History of Occupational Therapy

Timeline created by Ivantfc in Science and Technology
Event Date: Event Title: Event Description:
Shapeimage 2 Herbert Hall, MD established his therapeutic handicraft shop in Marblehead, MA In 1905 and again in 1909 Hall received a $1000 grant from Harvard “to assist in the study of the treatment of neurasthenia by progressive and graded manual occupation. He named this approach "work cure".
Adams nervine asylum boston ma 02 Susan Tracy, RN. began to work at the Adams Nervine Asylum, MA Susan Tracy developed an occupational program for the patients and went on to teach nursing students as well.
Slagle1 Eleanor Clarke Slagle studied at Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy Slagle was trained in curative operations. Professionally she was a social worker.
Timeline Susan Tracy published Studies in Invalid Occupation: A Manual for Nurses and Attendants
Slagle1 Eleanor Clarke Slagle developed Habit Training Eleanor Clarke Slagle was the head of the new occupational therapy department at the psychiatric clinic of John Hopkins. She developed the Habit Training.
L George Edward Barton, Architect, opened the Consolation House An architect who had TB, an amputation and hysterical paralysis, and who opened Consolation House providing activities (occupations) for convalescents
Dunton William Rush Dunton, MD. published Occupational Therapy, a Manual for Nurses Around 1910, William Rush Dunton, Jr. helped create a system for using crafts in the treatment of patients at Sheppard Asylum. Patients were expected to help complete tasks in an on-site workshop.
Timeline Thomas Kidner is appointed Vocational Secretary of the Canadian Military Hospitals Commission Thomas Kidner used this appointment to create a system for veterans that included vocational rehabilitation. He also included specific working spaces for OT in facilities developed for people with disabilities.
Shapeimage 2 Herbert Hall, MD. published Handicrafts for the Hadicrafts for the Handicapped
Foundersofot Birth of the National Society for the Promotion of Occupational Therapy (NSPOT) Barton, Dunton, Slagle, Johnson and Kidner along with Isabel Newton meet and create the National Society for the Promotion of Occupational Therapy (later became AOTA).
25321 004 d82ef528 Adolf Meyer, MD. published The Philosophy of Occupational Therapy
Timespan Dates: Timespan Title: Timespan Description:

Moral Treatment Movement Phillippe Pinel and William Tuke were considered the leaders of this movement. The main features of moral treatment included the following:
1. Respect for human individuality
2. Acceptance of the unity of mind and body
3. Belief that a humane approach using daily routine and occupation could lead to recovery

Industrial Revolution

Art and Craft Movement Those involved in the Arts and Crafts Movement, promoted simple items (furniture, ornaments etc...) manufactured through good craft techniques. It was a rebellion against the age of mass production. A return to traditional craft methods and ‘romantic’ forms of decoration. Products were to be manufactured by individuals or small groups rather than on a mass production line.

Scientific Management Frederick Taylor, a mechanical engineer, introduced scientific management in 1911. He proposed that rationality, efficiency, and systematic observation could be applied to medicine and other areas. The ideas of scientific management facilitated the development of therapeutic protocols for use with persons with orthopedic injuries.Although the influence of the scientific management peaked in the 1920s, it continues to affect America into the modern era.

World War I World War I

World War II World War II

Rehabilitation Model The rehabilitation model began after World War II and peaked in the 1970s after the establishment of Medicare and Medicaid. The Hill-Burton Act in 1946 provided federal aid for the construction of rehabilitation centers. Such centers needed to offer integrated services, including medical (with OT and PT), psychological, social, and vocational services. The rehabilitation movement further embedded OT into the medical model.