isolated clashes along the land and maritime boundaries of Vietnam and Kampuchea between 1975 and 1977, occasionally involving division-sized military formations.
On 25 December 1978, Vietnam launched a full-scale invasion of Kampuchea and subsequently occupied the country and removed the Khmer Rouge government from power.
Kent State ShootingsFour Kent State University students were killed and nine were injured on May 4, 1970, when members of the Ohio National Guard opened fire on a crowd gathered to protest the Vietnam War.
The tragedy was a watershed moment for a nation divided by the conflict in Southeast Asia.
In its immediate aftermath, a student-led strike forced the temporary closure of colleges and universities across the country.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)The United States Environmental Protection Agency is an agency of the federal government of the United States which was created for protecting human health and the environment by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress.
President Richard Nixon proposed the establishment of EPA and it began operation on December 2, 1970, after Nixon signed an executive order.
The order establishing the EPA was ratified by committee hearings in the House and Senate.
Pentagon PapersThe Pentagon Papers was the name given to a top-secret Department of Defense study of U.S. political and military involvement in Vietnam from 1945 to 1967.
As the Vietnam War dragged on, with more than 500,000 U.S. troops in Vietnam by 1968, military analyst Daniel Ellsberg—who had worked on the study—came to oppose the war.
And decided that the information contained in the Pentagon Papers should be available to the American public.
26th AmendmentThe long debate over lowering the voting age in America from 21 to 18 began during World War II and intensified during the Vietnam War, when young men denied the right to vote.
In the 1970 case Oregon v. Mitchell, a divided U.S. Supreme Court ruled that Congress had the right to regulate the minimum age in federal elections, but not at the state and local level.
Law that said if you can fight then you can also vote 18th to vote applied to both.
Policy of Détente BeginsDétente is period of improved relations between the United States and the Soviet Union that began tentatively in 1971 and took decisive form when President Richard M. Nixon visited the secretary-general of the Soviet Communist party.
Both countries stood to gain if the trade could be increased and the danger of nuclear warfare reduced. In addition, Nixon–a candidate for reelection–was under fire at home from those demanding social change, racial equality, and an end to the Vietnam War.
Title IXTitle IX, as a federal civil rights law in the United States of America, was passed as part of the Education Amendments of 1972. This is Public Law (June 23, 1972).
It was co-authored and introduced by Senator Birch Bayh in the U.S. Senate.
It was later renamed the Patsy Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act in 2002 after Patsy Mink, its late U.S. House co-author and sponsor.
The following is the original text as made, signed into law by U.S. President Richard Nixon in 1972
Nixon Visits ChinaIn an amazing turn of events, President Richard Nixon takes a dramatic first step toward normalizing relations with the communist People’s Republic of China by travelling to Beijing for a week of talks. Nixon’s historic visit began the slow process of the re-establishing diplomatic relations between the United States and communist China.
Still mired in the unpopular and frustrating Vietnam War in 1971, Nixon surprised the American people by announcing a planned trip to the PRC in 1972.
Watergate ScandalThe Watergate scandal was a major political scandal that occurred in the United States during the early 1970s, following a break-in by five men at the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C. on June 17, 1972, and President Richard Nixon's administration's subsequent attempt to cover up its involvement.
After the five burglars were caught and the conspiracy was discovered, Watergate was investigated by the United States Congress.
War Powers ResolutionWar Powers Resolution is a federal law intended to check the president's power to commit the United States to an armed conflict without the consent of the U.S. Congress.
The Resolution was adopted in the form of a United States Congress joint resolution.
It provides that the U.S. President can send U.S. Armed Forces into action abroad only by declaration of war by Congress, "statutory authorization," or in case of "a national emergency created by attack upon the United States.
Roe v. WadeRoe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113, is a landmark decision issued in 1973 by the United States Supreme Court on the issue of the constitutionality of laws that criminalized or restricted access to abortions.
The Court ruled 7–2 that a right to privacy under the Due Process Clause of the 14th Amendment extended to a woman's decision to have an abortion, but that this right must be balanced against the state's interests in abortions: protecting women's health and protecting the potentiality of human life.
