Timeline

Chapter 7 - Islam and Byzantium

Timeline created by facebooker_1102195894
Event Date: Event Title: Event Description:
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527
Justinian becomes Emperor Justinian was one of the greatest rulers of Byzantium. He was well trained in imperial administration, as he was the nephew and heir of the previous emperor. He led the Byzantine's to many a victory.
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532
Justinian crushes revolt
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532
Riots destroy much of Constatinople
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537
Hagia Sophia completed
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552
Justinian defeats Ostrogoths
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570
Birth of Muhammad Muhamma was born in 570 in the ctiy of Mecca. Orphaned at an early age, he was raised by his uncle, Abu Talib. He spent most of his early life as a merchant and shepard. He was first married at 25.
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Jan 1st, 0610
Qur'an compiled After Muhammads revalations from Allah, he dictated the revalations to his scribes and from there they were compiled into the Qur'an (the holy book of Islam).
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Jan 1st, 0610
Muhammad visited by Angel Gabriel At some time, Muhammad had started meditating alone for weeks at a time in a cave on Mount Hira. It is said that once while he was there, the angel Gabriel commanded him to recite the following verses: Proclaim! (or read!) in the name of thy Lord and Cherisher, Who created-
Created man, out of a (mere) clot of congealed blood:
Proclaim! And thy Lord is Most Bountiful,-
He Who taught (the use of) the pen,-
Taught man that which he knew not.
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Jan 1st, 0622
Hagira Disenheartened by his inability to convince people of the words of Allah, Muhammad and 30 of his close supporters left Mecca for Medina. There they form the first Muslim community, the Umma.
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Jan 1st, 0630
Muhammad's Visit to Ka'aba In 630, Muhammad visited the Ka'aba, a large building in Mecca. Inside the building is a small, black stone, said to have been placed their by Abraham. The Ka'aba is the most sacred site in Islam.
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Jan 1st, 0632
First Caliph Selected After Muhammad died in the same year, a successor to him had to be appointed. Abu Bakr was selected to be the first caliph (literally, successor). There were several people who wished to be selected.
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Jun 1st, 0632
Muhammad's Death
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Jan 1st, 0636
Muslims defeat Byzantine army at Yarmuk
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Jan 1st, 0636
Defeat of East Roman Army at Yarmuk
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Jan 1st, 0650
Arabs conquer all of Persian empire
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Jan 1st, 0656
3rd caliph assassinated, replaced by Ali Ali was Muhammad's cousin and son in law. He had wanted to be the calip when Abu Bakr was selected instead. When the 3rd successor of Muhammad, Uthman, was assassinated, Ali finally was selected. He was however suspected of being involved in the assassination.
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Jan 1st, 0661
Ali assassinated Due to the split caused by Uthman's assassination and Ali's succession, Ali was assassinated shortly after taking power. One of his rivals, Mu'awiya, replaced him and made the caliphate hereditary in his own family, called the Umayyads.
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Jan 1st, 0680
Shi'ites rise up against Umayyad Dynasty , are defeated
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Jan 1st, 0691
Dome of the Rock built The Dome of the Rock is a mosque that was built to proclaim the spiritual and political legitimacy of the new religion. It sits in the middle of Jerusalem on Muhammad's holy rock. It is one of the most holy Islamic monuments
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Jan 1st, 0710
Arab forces cross Straight of Gilbraltar and Occupy the South of Spain
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Jan 1st, 0730
Leo III outlaws use of icons Iconoclasm is the banning of worshiping icons instead of worshiping the God. This practice was banned in the Byzantine dynasty by emperor Leo III. This is also practiced by Islamics, who believe that Muhammad may never be represented in a photo or picture.
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Jan 1st, 0750
Revolt by Abu al-Abbas overthrows Umayyad's, establishes Abbasid dynasty
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Jan 1st, 0756
Add al Rahman of Umayyad's flees to Spain, seizes control, forms new caliphate
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Jan 1st, 0762
Abbasid's build new capital in Baghdad
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Jan 1st, 0843
Iconoclasm abolished in Byzantine empire
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Jan 1st, 0987
Prince of Kiev in Russia converts to Christianity
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Jan 1st, 1054
Seperation in Roman Cathoicism and Greek Orthodoxy The Byzantine empire was greatly weakened by the division between religious groups within their state. Due to the fact that the Easter Orthodox church would not accept that the pope was the sole head of the chruch, Pope Leo IX and Patriarch Michael Cerularius ended up formally excommunication eack other. This divistion still exists today.
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Jan 1st, 1055
Turkish leader captures Baghdad
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Jan 1st, 1056
Macedonian dynasty ends
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Jan 1st, 1071
Byzantine army defeated by Turks at Manzikert
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Jan 1st, 1096
Start of Christian raids (crusades) on Islamic territory In 1096, the Byzantium emperor Alexius I called for help from other Christian states against the Seljuk Turks. In his appeal, he stated that Muslims were desecrating shrines in the Holy Land and molesting Christian children. None of this had ever happened. The response was a series of Christian raids into Muslim territories.
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Jan 1st, 1187
Saladin Invades Jerusalem In 1187, Saladin, a Sunni Muslim, and his army invaded Jerusalem and drove out the Christian forces that were there. Unlike Christians, Saladin did not massacre the civilian population, and allowed them to contiune with their religious services.
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Jan 1st, 1187
End of Fatmid Dynasty
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Jan 1st, 1204
Constantinople sacked during crusades In 1204, during the fourth crusade, the crusaders were diverted to the great city of Constantinople. The proceeded to sack the city and set up the Latin Empire of Constantinople. Later, in 1259, Michael Paleologus would lead a Byzantine arny to recapture Constantinople two years later.
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Jan 1st, 1453
Ottoman Turks seize constantinople, ends Byzantine empire
Timespan Dates: Timespan Title: Timespan Description:
529

to
533
Codification of Roman Law As emperor, Justinian gave the jurist Trebonian the task of making a compiliation of imperial edicts. The result was the Roman Code of Law. The first part was completed in 529, and the two more parts were finished in 533. These codes were the basis for imperial law in the Byzantine empire until its end. It later provided the groundwork for the legal system for all of continentel Europe.
Jan 1st, 0610

to
Jan 1st, 0641
Reign of Heraclius
Jan 1st, 0842

to
Jan 1st, 0867
Reign of Michael III
Jan 1st, 0886

to
Jan 1st, 0912
Reign of Leo VI
Jan 1st, 0976

to
Jan 1st, 1025
Reign of Basil II
Jan 1st, 1081

to
Jan 1st, 1118
Reign of Alexius I Comnenus