Chapter 7 - Islam and Byzantium

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  • 527

    Justinian becomes Emperor

    Justinian was one of the greatest rulers of Byzantium. He was well trained in imperial administration, as he was the nephew and heir of the previous emperor. He led the Byzantine's to many a victory.
  • 532

    Justinian crushes revolt

  • 532

    Riots destroy much of Constatinople

  • 537

    Hagia Sophia completed

  • 552

    Justinian defeats Ostrogoths

  • 570

    Birth of Muhammad

    Muhamma was born in 570 in the ctiy of Mecca. Orphaned at an early age, he was raised by his uncle, Abu Talib. He spent most of his early life as a merchant and shepard. He was first married at 25.
  • Jan 1, 610

    Muhammad visited by Angel Gabriel

    At some time, Muhammad had started meditating alone for weeks at a time in a cave on Mount Hira. It is said that once while he was there, the angel Gabriel commanded him to recite the following verses: Proclaim! (or read!) in the name of thy Lord and Cherisher, Who created-
    Created man, out of a (mere) clot of congealed blood:
    Proclaim! And thy Lord is Most Bountiful,-
    He Who taught (the use of) the pen,-
    Taught man that which he knew not.
  • Jan 1, 610

    Qur'an compiled

    After Muhammads revalations from Allah, he dictated the revalations to his scribes and from there they were compiled into the Qur'an (the holy book of Islam).
  • Jan 1, 622


    Disenheartened by his inability to convince people of the words of Allah, Muhammad and 30 of his close supporters left Mecca for Medina. There they form the first Muslim community, the Umma.
  • Jan 1, 630

    Muhammad's Visit to Ka'aba

    In 630, Muhammad visited the Ka'aba, a large building in Mecca. Inside the building is a small, black stone, said to have been placed their by Abraham. The Ka'aba is the most sacred site in Islam.
  • Jan 1, 632

    First Caliph Selected

    After Muhammad died in the same year, a successor to him had to be appointed. Abu Bakr was selected to be the first caliph (literally, successor). There were several people who wished to be selected.
  • Jun 1, 632

    Muhammad's Death

  • Jan 1, 636

    Muslims defeat Byzantine army at Yarmuk

  • Jan 1, 636

    Defeat of East Roman Army at Yarmuk

  • Jan 1, 650

    Arabs conquer all of Persian empire

  • Jan 1, 656

    3rd caliph assassinated, replaced by Ali

    Ali was Muhammad's cousin and son in law. He had wanted to be the calip when Abu Bakr was selected instead. When the 3rd successor of Muhammad, Uthman, was assassinated, Ali finally was selected. He was however suspected of being involved in the assassination.
  • Jan 1, 661

    Ali assassinated

    Due to the split caused by Uthman's assassination and Ali's succession, Ali was assassinated shortly after taking power. One of his rivals, Mu'awiya, replaced him and made the caliphate hereditary in his own family, called the Umayyads.
  • Jan 1, 680

    Shi'ites rise up against Umayyad Dynasty , are defeated

  • Jan 1, 691

    Dome of the Rock built

    The Dome of the Rock is a mosque that was built to proclaim the spiritual and political legitimacy of the new religion. It sits in the middle of Jerusalem on Muhammad's holy rock. It is one of the most holy Islamic monuments
  • Jan 1, 710

    Arab forces cross Straight of Gilbraltar and Occupy the South of Spain

  • Jan 1, 730

    Leo III outlaws use of icons

    Iconoclasm is the banning of worshiping icons instead of worshiping the God. This practice was banned in the Byzantine dynasty by emperor Leo III. This is also practiced by Islamics, who believe that Muhammad may never be represented in a photo or picture.
  • Jan 1, 750

    Revolt by Abu al-Abbas overthrows Umayyad's, establishes Abbasid dynasty

  • Jan 1, 756

    Add al Rahman of Umayyad's flees to Spain, seizes control, forms new caliphate

  • Jan 1, 762

    Abbasid's build new capital in Baghdad

  • Jan 1, 843

    Iconoclasm abolished in Byzantine empire

  • Jan 1, 987

    Prince of Kiev in Russia converts to Christianity

  • Jan 1, 1054

    Seperation in Roman Cathoicism and Greek Orthodoxy

    The Byzantine empire was greatly weakened by the division between religious groups within their state. Due to the fact that the Easter Orthodox church would not accept that the pope was the sole head of the chruch, Pope Leo IX and Patriarch Michael Cerularius ended up formally excommunication eack other. This divistion still exists today.
  • Jan 1, 1055

    Turkish leader captures Baghdad

  • Jan 1, 1056

    Macedonian dynasty ends

  • Jan 1, 1071

    Byzantine army defeated by Turks at Manzikert

  • Jan 1, 1096

    Start of Christian raids (crusades) on Islamic territory

    In 1096, the Byzantium emperor Alexius I called for help from other Christian states against the Seljuk Turks. In his appeal, he stated that Muslims were desecrating shrines in the Holy Land and molesting Christian children. None of this had ever happened. The response was a series of Christian raids into Muslim territories.
  • Jan 1, 1187

    End of Fatmid Dynasty

  • Jan 1, 1187

    Saladin Invades Jerusalem

    In 1187, Saladin, a Sunni Muslim, and his army invaded Jerusalem and drove out the Christian forces that were there. Unlike Christians, Saladin did not massacre the civilian population, and allowed them to contiune with their religious services.
  • Jan 1, 1204

    Constantinople sacked during crusades

    In 1204, during the fourth crusade, the crusaders were diverted to the great city of Constantinople. The proceeded to sack the city and set up the Latin Empire of Constantinople. Later, in 1259, Michael Paleologus would lead a Byzantine arny to recapture Constantinople two years later.
  • Jan 1, 1453

    Ottoman Turks seize constantinople, ends Byzantine empire

  • Period:

    Codification of Roman Law

    As emperor, Justinian gave the jurist Trebonian the task of making a compiliation of imperial edicts. The result was the Roman Code of Law. The first part was completed in 529, and the two more parts were finished in 533. These codes were the basis for imperial law in the Byzantine empire until its end. It later provided the groundwork for the legal system for all of continentel Europe.
  • Period:
    Jan 1, 610
    Jan 1, 641

    Reign of Heraclius

  • Period:
    Jan 1, 842
    Jan 1, 867

    Reign of Michael III

  • Period:
    Jan 1, 886
    Jan 1, 912

    Reign of Leo VI

  • Period:
    Jan 1, 976
    Jan 1, 1025

    Reign of Basil II

  • Period:
    Jan 1, 1081
    Jan 1, 1118

    Reign of Alexius I Comnenus