Engaged Species ActThe Endangered Species Act of 1973 is one of the few dozens of US environmental laws passed in the 1970s and serves as the enacting legislation to carry out the provisions outlined in The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. Designed to protect critically imperilled species from extinction as a "consequence of economic growth and development untempered by adequate concern and conservation",it was signed into law by President Nixon on December 28, 1973.
OPEC Oil EmbargoDuring the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, Arab members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) imposed an embargo against the United States in retaliation for the U.S. decision to re-supply the Israeli military.
Arab OPEC members also extended the embargo to other countries that supported Israel including the Netherlands, Portugal, and South Africa.
The embargo both banned petroleum exports to the targeted nations and introduced cuts in oil production.
First Cell-PhonesThe world’s first mobile phone call was made on April 3, 1973, when Martin Cooper, a senior engineer at Motorola, called a rival telecommunications company and informed them he was speaking via a mobile phone.
The phone Cooper used if you could call it that, weighed a staggering 1.1kg and measured in at 228.6x127x44.4mm.
With this prototype device, you got 30 minutes of talk-time and it took around 10 hours to charge.
United States v. NixonThe U.S. v. Nixon was a landmark the U.S. Supreme Court case which resulted in a unanimous decision against President Nixon, ordering him to deliver tape recordings and other materials to a federal district court.
Issued on July 24, 1974, the decision was important to the late stages of the Watergate scandal, when there was an ongoing impeachment process against Nixon.
The U.S. v. Nixon is considered a crucial precedent limiting the power of any U.S. president to claim executive privilege.
Ford Pardons NixonPresidential pardon of Richard Nixon was issued on September 8, 1974, by President Gerald Ford, which granted his predecessor. Richard Nixon a full and unconditional pardon for any crimes he might have committed against the United States while president.
In particular, this covered the time of the Watergate scandal. In a televised broadcast to the nation, Ford, who succeeded to the presidency upon Nixon's resignation, explained that he felt the pardon was in the best interests of the country.
Fall of SaigonThe Fall of Saigon was the capture of Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, by the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (also known as the Việt Cộng) on 30 April 1975.
The event marked the end of the Vietnam War and the start of a transition period to the formal reunification of Vietnam under the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
The PAVN, under the command of General Văn Tiến Dũng, began their final attack on Saigon on April 29, 1975.
Bill Gates Starts MicrosoftEntrepreneur Bill Gates founded the world's largest software business, Microsoft, with Paul Allen, and subsequently became one of the richest men in the world.
In March 1986, Bill Gates took Microsoft public with an initial public offering of $21 per share, making him an instant millionaire at age 31.
Gates held 45 percent of the company's 24.7 million shares, making his stake at that time $234 million of Microsoft's $520 million.
National Rifle Associate (NRA) Lobbying BeginsThe National Rifle Association of America is an American nonprofit organization that advocates for gun rights.
Founded in 1871, the group has informed its members about firearm-related bills since 1934, and it has directly lobbied for and against legislation since 1975.
It has been called "the oldest continuously operating civil liberties organization" and "one of the largest and best-funded lobbying organizations" in the United States.
Steve Jobs Starts AppleSmart Man Steve Jobs start Apple computer company on April 1, 1991, with his friend Steve Wozniak and Ronald Wayne.
Jobs left the company once and returned in 1996 when Apple bought NEXT. Jobs later became the main CEO of Apple Inc.
Jobs subsequently instilled a new corporate philosophy of recognizable products and simple design, starting with the original iMac in 1998.
Unfortunately, jobs died of pancreatic cancer on October 5th, 2011 and Tim Cook became the new CEO.
Community Reinvestment Act of 1977The Community Reinvestment Act is intended to encourage depository institutions to help meet the credit needs of the communities in which they operate, including low- and moderate-income neighborhoods, consistent with safe and sound operations.
It was enacted by the Congress in 1977 and is implemented by Regulation BB . The regulation was substantially revised in May 1995 and updated again in August 2005.
Camp David AccordsThe Camp David Accords were signed by Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on 17 September 1978, following twelve days of secret negotiations at Camp David.
The two framework agreements were signed at the White House and were witnessed by United States President Jimmy Carter. The second of these framework led directly to the 1979 Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty.
