One of the most devastating pandemics in human history. It is estimated to have killed 30-60% of Europes population.
1st Jan, 1350
The Renaissance was an intellectual and artistic movement. It was a period of revolutionary changes and a rebirth or revival.
1st Jan, 1413
Brunelleschi creates Linear Perspective
Linear perspective changed the way people saw art. It gave depth to paintings that up until now were two dimensional.
1st Jan, 1429
Joan of Arc and the Siege of Orleans
The Siege of Orleans marked a turning point in the Hundred Years War between England an France. This was the first major military victory for Joan of Arc.
1st Jan, 1439
Johann Gutenberg invents the printing press
The invention of the mechanical movable type printing was the begininng of the Printing Revolution. It is also considered to be one of the most important inventions of the modern period and spread knowledge to the masses.
1st Aug, 1464
Cosimo de Medici dies
Cosimo marked the begininng of the Medici political dynasty in Florence. Had a key role in Renaissance.
1st Jan, 1478
Spanish Inquisition begins
It was intended to maintain Catholic orthodoxy and to ensure the orthodoxy of those who converted from Judaism to Islam and became one of the most deadly inquisitions in history.
1st Jan, 1486
Sandro Botticelli paints the Birth of Venus
It depicts the Goddess Venus emerging from the sea as a fully grown woman. She is painted in a way that is thought to have been done so that it brings pleasure to the viewer.
1st Jan, 1492
Columbus discovers the America's
His discovery of America lead to a lasting contact between Europe and America. He started a period of exploration and colonization of foreign lands that lasted for many years.
1st Jan, 1510
Raphael paints The School of Athens
It is one of the most famous frescoes that was painted by Raphael. It has been viewed as "Raphael's masterpiece and the perfect embodiment of the classical spirit of the High Renaissance"
1st Jan, 1512
Machiavelli writes the Prince
The Prince is a political treatise that is claimed by some to be the first work of modern philosophy.
1st Jan, 1514
Michelangelo paints the Sistine Chapel
It was commissioned by Pope Julius II and is considered a cornerstone work of High Renaissance art.
1st Jan, 1514
Thomas More Utopia
Utopia is a fictional work of political philosophy. It is a frame story about a fictional island society and the political, religious and social customs.
1st Jan, 1517
Martin Luther 95 Theses
The 95 theses are widely regarded to have accelerated the Protestant Reformation. His disputation protested clerical abuses primarily the sale of indulgences.
25th Aug, 1530
Ivan the Terrible is born
Was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 until his death in 1584. He was described as devout and intelligent, but often was prone to rages and out braks of mental illness
1st Jan, 1533
Henry VIII of England excommunictaed
Henry VIII was excommunicated for divorcing his first wife Catherine of Argon and marrying Anne Boleyn.
1st Jan, 1534
Jesuit Order founded by Ignatius Loyola
It was founded to "strive especially for the propagation and defense of the faith and progress of souls in Christian life and docterine". They participateed in the Counter-Reformation. Jesuits are also known as "God's Marines".
12th Jul, 1536
Desiderius Erasmus dies
Was a classical scholar who wrote in pure Latin style. He was a supporter of religious toleration and was nicknamed "Prince of the Humanists" He converted the New Testament from Greek to Latin.
1st Jan, 1550
Scientific Revolution/ Copernocus
Tthe Scientific Revolution is an era during which new ideas and knowledge in chemistry, biology, physics, astronomy and medicine changed the views of medieval nature and made way for modern science. Nicolaus Copernocus was an astronomer during the Renaissance and was the first person to realize that the earth and other planets revolve around the sun.
1st Jan, 1557
Spain declares bankruptcy for the first time
Charles V had left Phillip II with a tremendous amount of debt of approximately 36 million ducats and an annual deficit of 1 million ducats. This caused him to declare bankruptcy first in 1557, then again in 1560, 1575 and 1596.
1st Jan, 1558
Coronation of Queen Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I was the daugther of Henrey VIII and Anne Boleyn. She rset out to rule by good counsel and heavily depended on a group of advisors. One of her first acts as queen was establishing an English Protestant Church and becoming the Supreme Governor of it.
1st Jan, 1560
Start of European Wars of Religion
The European Wars of Religion were a series of wars that waged in Europe following the beginning of the Protestant Reformation in Northern and Western Europe.
1st Jan, 1572
Saint Bartholomew's Massacre
It was a targeted group of assassinations followed by Roman Catholic mob violence toward the Huguenots during the Wars of Religion. It is believed to have been instigated by Catherine de Medici.
da Vinci paints The Last Supper
The Last Supper is a mural in Milan that was painted by Leonardo da Vinci for the Duke Ludovico Sforza and duchess Beatrice d'Este. The scene is one the final days of Jesus where he tells his 12 apostles that one of them will betray him.
Edict of Nantes
The Edict of Nantes was issued by Henry IV of France and granted the Huguenots substantial rights in an area that was still mostly Catholic. The Edict was mostly aimed to create civil unity. It treated protestants for the first time as more than schismatics and heretics, and opened a path for tolerance.