History of American Schools

Timeline created by ntomco
In History
Event Date: Event Title: Event Description:
Timeline Average length of time in school = 80 days
Tjeff Thomas Jefferson proposed public education Jefferson suggested a radical proposal to "rake the geniuses from the rubbish" by providing Americans with three years of public education. This would not include girls or slaves. Jefferson did not have support to implement this plan.
Ellis%20isle 1/2 NYC residents foriegn born Many of these residents were poor, Irish Catholics looking for educational opportunity. Schools were highly slanted against Irish and Catholics.
Timeline Great School Debates of NYC Inspired by Hughs, an Irish immigrant who argued the injustice of public schools, debates continued over how public money should be spent to accommodate everyone. Hughs and many others wanted seperate money to teach their children about their own faith.
Bible%20riots Philidelphia Bible Riots In response to Irish Catholic campaigns for a better life, a Catholic church was burned and many were left dead.
Timeline Petition to recall segregation in Boston schools Black schools were in disrepair. The Smith school was in shambles, but despite numerous reports, there had been no action to improve it.
Beecher Catherine Beecher advocated that women are better suited to become educators than men The classroom began to have a more feminine touch. Many colleges were created for women to become teachers on the frontier. This became a new noble profession for upper class women, though many became lonely out west. Many of their new neighbors were illiterate and uneducated.
Timeline Sarah Roberts denied admission to a white school in Boston In response, the Roberts' family sued the district. Many blacks disagreed with this move because they did not want to attend school with whites. They wanted seperate, equal schools.
Ma%20court Massachussettes Supreme Court rules against Sarah Roberts
Timeline Segregated schools abolished in MA
Timeline Post-civil war states required to provide public education New towns used schools as a way to attract settlers to the area.
Timeline 7.6 million American students enrolled in school
Timeline 12.7 million American students enrolled in school
John%20dewey John Dewey wrote "The School and Society" Dewey attacked the status quo and called for reform. He believed that learning should be interactive and students should be engaged. He also argued that social reform begins in schools.
Timeline 50% of American children were attending school.
Emerson Emerson School in Gary Indiana In this school, children were in constant motion. They had split-shifts and numerous activities. Students were able to explore interests. The school had many resources, including a pool, athletic fields, and even a zoo. The school was designed by Wart, Dewey's disciple.
Timeline 2 million children were working in America Many families saw more value in their children earning money than attending school.
Termin Lewis Termin published Binet-Simon Scale (IQ test) Termin pushed for IQ testing to track students and soldiers. He was a eugenist, and his IQ test was culturally biased.
Timeline Gary school plan implemented in NYC The Gary plan stirred up controversy, as many thought the design was intended to shape children into industrial workers. Riots broke out, and John Highland won the mayorship. Highland removed the Gary plan from the curriculum.
Grad 17% of 17 year olds graduated high school
Timeline Post WWII More children than ever were enrolled in school. Schools became social centers for adolescents, and the high numbers required new subjects. Examples include Hygiene, Family Life, Health, and Dating.
Black%20school Primary schools in Topeka, KS, segregated. High school was integrated with seperate activities. Many black educators were highly qualified because they could not get jobs elsewhere.
Timeline 3/5 of American students graduated; 50% of graduates attended college. Still no women's scholarships. 72% of disabled students were not in school. Black schools had few resources.
Timeline Rev. Brown attempted to enroll his daughter, Linda, in a nearby white school. Linda was rufused admission. This effort was encouraged by the NAACP in Topeka, KS.
Bestor Arthur Bestor published Educational Wastelands Critisized schools and called for the return of basic subjects.
Brown%20vs%20boe Supreme Court unanimously rules that segregation is unconstitutional Seperation was ruled inherently inequal, and segregation was banned. Many southern black teachers lost their jobs upon integration of schools.
Little%20rock Little Rock Integration Crisis Arkansas governor called in the National Guard to prevent black students from attending a white high school, although segregation had been outlawed for three years. President Eisenhower called in federal troops. High schools were shut down in the city for an entire year.
Timeline National Defense of Education Act Signed into law after the Russians launched Sputnik. With the fear that American students were falling behind in math and science, funding was increased in these areas. The goal was to prevent the Russians from winning the space race.
Johnson Lyndon Johnson became president of the USA Johnson was a former educator and sought to improve education for minorities.
Black%20school 90% of black students still in segregated schools Many states defied Supreme Court ruling (Brown vs. Board of Education). Southern states argued for states' rights.