Due to the agreement, Sadat and Begin received the shared 1978 Nobel Peace Prize.
Egypt-Israel Peace TreatyThe peace treaty between Egypt and Israel was signed 16 months after Egyptian president Anwar Sadat's visit to Israel in 1977 after intense negotiation.
The main features of the treaty were mutual recognition, cessation of the state of war that had existed since the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, normalization of relations and the complete withdrawal by Israel of its armed forces and civilians from the Sinai Peninsula which Israel had captured during the Six-Day War in 1967.
Conservative Resurgence-showed the power of conservatism
-showed the limits of conservatism
-reagan infused optimism in people
"Trickle Down Economics"Trickle-down economics is an economic theory that advocates reducing taxes on businesses and the wealthy in society as a means to stimulate business investment in the short term and benefit society at large in the long term.
It is a form of laissez-faire capitalism in general and more specifically supply-side economics.
Whereas general supply-side theory favors lowering taxes overall, trickle-down theory more specifically targets taxes on the upper end of the economic spectrum
War on DrugsWar on Drugs is an American term usually applied to the U.S. federal government's campaign of a prohibition of drugs, military aid, and military intervention, with the stated aim being to reduce the illegal drug trade.
The initiative includes a set of drug policies that are intended to discourage the production, distribution, and consumption of psychoactive drugs.
The term was popularized by the media shortly after a press conference given on June 18, 1971, by President Nixon.
AIDS EpidemicThe Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's newsletter Morbidity and Mortality Weekly makes a reference to five cases of unusual pneumonia in Los Angeles.
Two rare diseases have struck more than 100 homosexual men in the United States in recent months, killing almost half of them, and a medical study group has been formed to find out why.
Researchers report in The New England Journal of Medicine that harmless viruses and bacteria can often cause fatal illnesses in homosexual men.
Sandra Day O'Connor Appointed to U.S. Supreme CourtSandra Day O'Connor is a retired Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, serving from her appointment in 1981 by Ronald Reagan to 2006. She was the first woman to serve on the Court.
Prior to O'Connor's tenure on the Court, she was an elected official and judge in Arizona serving as the first female Majority Leader of a state senate.
Her nomination to the Court, O'Connor was confirmed unanimously by the Senate. On July 1, 2005, she announced her intention to retire.
Marines in LebanonThe 1983 Beirut barracks bombings were acts of terrorism that occurred on October 23, 1983, in Lebanon, during the Lebanese Civil War.
Two truck bombs struck buildings housing Multinational Force in Lebanon (MNF) peacekeepers, specifically against the United States and French service members, killing 241 U.S. and 58 French peacekeepers, 6 civilians and the 2 suicide attackers.
A group called Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility for the bombings.
Iran-Contra AffairIran–Contra scandal, was a political scandal in the United States that occurred during the second term of the Reagan Administration.
Senior administration officials secretly facilitated the sale of arms to Iran, which was the subject of an arms embargo.
They hoped, thereby, to fund the Contras in Nicaragua while at the same time negotiating the release of several U.S. hostages. Under the Boland Amendment, further funding of the Contras by the government had been prohibited by Congress
The Oprah Winfrey Show First AirsThe Oprah Winfrey Show often referred to simply as Oprah, is an American syndicated talk show that aired nationally for 25 seasons from September 8, 1986, to May 25, 2011, in Chicago, Illinois. Produced and hosted by its namesake, Oprah Winfrey, it remains the highest-rated daytime talk show in American television history.
The show has been highly influential, and many of its topics have penetrated into the American pop-cultural consciousness.
"Mr.Gorbachev, Tear Down This Wall!""Tear down this wall!" is a line from a speech made by US President Ronald Reagan in West Berlin on June 12, 1987, calling for the leader of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev, to open up the barrier which had divided West and East Berlin since 1961.
The speech was not the first time Reagan had addressed the issue of the Berlin Wall: in a visit to West Berlin in June 1982, he'd stated "I'd like to ask the Soviet leaders one question [...] Why is the wall there?"
End of Cold WarThroughout the 1980s, the Soviet Union fought an increasingly frustrating war in Afghanistan.
