In May 1620, the Mayflower returned from one of its usual voyages to La Rochelle, France, fully loaded with French wines.
mayflower return to england
Indians Attack Pilgrims.
The first encounter between the Pilgrims and Native people took place on 18 December. A small scouting party of Pilgrims was attacked by a group of Wampanoag, who were eventually driven off with musket fire.
indians attack pilgrims
The Great Migration
The Great Migration, a long-term movement of African Americans from the South to the urban North, transformed Chicago and other northern cities between 1916 and 1970.
the great migration
Paul Revere is remembered for his historic Midnight Ride warning colonists of the impending British Army attack. He also had an illustrious career as an engraver, silversmith, watchmaker and soldier.
The Boston Massacre was a street fight that occurred on March 5, 1770, between a "patriot" mob, throwing snowballs, stones, and sticks, and a squad of British soldiers. Several colonists were killed and this led to a campaign by speech-writers to rouse the ire of the citizenry.
When the American siege of Boston began in April 1775, smallpox was epidemic among civilians there. Most British soldiers had been inoculated, and the British were inoculating those troops who had not had the disease. Washington suspected some of the civilians leaving the city had been inoculated in hopes of spreading the disease among the Continentals.
Daniel Boone was born November 2, 1734 in a log cabin in Berks County, near present-day Reading, Pennsylvania. Boone is one of the most famous pioneers in United States history. He spent most of his life exploring and settling the American frontier.
Battle of Lexington and Concord.
The Battle of Lexington and Concord was made up of two battles that began on April 18th, 1775. British troops were sent to Concord to capture John Hancock and Samuel Adams.
battle of lexington and concord
U.S. Postal Service.
The U.S. postal system is established by the Second Continental Congress, with Benjamin Franklin as its first postmaster general. Franklin (1706-1790) put in place the foundation for many aspects of today's mail system.
us postal service
Declaration of Independence.
Drafted by Thomas Jefferson between June 11 and June 28, 1776, the Declaration of Independence is at once the nation's most cherished symbol of liberty and Jefferson's most enduring monument.
declaration of independence
Washington served as a Virginia delegate to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia in 1775. Facing a fight for independence with Britain, he was elected Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army. He was chosen to lead the army because of his experience and reputation.
General Burgoyne surrenders.
Burgoyne’s surrender followed battles with American General Horatio Gates near Saratoga on September 19 and October 7, 1777. With the British losing men and defenses during both engagements, Burgoyne retreated with a weakened army to Saratoga, where he surrendered to General Gates.
Baron Von Steuben
Von Steuben was born in Magdeburg, Germany. He attended Jesuit schools in Breslau, entered the Prussian army's officer corps, and served in the Seven Years War.
The power loom was a steam-powered, mechanically operated version of a regular loom, an invention that combined threads to make cloth.
Washington is President
On April 30, 1789, George Washington, standing on the balcony of Federal Hall on Wall Street in New York, took his oath of office as the first President of the United States.
Slavery begins with cotton
A large number of early settlers in America grew cotton. To grow cotton and to pick, gin, and bale it took a great deal of work. Therefore large numbers of slaves were purchased to do this work.
Cotton Gin invented
The cotton gin is a machine designed to remove cotton from its seeds. The process uses a small screen and pulling hooks to force the cotton through the screen.
John Brown was born into a deeply religious family in Torrington, Connecticut, in 1800. Led by a father who was vehemently opposed to slavery, the family moved to northern Ohio when John was five, to a district that would become known for its antislavery views.
By a treaty signed on Apr. 30, 1803, the United States purchased from France the Louisiana Territory, more than 800,000 square miles of land extending from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains.
Lincoln warned the South in his Inaugural Address: "In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war. The government will not assail you.... You have no oath registered in Heaven to destroy the government, while I shall have the most solemn one to preserve, protect and defend it."
Frederick Douglass (1818 -1895) was the most prominent African-American leader of the 19th century. A fiery orator, dedicated editor, bestselling author, and presidential advisor, Douglass crusaded for human rights as an abolitionist, a strong advocate for women's suffrage, and a voice for social justice.
Harriet Tubman was a runaway slave from Maryland who became known as the "Moses of her people."