Timeline Civil Rights Act Ensured equality for minorities and women in public institutions. Very important for schools. Schools could lose funding if they did not comply, but they would receive more government money if they did.
Timeline Elementary and Secondary Education Act This law increased funding to disadvantaged schools. It also gave the government the power to enforce integration.
Timeline 75% of Mexican American Texans dropped out of school by the 8th grade
Timeline Most Crystal City, TX students were Mexican American Speaking Spanish was not allowed in school Students were treated poorly by teachers.
Timeline Bilingual Education Act Signed by President Johnson, the act allowed for students to receive special instruction until they were prepared to receive lessons in English.
Timeline Jose Gutierrez returned to his home town, Crystal City, TX He helped write student demands to teachers. Mexican American students wanted respect, and when their request was dismissed by the school board, they striked. Federal mediators were called in to help facilitate discussions. In the end, protestors shifted their efforts toward the school board elections.
Timeline Crystal City, TX: 4 of 7 school board seats held by Mexican Americans Gutierrez was elected president.
Timeline Crystal City, TX: 170 dropouts returned to school Schools embraced Mexican heritage.
Timeline Title IX Title IX mandated that any institution receiving government money needed to provide equal opportunities to men and women.
Chinatown Kenny Lau vs. San Francisco Despite the overwhelming Chinese population of San Francisco schools, schools were taught in English only. The Supreme Court ruled that this was in violation of the Civil Rights Act. As a result, the federal government invested in teacher materials for minorities.
Timeline National Association for Bilingual Education is born
Harlem East Harlem, NYC: Junior high students chose their school. East Harlem had some of the worst schools in the NYC district. A radical attempt was made at reform. Failing schools were shut down.
Reagan President Reagan announces and Educational Crisis Despite a steady improvement in education and a steep acceleration of previously ignored groups, Reagan declares an Educational Crisis. Economic concerns were placed on schools, which led to more testing. From 1983-84, USA spent $500 million dollars on assessment.
Timeline East Harlem schools outperformed 1/2 NYC schools
Milwaukee Small number of Milwaukee students (1%) attended private school with public money Highly controversial. The private schools were non-religious. Many, but not all, of these private schools had double the graduation rate of public schools. This option was only available to a relatively small number of students.
Bush George Bush called for vouchers Vouchers would pay for students to enroll in a private school with taxpayer money. The argument was that competition would lead to better public education.
Timeline NYC parents were given the option of any school for their children This was difficult to implement due to logistics of transportation.
Bmore Baltimore, MD hired EIA to manage 9 public schools Used the same amount of money per student as public schools. EIA contracted out many services to reduce cost/ increase profits. Test scores weren't any better than public schools, and arts and special needs services were drastically reduced.
Timeline Debate began: Should vouchers be used in religious schools Many argued that this would be unconstitutional as it was a violation of the separation of church and state.
Timeline Vouchers allowed in religious schools in Clevland, OH 3/4 of eligible students who used the vouchers were already enrolled in these schools.
Timeline EIA formed charter schools in AZ
Timeline Congress spent $80 million dollars on charter school funding.
Milwaukee Milwaukee allowed voucher use at religious schools
Timeline Almost 90% of American children were enrolled in public school.
Timespan Dates: Timespan Title: Timespan Description:

Jefferson's public education rejected three times! People wanted state regulation of education, and they also did not want higher taxes to pay for schools.

Horace Mann advocated for public schools in MA Mann visited 1,000 schools and found inequality. Rural schools had outdated and irrelevant texts. He wanted to standardize public schools, but was highly opposed by those who did not want to see an increase in taxes.

Principals removed Irish slurs from textbooks

22 million immigrants (3 million children) come to America After a steamship would arrive in New York City, 125 new students would enroll in school. Schools were dark, crowded, cold, and full of illness.

2/3 of Italian children left school A good Italian child went to work to help the family. Education was not valued in most Italian homes.

Ellwood Cubberley advocated for career tracking in public schools Cubberley believed that the goal of school should be job training, not necessarily education. College bound courses were designed for the highly intelligent only.

All schools required mandatory attendance until age 16

IQ testing to track students is widely used throughout USA IQ exams were highly culturally biased. 2/3 of Mexican American students were labeled as slow or retarded.

Charter schools were developed in MN These schools used public money for alternative education. Charter schools become part of the nationwide debate over school choice.

Homeschooling allowed in all 50 states Movement was led by the Christian right