At the same time, the Soviet economy faced the continuously escalating costs of the arms race.
Dissent at home grew while the stagnant economy faltered under the combined burden.
Attempted reforms at home left the Soviet Union unwilling to rebuff challenges to its control in Eastern Europe.
Berlin Wall FallsOn August 13, 1961, the Communist government of the German Democratic Republic began to build a barbed wire and concrete between East and West Berlin.
The official purpose of this Berlin Wall was to keep Western” from entering East Germany, but it primarily served the objective of stemming mass defections from East to West.
The Berlin Wall stood until November 9, 1989, when the head of the East German Communist Party announced to citizens that they could cross the border whenever they pleased.
Germany ReunificationThe German reunification was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic became part of the Federal Republic of Germany
To form the reunited nation of Germany, and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz constitution Article 23.
The end of the unification process is officially referred to as German unity, celebrated on 3 October.
Following German reunification, Berlin was once again designated as the capital of united Germany.
Iraq Invades KuwaitAt about 2 a.m. local time, Iraqi forces invade Kuwait, Iraq’s tiny, oil-rich neighbour.
Kuwait’s defence forces were rapidly overwhelmed, and those that were not destroyed retreated to Saudi Arabia.
By annexing Kuwait, Iraq gained control of 20 percent of the world’s oil reserves and, for the first time, a substantial coastline on the Persian Gulf.
Soviet Union CollapsesAfter his inauguration in January 1989, George H.W. Bush did not automatically follow the policy of his predecessor, Ronald Reagan, in dealing with
Mikhail Gorbachev and the Soviet Union. Instead, he ordered a strategic policy re-evaluation in order to establish his own plan and methods for dealing with the Soviet Union and arms control.
Conditions in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, however, changed rapidly.
Operation Desert StormThe Gulf War codenamed Operation Desert Shield for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defence of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
The war is also known under other names, such as the Persian Gulf War, First Gulf War, Gulf War I, Kuwait War, First Iraq War or Iraq War.
Ms. Adcox BornOne of the best U.S. History teachers was born in 1991 and her name is Ms.Adcox.
She is a teacher for the Sophomores at Jones Futures Academy.
She is very Passionate about her job and she makes our class very fun while still managing to teach us very well.
Rodney KingRodney Glen King was an African-American taxi driver who became known internationally as the victim of Los Angeles Police Department brutality, after a videotape was released of several police officers beating him during his arrest on March 3, 1991.
George Holliday, a witness, filmed the incident from his nearby balcony and sent the footage to local news station KTLA.
The footage clearly showed King being beaten repeatedly, and the incident was covered by news media around the world.
NAFTA FoundedThe North American Free Trade Agreement's history began in 1980. Its purpose is to reduce trading costs, increase business investment and help North America be more competitive in the global marketplace.
The agreement is between Canada, the United States, and Mexico. For more details, see NAFTA Fast Facts.
The impetus for NAFTA began with President Ronald Reagan, who proposed a North American common market in his campaign.
Contract with AmericaThe Contract with America was a document released by the United States Republican Party during the 1994 Congressional election campaign.
Written by Newt Gingrich and Dick Armey, and in part using text from former President Ronald Reagan's 1985 State of the Union Address, the Contract detailed the actions the Republicans promised to take if they became the majority party in the United States House of Representatives for the first time in 40 years.
O.J. Simpson's "Trial of the Century"The O. J. Simpson murder case was a criminal trial held at the Los Angeles County Superior Court in which former Orenthal James "O. J." Simpson was tried on two counts of murder for June 12, 1994, deaths of his ex-wife Nicole Brown Simpson and Mezzaluna restaurant waiter Ronald Goldman.
The trial spanned eleven months, from the jury's swearing-in on November 9, 1994. Simpson was declared not guilty of murder on both counts.
Bill Clinton ImpeachmentThe impeachment process of Bill Clinton was initiated by the House of Representatives on December 19, 1998, against Bill Clinton, the 42nd President of the United States, on two charges.
These charges stemmed from a sexual harassment lawsuit filed against Clinton by Paula Jones.