At the age of 22, Jedediah Smith signed on with the expedition of General William Ashley to travel to the Upper Missouri and trap beaver. A year later, he led another of Ashley's groups deep into the central Rockies where he rediscovered the forgotten South Pass, the key to the settlement of Oregon and California.
The development and growth of the United States during this era was influenced by helping Europe recover from World War II and U.S. involvement in other wars--mainly the Cold War with the Soviet Union and the Vietnam and Korean Wars.
The Erie Canal is a historic waterway of the United States, connecting the Great Lakes with New York City via the Hudson River at Albany. Taking advantage of the Mohawk River gap in the Appalachian Mountains, the Erie Canal, 363 miles long, was the first canal in the United States to connect western waterways with the Atlantic Ocean.
Andrew Jackson was elected by popular vote. As President he sought to act as the direct representative of the common man.
Trail of Tears
In 1838 and 1839, as part of Andrew Jackson's Indian removal policy, the Cherokee nation was forced to give up its lands east of the Mississippi River and to migrate to an area in present-day Oklahoma. The Cherokee people called this journey the "Trail of Tears," because of its devastating effects. The migrants faced hunger, disease, and exhaustion on the forced march. Over 4,000 out of 15,000 of the Cherokees died.
With westward expansion of the American frontier, systematic reduction of the plains herds began around 1830, when buffalo hunting became the chief industry of the plains. Organized groups of hunters killed buffalo for hides and meat, often killing up to 250 buffalo a day.
Battle of The Alamo
The Alamo was the scene of a pivotal battle in the fight for the independence of Texas from Mexico. During the Texas war for independence from Mexico, Spanish troops occupied the abandoned building, now used as a fortress, calling it Alamo.
The Lowell Mill Girls Go on Strike
One of the first strikes of cotton-factory operatives that ever took place in this country was that in Lowell, in October, 1836. When it was announced that the wages were to be cut down, great indignation was felt, and it was decided to strike.
New Orleans Slave Trade
With the slave trade came not only slaves but their culture. From the Caribbean and Africa they would bring a hard fast driving rhythm, and from the interior they would bring both harmonies and the call and answer of the Baptist Church. These would combine with other forms of music to form the "melting pot of music" in New Orleans.
The electric telegraph is a now outdated communication system that transmitted electric signals over wires from location to location that translated into a message.
Migration to the West
The trail to California had been established not by the government, but by members of the "Emigrant Societies" formed in the 1840's. The efforts of three parties had established a passable wagon road over the two main obstacles: the Great Salt Lake Desert in Utah, and the Sierra Nevada mountains in California.
George Donnor Party
Organized by brothers George and Jacob Donner, they set off from Springfield in 1846, became part of a larger wagon train and made a grave mistake when they choose a "short-cut" known as the Hastings cut-off which would take them via Salt Lake.
Minie Bullet Invented.
The Minié rifle was an important French rifle in the 19th century, developed in following the invention of the Minié ball in 1847.
James Marshall's discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill in California in 1848, started the California Gold Rush.
Fugative Slave Act
The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 mandated that states to which escaped slaves fled were obligated to return them to their masters upon their discovery and subjected persons who helped runaway slaves to criminal sanctions.
Uncle Toms Cabin Published.
The strength of Uncle Tom's Cabin is its ability to illustrate slavery's effect on families, and to help readers empathize with enslaved characters. Stowe's characters freely debated the causes of slavery, the Fugitive Slave Law, the future of freed people, what an individual could do, and racism.
Wale Oil Industry.
The sperm whale was the main whale being sought for its oil when the petroleum industry opened in 1859. The whale fishery, however, was in a declining state and had been so a decade or more before Drake struck petroleum in his drilled well and before general refining of crude oil commenced in Oil Creek Valley and elsewhere.
ought 1861-1865, the American Civil War was the result of decades of sectional tensions between the North and South. Northern forces worked to conqueror the South, forcing them to surrender in April 1865.
Alfred Nobel invented the Nobel patent detonator or blasting cap for detonating nitroglycerin. The Nobel patent detonator used a strong shock rather than heat combustion to ignite the explosives.
The Emancipation Proclamation is generally regarded as marking this sharp change in the goals of Lincoln's war policy.
