Nov 10, 1483
Martin Luther bornAdvocated establishing schools to teach children to read. Contributions:
Public support of education
Teaching of reading to all children Died: February 18, 1546
John Comenius bornWrote Orbis Pictus, the first picture book for children.
Believed early experiences formed what a child would be like Contributions:
Early learning helps determine school and life success
Sensory experiences support learning Died: November 15, 1670
John Locke bornSaid children were born blank slates.
Believed children's experiences determine who they are. Contributions:
Learning should begin early
Children learn what they are taught - teachers literally make children Died: October 28, 1704
Jean-Jacque Rousseau bornAdvocated natural approaches to child rearing.
Felt that children's natures unfold as a result of maturation. Contributions:
Natural approaches to education work best Died: July 2, 1778
Johann Pestalozziu bornAdvocated that education should follow the course of nature.
Believed all education is based on sensory impressions.
Promoted the idea that the mother could best teach children. Contributions:
Home schooling Died: February 17, 1827
Robert Owen bornHeld that environment determines children's beliefs.
Believed society can shape children's character. Contributions:
Importance of infant programs
Education can counteract children's poor environment Died: November 17, 1858
Friedrich Froebel bornBelieved children develop through "unfolding".
Founded the Kindergarten - "Garden of Children"
Developed gifts and occupations Contributions:
Teacher's role is similar to a gardener.
Children should have specific materials to learn through play. Died:June 21, 1852
John Dewey bornContributions:
Progressive education movement
Children's interest form the basis of the curriculum
Educate children for today, not tomorrow Died: June 1. 1952
Patty Smith Hill bornHappy Birthday to YouContributions:
Started a progressive lab nursery school at Columbia Teacher's College
Large blocks for play
Wrote the tune of "Happy birthday to You"
Established the National Association for Nursery Education (NANE), which led to NAEYC Died: May 25, 1946
Maria Montessori bornContributions:
The Montessori Method
Sensory-based materials that were self-correcting
Respect for children Died: May 6. 1952
Jean Piaget bornContributions:
Theory of cognitive development based on ages and stages
Children are "little scientists" and develop their own intelligence
Mental and physical activities are important for cognitive development Died: September 16, 1980
Lev Vygotsky bornContributions:
Concept of zone of proximal development
Communication between teachers and children can act as a means of scaffolding to higher levels of learning
Use of cooperative learning and other forms of social learning Died: June 11, 1934
Erik Erikson bornTheory of psychosocial development - cognitive development occurs in conjunction with social development
Life is a series of eight stages
How parents and teachers interact with and care for children helps determine their emotional and cognitive development. Died: May 12, 1994
Abraham Maslow bornContributions:
Theory of self-actualization based on needs of motivation
Human development is a process of meeting basic needs throughout life
Humanistic psychology Died: June 8, 1970