Clinton was subsequently acquitted of these charges by the Senate on February 12, 1999. Two other impeachment articles – a second perjury charge and a charge of abuse of power – failed in the House.
USA Patriot ActThe USA PATRIOT Act is an Act of Congress that was signed into law by President George W. Bush on October 26, 2001.
With its ten-letter abbreviation expanded, the full title is “Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001.
The abbreviation, as well as the full title, have been attributed to Chris Cylke, a former staffer on the House Judiciary Committee.
War on TerrorPresident Bush announced the War on Terror on September 20, 2001, in a speech to Congress.
"Our war on terror begins with al-Qaida," he said, "but it does not end there.
It will not end until every terrorist group of global reach has been found, stopped, and defeated. - President Bush
My Birthday (Elvis)I was born on May 19, 2001
I am currently 16 years old and attend Jones Futures Academy
I will be the first person to graduate on both of my parents side.
9/11The September 11 attacks were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda on the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others, and caused at least $10 billion in infrastructure and property damage.
Four passenger airliners operated by two major U.S. passenger air carriers.
NASA Mars Rover Mission BeginsThe Mars Science Laboratory and its rover centrepiece, Curiosity, is the most ambitious Mars mission yet flown by NASA.
The rover's primary mission is to find out if Mars is, or was, suitable for life. Another objective is to learn more about the red planet's environment.
Curiosity's size allows it to carry a host of scientific experiments to zap, analyze and take pictures of any rock within reach of its 7-foot arm. Curiosity is about the size of a small SUV
Facebook LaunchedFacebook is an American online social media and social networking service company based in Menlo Park, California.
The Facebook website was launched on February 4, 2004, by Mark Zuckerberg, along with fellow Harvard College students and roommates.
The founders had initially limited the website's membership to Harvard students; however, later they expanded it to higher education institutions in the Boston area, the Ivy League schools, and Stanford University.
Hurricane KatrinaHurricane Katrina was an extremely destructive and deadly tropical cyclone that is tied with Hurricane Harvey of 2017 as the costliest tropical cyclone on record.
Katrina was also one of the costliest natural disasters and one of the five deadliest hurricanes in the history of the United States.
As Katrina made landfall, its front right quadrant, which held the strongest winds, slammed into Gulfport, Mississippi, devastating it.
Saddam Hussein ExecutedThe execution of Saddam Hussein took place on Saturday, 30 December 2006.
Saddam was sentenced to death by hanging, after being convicted of crimes against humanity by the Iraqi Special Tribunal for the murder of 148 Iraqi Shi'ites in the town of Dujail in 1982, in retaliation for an assassination attempt against him.
The Iraqi government released an official videotape of his execution, showing him being led to the gallows, and ending after his head was in the hangman's noose.
iPhone ReleasedOn January 2, 2007, Steve Jobs announced iPhone at the Macworld convention, receiving substantial media attention.
Jobs announced that the first iPhone would be released later that year. On June 29, 2007, the first iPhone was released.
Steve Jobs reached an agreement with the wireless division of AT&T to be the iPhone's exclusive carrier. Consumers were unable to use any other carrier without unlocking their device.
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 nicknamed the Recovery Act, was a stimulus package enacted by the 111th U.S. Congress and signed into law by President Barack Obama in February 2009.
Developed in response to the Great Recession, the ARRA's primary objective was to save existing jobs and create new ones as soon as possible.
Other objectives were to provide temporary relief programs for those most affected by the recession and invest.
Hillary Clinton Appointed U.S. Secretary of StateHillary Clinton served as the 67th United States Secretary of State, under President Barack Obama, from 2009 to 2013.
She was preceded in office by Condoleezza Rice and succeeded by John Kerry.
She is also the only former First Lady of the United States to become a member of the United States Cabinet.
Sonia Sotomayor Appointed to U.S. Supreme CourtSonia Maria Sotomayor is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, serving since August 2009.
She has the distinction of being its first justice of Hispanic descent and the first Latina.
Sotomayor was nominated to the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York by President George H. W. Bush in 1991; confirmation followed in 1992. In 1997, she was nominated by President Bill Clinton to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit.
Arab SpringThe Arab Spring was a series of pro-democracy uprisings that enveloped several largely Muslim countries, including Tunisia, Morocco, Syria, Libya, Egypt and Bahrain.
