link for pictureEnd of the White Primary in GA: The White Primary was a way of preventing African Americans from voting after the Civil War. They could vote in only general elections. Black people were not allowed to vote or participate in primary elections. The year 1946 was the first year blacks were able to vote in the primary.
Integration of the Armed Forces
information linkIntegration of the Armed Forces: January, 1948: President Truman went through executive authority, not legislative to end segregation in the armed forces. By July 26th, 1948, it is official that no discrimination towards race, religion, or nation of origin will take place in the armed forces. Some African- Americans protested and said they would not serve in the military until it was integrated.
Brown vs. Boards of Education
The Brown vs. Board of Education case created laws which established seperate schools for black children and white children. Rev. Oliver Brown and Linda Brown were involved with this case, whom it is named after. This case invalidated the Plessy vs. Ferguson case which promoted segregation. http://www.watson.org/~lisa/blackhistory/early-civilrights/brown.html
Rosa Parks & the Montgomery Bus Boycott
picture & infoAlmost 57 years ago, a woman by the name of Rosa Parks was asked to give up her seat on a local bus to a white man. She refused. She was calmly protesting racial segregation on a bus. Ms. Parks was arrested on February 22, 1956 and on December 20, 1956, racial segregation on a bus was delared unconstituttional.
Change to the Georgia flag 1956
image linkChange to the flag: The flag of Georgia was modified in 1956, incorporating the “Stars and Bars”, which was the name of the Confederate battle flag from the Civil War. The movement to change the flag started in the year 1955 by John Sammons Bell, Jefferson Lee Davis, and Willis Harden. Some thought it represented Georgia’s support of segregation.
Crisis at Central High School and Little Rock Nine
A group of students who called themselves "Little Rock Nine" attended Little Rock Central High School. The students were enabled from even entering the segregated high school. Students endured groups of angry white students everyday.The National Guardsmen blocked the entrance of the school, refused to let them in the school and the students were threatned to be lynched! http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little_Rock_Nine
Hebrew Benevolent Congregtion ATL bombed
pictureinfo The temple was bombed early in the morning on October 12th, 1958. The General Gordon of Confederate Underground referred to Jews and blacks as “aliens”. None were killed or injured in this bombing. The bombing took place at the congregation.
The Sibley Commision was to investigate the problem of having segregated schools being integrated. Most Georgians who were interviewed shared that they would rather have the state schools shut down then have them integrated. This commission also gave the school their choice as to if they will follow this law. http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-2617
Georgia Schools Integrated
African- American parents wanted integrated schools and as the demand for equality in schooling, the state began to act. Schools slowly but surley began to integrate. Not all schools in Georgia were integrated until 1961. picture
Integration of UGA
Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes arrived at the University of Georgia with a police escort and permission to attend the college. Students begged the govenors to just shut down the campus instead of allowing two African Americans attend. http://crdl.usg.edu/events/uga_integration/?Welcome
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Six whites and seven blacks departed from Washington, D.C, on two public buses. They were headed to the South. Their “fair treatment” went down hill fast, some were severely beaten. In Montgomery, Alabama, more than a thousand whites attacked them. Protests had broken out and attention was drawn to the segregation of buses.
The goal of the Albany Movement was to integrate the community. More than a thousand African Americans were arrested and jailed. William G. Anderson was selected as the Albany Movement president. By December more than five hundred protesters were jailed. MLK Jr. was also involved when he was one of the black protesters who were arrested. http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-1057
Birmingham, AL Protests
picture & infoBirmingham, AL ProtestsMay 4th 1963African Americans began protesting in Birmingham because they wanted to draw attention to unfair treatment which blacks had to struggle with everyday of their lives. They boycotted buisnesses and demanded integration. MLK led the protest and it was organized by the SCLC.
16th Street Baptist Church Bombed
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Many did not support the idea of integration. Violence and bombings had become “solutions” to this never ending arguement, but that is anything other than a solution. 16th Street Baptist Church became a target. This bombing took four lives, all from little girls, and injured 22 people. Bobby Frank Cherry, Thomas Blanton, Herman Frank Cash, and Robert Chambliss, all members of the KKK, set a box of dynam
16th Street Baptist Church Bombed
dynamite under the steps of the church.
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President Kennedy was working on his presidential campaign for 1964. Traveling all over the US. On the 21st of November, the president and the first lady took off on Air Force One, now on their way to Texas. When shot, JFK was struck in the neck. He was rushed to a hospital but there was nothing the doctors could do. Governor Connally was also hit. President John F. Kennedy
picture & infoPresident Kennedy was working on his presidential campaign for 1964. Traveling all over the US. On the 21st of November, the president and the first lady took off on Air Force One, now on their way to Texas. When shot, JFK was struck in the neck. He was rushed to a hospital but there was nothing the doctors could do. Governor Connally was also hit. President John F. Kennedy was pronounced dead at 1:00 P.M. November 22nd, 1963. The killer was identified as Jack Ruby and he was sentenced to death.
Voting Rights Act of 1965 passes
picture & info This act was made to enforce the fifteenth amendment, although singed almost 95 years after this amendment was ratified. Blacks who lived in the South had to deal with so many struggles related to voting. Poll taxes, literacy tests, and other limitations preventing them from voting. In 1964, violence erupted and drew attention to voting rights. This act was passed signed by Lyndon B. Johnson and passed by congre
Summerhill Race Riot (Atlanta)
picture & infoThe Summerhill Race Riot was a four day riot in the city of Atlanta led by Stokely Carmichael. They were charged with following a police burality. After the four days, there was one death and twenty injries. It displayed the frustrated lower income black areas. Mayor Ivan Allen Jr. went to the area where the riot took place and tried to restore peace and order.
picture & infoThe great Martin Luther King was killed at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis Tennesse. A man by the name of James Earl Ray was arrested at the Heathrow Airport in London and was charged with murder. Unlike many other states, Atlanta acted non-violently; this was considered honoring MLK by acing civil.
March on Washington
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Not many were expected to come to the march, but some coming from the South were harrassed and treatened. Despite the doubts, 250,000 people attended- one quarter of them white, shockingly. They marched all the way from the Washington Monument until they reached the Lincoln Memorial. This march is recognized for being civil and peaceful, so no police was necessary.
All schools in Georgia Segregated
In 1961, the integration of public schools began. Communitys did not want to integrate but as the demand for desegregated schools grew, many people accepted the fact that schools would now consist of both black and white students. By 1971 all schools in Georgia were segregated.