On November 19, 1863, Abraham Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Lincoln had been invited to give a "few appropriate remarks" during a ceremony to dedicate a cemetery for Union soldiers killed at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Abraham Lincoln Assassenated
Shortly after 10 p.m. on April 14, 1865, actor John Wilkes Booth entered the presidential box at Ford's Theatre in Washington D.C., and fatally shot President Abraham Lincoln.
Embalming is the science of temporarily preserving human remains to forestall decomposition. The goal of the process is to make a corpse suitable for extended public viewing at a funeral.
Life on the cattle trail in the late 19th century was often monotonous and boring, however, there were also times that were quite exciting and dangerous. Chief among the many dangers that the cowboys had to face on a regular basis were Indians, thieves and stampedes.
Railroad Across America Finished
The Union Pacific began laying track from Omaha to the west while the Central Pacific headed east from Sacramento. Finally the two sets of railroad tracks were joined and the continent united with elaborate ceremony at Promontory, Utah on May 10, 1869.
Barbed Wire Invented
In 1863 by Michael Kelly developed a type of fence with points affixed to twisted strands of wire. Had his invention been properly promoted, he could have gained distinction as the Father of Barbed Wire. It wasn't until ten years later that another inventor filed a patent that would spark the development of the barbed wire industry.
Locusts Fill The West
Late one July morning in 1874, 12-year-old farm girl Lillie Marcks watched the sunlight dim and a peculiar darkness sweep over the Kansas sky. A whirring, rasping sound followed, and there appeared, as she later recalled, "a moving gray-green screen between the sun and earth."
Clarissa Harlowe Barton is one of the most honored women in American history for being a true pioneer, as well as an outstanding humanitarian, and founder of the American Red Cross.
From famous ball-player to famous evangelist, William Ashley "Billy" Sunday is still remembered today for his energetic preaching style and large, successful evangelistic campaigns across the United States.
Standard Time Invented
Standard time the time of a town, region or country that is established by law or general usage as civil time. It is determined locally. The whole of China, one of the largest countries in the world, has decided to adopt a single time zone.
Washing Machine Invented
The first electric clothes washers, in which a motor rotated the tub, were introduced into America about 1900. The motor was not protected beneath the machine and water often dripped into it causing short-circuits and jolting shocks.
Hamel Brothers Strike Oil
The men were Allen W. Hamill, his brother Curt, and Will “Peck” Byrd. They were the entire crew of an outfit engaged to drill an oil well at Spindletop, the well that turned out to be the first gusher in American oil history.
Air Conditioning Invented
The idea of air conditioning started before a machine was created to produce the cooling effect desired. The first attempt at building an air conditioner was made by Dr. John Gorrie.
Los Angales Runing Out of Water
The original source of water for the city of Los Angeles was the Los Angeles River. However, in just 30 years, between 1870 and 1900, the population of L. A. exploded from 5,728 to 102,479. The Los Angeles River was sucked dry, but more water was needed.
Automobile manufacturer Henry Ford was born July 30, 1863, on his family's farm in Dearborn, Michigan. Ford incorporated the Ford Motor Company in 1903, proclaiming, "I will build a car for the great multitude."
Early in the 20th century, the American industrialist Henry Ford massively applied the assembly line principle to produce the first affordable car, the Ford Model T.
Los Angales Aqueduct
The first Los Angeles aqueduct spans an estimated 223 miles in length, tapping into the waters of the Owens River in central California. The aqueduct was designed to support the development of Los Angeles which had already began to outgrow its water resources.
The Red Summer of 1919 refers to a series of race riots took place between May and October of that year. Although riots occurred in more than thirty cities throughout the United States, the bloodiest events were in Chicago, Washington D.C. and Elaine, Ark.
"The 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibited the manufacture, sale, transport, import, or export of alcoholic beverages. Upon ratification of the amendment by the states, Congress voted its approval in October 1919, and enacted it into law as the National Prohibition Act of 1920."
Chicago Race Riot
The Chicago race riot was a major racial conflict that began on July 27,1919 and ended on August 3, 1919. During the riot, dozens died and hundreds were injured.
Hollywood Land Sign Built
Developers Woodruff and Shoults conceive of "Hollywoodland" as a neighborhood of "superb environment without excessive cost on the Hollywood side of the hills."
Willie Carter Sharpe
Willie Carter Sharpe was known as the Queen of the Rum Runners during prohibition in America.