The events in these nations generally began in the spring of 2011, which led to the name. However, the political and social impact of these popular uprisings remains significant today.
The Arab Spring throughout northern Africa and the Middle East, it’s easy to forget the series of large-scale political and social movements.
Osama Bin Laden KilledOn May 2, 2011, Al Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden is killed by US Special Forces during an early morning May 1 raid in Abbottabad, Pakistan.
President Obama addresses the nation and announces that Osama bin Laden has been killed, calling it "the most significant achievement to date in our nation's effort to defeat al Qaeda.
In the last 5-10 minutes of the firefight, bin Laden is killed by a gunshot wound to the head, above the left eye.
Space X Falcon 9The Falcon Heavy’s 27 engines and three cores are capable of transporting more than 54 metric tons (119,000 lb), including passengers, luggage, crew and fuel.
Even before its recent delay, the Falcon Heavy was running late. Announced in 2011, it was originally supposed to have its maiden voyage back in 2013-2014, only for that date to be pushed back.
“It actually ended up being way harder to do Falcon Heavy than we thought,” Musk said last year. “Really way more difficult than we originally plan
Donald Trump Elected PresidentDonald Trump is the current president of the United States of America he won by the Electoral vote and not the popular vote.
Donald Trump is one of the most hated people in the Republican Party.
Donald trump is one of the wealthiest people in America but he has filed for bankruptcy 4 times.
American CIvil WarThe Civil War was fought between the Northern and the Southern states from 1861-1865.
Abraham Lincoln was the President of the United States during the Civil War.
Before the United States was formed, many different civilizations existed on the American continent.
The issues of slavery and central power divided the United States.
ReconstructionWhite Southerners who joined the Republican Party and helped with the Reconstruction were called scalawags.
The Reconstruction Act of 1867 divided the South into five military districts ran by the army. President Andrew Johnson granted pardons to many Confederate leaders.
He also vetoed a number of Reconstruction laws passed by Congress. He vetoed so many laws his nickname became the "Veto President".
Gilded AgeThe Gilded Age was an era of rapid economic growth, especially in the North and West.
Railroads were the major growth industry, with the factory system, mining, and finance increasing in importance.
The political landscape was notable in that despite some corruption, turnout was very high and national elections saw two evenly matched parties.
Progressive EraThe Progressive Era was a period of widespread social activism and political reform across the United States, from the 1890s to the 1920s.
The main objectives of the Progressive movement were eliminating problems caused by industrialization, urbanization, immigration, and corruption in government.
Passed various act including the No child labor, Interstate Commerce Act, Pendleton Act, etc...
ImperialismTime Period that the country wanted to expand its power and and influence through diplomacy or military force.
800 years ago, Ireland became the first colony of what later became known as the British empire.
Imperialism forces millions of children around the world to live nightmarish lives.
Theodore RooseveltPolitical Parties:Republican and Progressive (Bull Moose) Party
Domestic Policy: Square Deal (3C's), Trust Busting, Consumer, Conservation (nature)
William Howard TaftPolitical Parties: Republican
Domestic Policy: 3C's ☹
Woodrow WilsonPolitical Party: Democratic
Domestic Policy: Clayton Anti-Trust Act, National Parks Service, Federal Reserve Act, 18th/19th amendments
Roaring TwentiesThe 1920s were an age of dramatic social and political change.
For the first time, more Americans lived in cities than on farms.
The nation’s total wealth more than doubled between 1920 and 1929, and this economic growth swept many Americans into an affluent but unfamiliar “consumer society.”
The Great DepressionThe Great Depression was caused by the Stock Market Crash.
The United States became so poor and Banks Failed.
President Hoover was blamed largely for making the situation worse.
President Franklin D Roosevelt was the President who got the United States out of the depression.
Franklin D. RooseveltFranklin D. Roosevelt was in his second term as governor of New York when he was elected as the nation’s 32nd president in 1932. With the country mired in the depths of the Great Depression, Roosevelt immediately acted to restore public confidence, proclaiming a bank holiday and speaking directly to the public in a series of radio broadcasts or “fireside chats.”
