timetoast Physiologist Edmund O'Meara says, "the miserable torture of vivisection places the body in an unnatural state." He objects to vivisection--dissection--because the pain the subject endures would interfere with the accuracy of the results.
timetoast Philosopher Jeremy Bentham starts the moral debate on animal cruelty by asking: "...the question is not, can they reason, nor can they talk, but can they suffer?" in An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation.
Animal Testing Timelinetimetoast Great Britain passes the Martin's Act, the first law against cruelty to farm animals. Britain passed the Cruel Treatment of Cattle Act, to prevent cruel and unnecessary treatment of cattle.
Prevention Of Cruelty to Animals
timetoast Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals is founded in Great Britain. The name is later changed to the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals after it is patronized by Princess Victoria.
John C. Dalton
timetoast John C. Dalton, Jr. becomes the first neurophysiologist in the United States to experiment on live animals as a part of classroom instruction.
timetoast Henry Bergh founds the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.
Animal Testing Timeline Louis Pateur was a French chemist and microbiologist. The first major reference to animal testing occurred in the late nineteenth century when he administered anthrax to sheep and showed the importance of vaccines with his germ theory.
Animal Testing Timeline Ivan Pavlov conducted experiments on dogs to demonstrate how dogs could be conditioned with regards to memory and repetitive tasks.
timetoast Sir Ronald Ross uses pigeons to show how malaria is transmitted. He wins the Nobel Prize for his work.
Animal Testing Timeline An enormous breakthrough came in 1922 when animal testing allowed for insulin to be isolated from dogs. Prior to this isolation, individuals with diabetes essentially 'wasted' away from the metabolic effects of uncontrolled high blood sugar.
Anaesthetics and Antibiotics
Animal Testing Timeline In the 1930s, modern anaesthetics and antibiotics were developed from the use of animal testing. In addition, anticoagulants and kidney dialysis, both life-saving treatments, were introduced following animal testing.
United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Animal Testing Timeline After an incident where a woman's personal use of a mascara darkener went awry, leaving her with burning eyes and ultimately - blindness - the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) passed the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act in 1938.
Start of the Draize Eye Test
timetoast J.H. Draize develops the Draize Test in which rabbits have test substances dripped into one eye.
Animal Welfare Act
timetoast U.S. Congress passes the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) which affects the commercial sale, research, transportation or zoological exhibition of animals. Inspection duties fall to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The act includes warm-blooded animals with the exception of mice, rats, birds and farm animals.
timetoast Noxell, maker of Cover Girl cosmetics and Noxzema skin creams, becomes the first major U.S.cosmetics corporation to announce that it would stop using the Draize Test. Avon and Revlon shortly follow.
Animal Testing TImeline Britain conducted animal testing for cosmetics until outlawing all cosmetics related animal testing in 1998.
timetoast February 14: A coalition of government agencies, including the EPA and the National Institutes of Health, announce an agreement on testing methods that could lead to the end of animal testing.
Illegal to Kill Apes
timetoast Spain becomes the first nation to extend rights to apes. The law makes it illegal to kill apes, except in self-defense. It also outlaws the use of apes in medical experiments or entertainment venues such as circuses.
Animal Testing Timeline The European Union has followed suit with an intended ban on animal testing for cosmetics to be performed by 2009.
Deadline for EU
EU's Ban The final deadline to ban the marketing of every cosmetics containing ingredients tested on animals is 11 March 2013, after which the shelves of every shop and internet supplier in Europe will be free of animal-tested cosmetics.