Al Capone In Alcatraz
During his stay at Alcatraz, Capone began to show signs of syphilitic dementia and spent the balance of his felony sentence in the hospital.
World War 2
The war against Japan was fought over two-thirds of the world's surface, with America and her allies taking part in vast air, land and sea battles. It turned WW II into global conflict and ended it with the drawning of nuclear era.
Army Jeep Invented
The first coinage of the word "JEEP", as applied to a motor vehicle, occurred during WWI. According to Major E.P. Hogan, who wrote a history of the development of the Jeep for the Army's Quartermaster review in 1941.
Pearl Harbor Attacked
Pearl Harbor Naval Base, Hawaii, was attacked by Japanese torpedo and bomber planes on December 7, 1941, at 7:55 a.m. Hawaii time. The sneak attack sparked outrage in the American populace, news media, government and the world.
The B-17 was the first Boeing military aircraft with a flight deck instead of an open cockpit and was armed with bombs and five .30-caliber machine guns mounted in clear "blisters."
Operation Overlord was the code-name given to the Allied invasion of France. The overall commander of Operation Overlord was General Dwight Eisenhower.
D-Day, remains the largest seaborne invasion in history, involving nearly three million troops crossing the English Channel from England to Normandy in occupied France.
The main Cold War enemies were the United States and the Soviet Union. The Cold war got its name because both sides were afraid of fighting each other directly.
Raising The Flag On Iwo Jima
Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima is a historic photograph taken on February 23, 1945, by Joe Rosenthal. It depicts five United States Marines and a U.S. Navy corpsman raising the flag of the United States atop Mount Suribachi during the Battle of Iwo Jima in World War II.
Under the guidance of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, a top-secret joint effort between the United States and the United Kingdom was begun to build an atomic bomb. The project was called "Manhattan Project" known only to a small number of politicians and scientists.
Atomic Bomb Invented
The first atom bomb was exploded in the desert of New Mexico, code named "Trinity." It was placed inside a huge steel vessel named "Jumbo," which was 6 meters long and weighed 200 tons.
World War 2 Ends
The United States dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan, and the Japanese government surrendered to the United States and its allies.
Following the President’s order, desegregation and integration of blacks in the armed service met with resistance despite being a major civil rights victory for African-Americans.
Land Taken Off Hollywood Sign
The Hollywoodland Sign, originally built to last only 18 months, was in total disrepair. The City begins removing it but was halted by a public outcry. Instead, the sign is refurbished and shortened to "Hollywood."
Almost as soon as World War II ended, developers such as William Levitt began to buy land on the outskirts of cities and use mass production techniques to build modest, inexpensive tract houses there.
Dwight D. Eisenhower Pesident
After World War 2 Dwight became President of Columbia University, then took leave to assume supreme command over the new NATO forces being assembled in 1951. Republican emissaries to his headquarters near Paris persuaded him to run for President in 1952.
Colored Television Invented
A successful color television system began commercial broadcasting, first authorized by the FCC on December 17, 1953 based on a system designed by RCA.
The internet was created by three individuals and a research conference, each of which changed the way we thought about technology by accurately predicting the future.
First Manmade object to go into space; launched by Russia. This marked the beginning of the Space Race between USSR and America.
First Animal in Space (USSR)
In 1957, a young female dog named Laika was chosen to be the first animal in space. She died within hours of the launch from stress and overheating. The people who sent her into space had no expectation of her survival.
Explorer I (USA)
When America decided to catch up to USSR, they sent Explorer 1 into space. It ended up detecting the Van Allen Belts of radiation that surrounded the earth.
The Vietnam War was a long, costly armed conflict that pitted the communist regime of North Vietnam and its southern allies, known as the Viet Cong, against South Vietnam and its principal ally, the United States.
Yuri Gagarin (USSR)
Being the First man in space, he was recognized worldwide. While orbiting for 108 minutes, he was raised from Senior Lieutenant to Major.
Alan Shepard (USA)
As the first American in space, Alan Shepard traveled 300 miles in space for 15 minutes. He was in Zero G for four minutes, but he never achieved orbit.
Martin Luther King Jr. I Have A Dream Speech
On August 28, 1963, nearly one hundred years after Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., delivered the keynote address at the "March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.