His ambitious slate of New Deal programs and reforms redefined the role of the federal government in the lives of Americans.
New Deal ProgramsThe Great Depression in the United States began on October 29, 1929, a day known forever after as “Black Tuesday,” when the American stock market.
which had been roaring steadily upward for almost a decade–crashed, plunging the country into its most severe economic downturn yet.
Speculators lost their shirts; banks failed; the nation’s money supply diminished; and companies went bankrupt and began to fire their workers in droves.
The HolocaustThe Holocaust began in January 1933 when Hitler came to power and technically ended on May 8, 1945 (VE Day).
Over 1.1 million children died during the Holocaust (Children Mainly Targeted).
The most intensive Holocaust killing took place in September 1941 at the Babi Yar Ravine just outside of Kiev, Ukraine, where more than 33,000 Jews were killed in just two days.
World War ll
Harry S. Truman
Baby BoomThe end of World War II brought a baby boom to many countries, especially Western ones.
There is some disagreement as to the precise beginning and ending dates of the post-war baby boom, but it is most often agreed to have begun in the years immediately after the war, though some place it earlier at the increase of births in 1941–1943.
The boom started to decline as birth rates in the United States started to decline in 1958, though the boom would only grind to a halt 3 years later.
The Cold WarCold War, the open yet restricted rivalry that developed after World War II between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies.
The Cold War was waged on political, economic, and propaganda fronts and had only limited recourse to weapons.
George Orwell predicted would be a nuclear stalemate between “two or three monstrous super-states, each possessed of a weapon by which millions of people can be wiped out in a few seconds.”
Korea WarOn June 25, 1950, the Korean War began when some 75,000 soldiers from the North Korean People’s Army poured across the 38th parallel.
The boundary between the Soviet-backed Democratic People’s Republic of Korea to the north and the pro-Western Republic of Korea to the south.
This invasion was the first military action of the Cold War. By July, American troops had entered the war on South Korea’s behalf.
1950s ProsperityAmerica at this moment,” said the former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill in 1945, “stands at the summit of the world.”
During the 1950s, it was easy to see what Churchill meant. The United States was the world’s strongest military power.
Its economy was booming, and the fruits of this prosperity–new cars, suburban houses and other consumer goods–were available to more people than ever before. However, the 1950s were also an era of great conflict.
Dwight D. EisenhowerDwight D. Eisenhower was an American Army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
During World War II, he was a five-star general in the United States Army and served as Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Forces in Europe.
He was the first American President to be bound by the 22nd Amendment, which limits the number of times one can be elected to as President of U.S.A.
Warren CourtThe Warren Court was the period in the history of the Supreme Court of the United States during which Earl Warren served as Chief Justice.
Warren replaced the deceased Fred M. Vinson as Chief Justice in 1953, and Warren remained in office until he retired in 1969.
Warren led a liberal majority that used judicial power in dramatic fashion, to the consternation of conservative opponents. The Warren Court expanded civil rights, civil liberties, judicial power, and federal power in dramatic ways
Vietnam WarThe Vietnam War,also known in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
It was the second wars and was officially fought between North And South Vietnam Government.
The North Vietnamese army was supported by the Soviet Union and other communist allies and the South Vietnamese army was supported by the United States, and other anti-communist allies.
John F. KennedyJohn F. Kennedy served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
Kennedy served at the height of the Cold War, and much of his presidency focused on managing relations with the Soviet Union.
A member of the Democratic Party, Kennedy represented the state of Massachusetts in the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate prior to becoming president.
Lyndon B. JohnsonLyndon B. Johnson served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after serving as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
A Democrat from Texas, he also served as a United States Representative and as the Majority Leader in the United States Senate.
Johnson is one of only four people who has served in all four federal elected positions.
Richard NixonRichard M. Nixon was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
He had previously served as the 36th Vice President of the United States from 1953 to 1961, and prior to that as a U.S. Representative and also Senator from California.
Nixon was born in Yorba Linda, California. After completing his undergraduate studies at Whittier College, he graduated from Duke University School of Law in 1937.
Jimmy CarterJames Earl Carter Jr. was the first person on his father’s side of his family to graduate from high school.
Carter gave up his military career to save the family peanut farm. And as a parent, Carter became involved in local politics when he served on an education board.
He supported civil rights, which hurt his early political career in Georgia. After a poor showing the 1966 governor’s race, Carter adopted a more centrist image, and he won election in 1970.
Gerald FordFord was born Leslie Lynch King Jr. on July 14, 1913, in Omaha, Nebraska.
When Gerald Ford took office as president in August 1974, the nation was reeling from the Watergate scandal, a faltering economy and a decade of bitter internal divisions over the war in Vietnam.
Over the next two years, Ford attempted to heal these wounds and guide the nation back onto a more secure path but ultimately failed to win reelection to a second term.
Iran Hostage CrisisOn November 4, 1979, a group of Iranian militants stormed the American embassy in Tehran, Iran, and captured dozens of embassy and military personnel.
For 444 days, fifty-two Americans remained captive in Iran, while their nation waited, hoped, and hung yellow ribbons.
The outcome of the hostage crisis would ultimately change the course of a presidency, and malign relations between two powerful nations.
Ronald ReaganRonald Reagan only became a Republican in 1962 he was a Democrat all his life.
Ronald Reagan won the presidency in his third attempt his first attempt was in 1968.
Ronald Reagan was America’s oldest president Roosevelt, Jefferson and Coolidge were Reagan’s favourite predecessors.
George H. W. BushIn 1943, Bush was the youngest pilot in the Navy at the time.During World War II, he flew 58 combat missions for the Navy.
In July 2013, Bush shaved his head to honor the son of one of his Secret Service agents, who was suffering from leukemia.
He is the second president to be the father of another U.S. president.
After the devastation of Hurricane Katrina, Bush and former president Bill Clinton formed the Bush-Clinton Katrina Fund to help victims in Louisiana
Persian Gulf WarIraq owed $80 million in foreign debt from its 1980-1988 war with Iran.
Saddam Hussein demanded Saudi Arabia and Kuwait forgive $30 billion in Iraqi debt, which he saw a result of protecting Kuwait from Shia Iranian forces for eight years.
He then accused Kuwait of stealing Iraqi oil through slant drilling.
Since Iraq’s economy depended on oil sales, Saddam hoped to repay its debts by raising the price of oil through OPEC oil production cuts, but instead, Kuwait increased production.
Bill ClintonClinton became the governor of Arkansas when he was 32 years old. He was the youngest governor at the time in the United States.
Clinton was 46 years old when he was inaugurated. He was the third youngest President of the United States.
Clinton was the first elected President of the United States to be impeached. The impeachment occurred in 1998.
George W. BushGeorge W. Bush had both the lowest and highest approval ratings in United States history. After the September 11, 2001, attacks, his approval rating was at 90 percent.
He is the only president to earn a Master’s of Business Administration (MBA), which he obtained in 1975 from the Harvard Business School
In Texas, George Bush was the first governor to be elected to two consecutive terms. He resigned in 2000 after winning the presidential election.
War in AfghanistanThe current volatile situation in Afghanistan is the latest in a long history of conflicts. The U.S. invasion of Afghanistan in 2001 came after over 20 years of war in the country.
By 1989, the last of the Soviet troops left Afghanistan after peace accords were reached between the USSR, Pakistan, the U.S., and Afghanistan.
President George W. Bush signed a joint resolution into law on September 18, 2001, authorizing the use of force against the responsible for the September 11 attacks.
Iraq WarDuring the Iraq War, at least 189,000 people died directly from the war. This does not include the hundreds of thousands who died due to war-related hardships.
Morocco offered the United States 2,000 monkeys trained in detonating land mines during the Iraq War.
In 2002, the US government estimated that the Iraq War would cost $50-60 billion. When interest is factored in, war expenses will most likely exceed $6 trillion over the next 4 decades.
Barack ObamaBarack Obama is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from 2009 to 2017.
He was the first African American to assume the presidency, he served in the Illinois State Senate from 1997 until 2004.
During his first two years in office, Obama signed many landmark bills into law. The main reforms were the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (often referred to as "Obamacare", shortened as the "Affordable Care Act")