Voskhod I (USSR)
This Soviet spaceflight was the first in the world to carry more than one man into space. Without the use of spacesuits, this flight set a manned spaceflight record distance of 209 miles.
Aleksei Leonov (USSR)
With only 45 minutes of oxygen, this Soviet Cosmonaut was the first man to conduct the "Space Walk"; he walked for 12 minutes.
This mission was supposed to be the first manned mission of the Apollo spaceflight program, but a failed routine capsule test ended up killing the flight crew in just 17 seconds as a result of suffocation from fire.
After the Apollo 1 tragedy, America was afraid of going to into space. This mission was an 11-day orbital mission that was called a confidence-builder. It was also the first American 3-man space flight.
Apollo 8 (USA)
This spaceflight was the first to leave earth's orbit, first to enter another celestial body's orbit and escape it, and the first to return safely from another celestial body. By circling around, it was the first mission to reach and the far side of the moon.
The object of this mission was mainly to test the new lunar module, which would later play a huge part in future space flights. Its crew consisted of Commander Jim McDivitt, Command Module Pilot David Scott, and Lunar Module Pilot Rusty Schweickart.
The purpose of the Apollo 11 mission was to land men on the lunar surface and to return them safely to Earth. The crew was Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot.
More than half a million people came together, united in a message of peace, openness and cultural expression, and demonstrated how a generation could be heard.
This disaster claimed the lives of: Francis R. Scobee, Commander; Michael J. Smith, Pilot; Judith A. Resnik; Ellison S. Onizuka; Ronald E. McNair; Gregory B. Jarvis; and Sharon Christa McAuliffe, a teacher participating in the Teacher In Space Project or TISP. NASA researchers believe that the explosion of the Challenger was caused by an unfortunate chain of events.
Four planes were hijacked by terrorists on the morning of September 11. One of the planes crashed into tower one of the world trade center and another crashed into the second tower. Approximately 3000 men, women, and children died.
U.S. Invasion of Afghanistan
The U.S. and NATO invaded Afghanistan on October 7, 2001 and overthrew the Al-Qaeda-supportive Taliban government. American troops then began to institute democracy, fight off any insurgents, and the search for Al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden.
Mars Exploration Rovers Launched
Two Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity were launched to Mars and landed January 2004.
Hurricane Katrina was the costliest natural disaster, as well as one of the five deadliest hurricanes, in the history of the United States. Katrina formed in the Bahamas and made its biggest impact as a Category 3 storm in New Orleans,LA.
Train bomb in Mumbai
On July 11, bombs planted on the train system in Mumbai exploded, killing 209 people.
Pluto Reclassified as a dwarf planet
There are three main conditions for an object to be considered a 'planet': The object must be in orbit around the Sun. The object must be massive enough to be a sphere by its own gravitational force. More specifically, its own gravity should pull it into a shape of hydrostatic equilibrium.
Barack Obama's Election
Barack Obama made history when he became the first African-American President.
DVD replaces VCR
In the early 2000s DVD began to overtake VCR as the most popular consumer of prerecorded video and VCR stopped being sold as of December 23, 2008.
BP Gulf Oil Spill
The Gulf Oil Spill have been one of the worst environmental disasters in United States history.BP estimated the flow could be as much as 100,000 barrels per day.
At least 230,000 were killed in Haiti after a massive earthquake on January 12, 2010 and 3,000,000 were left homeless as estimated by the Haitian government.
Osama Bin Laden Killed
Navy Seal teams found and killed Bin Laden in Abbottabad, Pakistan.
Shutdown of "News of the World"
The shutdown of the largest UK tabloid News of the World after 168 years in print due to the 2009 phone hacking scandal.
End of the Harry Potter Series
Completion of the Harry Potter film series, which is currently the world's highest grossing film series.
Following a peaceful march on 6 August 2011 in relation to the police response to the fatal shooting of Mark Duggan by Metropolitan Police Service firearms officers on August 4 ,2011, a riot began in Tottenham, North London.
Michael Phelps won a record 8 gold medals in the 2008 Olympics
In the 2008 Olympics in Beijing, Michael Phelps set a record by winning 8 gold medals breaking Mark Spitz’s record of seven gold medals won in a single Olympic Games, which had stood since 1972.